Tuesday, June 16, 2009

Al-Islam Iman Ihsan and Qadar

Hadith 2: Al- Islam, Al-Iman, Al-Ihsan and Al-Qadar

By Imam Nawawi

In the name of Allāh, the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful;
All the praise and thanks is due to Allāh, the Lord of al-‘ālameen. I testify that there is none worthy of worship except Allāh, and that Muhammad, Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam, is His Servant and Messenger.

 A Hadith narrated on the authority of 'Umar Ibn Al-Khattab, (radiyallāhu'anhu), who said: 

“While we were one day sitting with the Messenger of Allāh, (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam), there appeared before us a man dressed in extremely white clothes and with very black hair. No traces of journeying were visible on him, and none of us knew him.

He sat down close by the Prophet, (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wasallam), rested his knee against his thighs, and said: ‘O Muhammad! Inform me about al-Islam’. The Messenger of Allāh (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam) replied: ‘Islam is that you should testify that there is no deity save Allāh and that Muhammad is His Messenger, that you should perform solah, pay the zakah, fast during Ramadhān, and perform Hajj to the House (the Ka'bah at Makkah), if you can find a way to it (or find the means for making the journey to it).’ He (the man) said: “You have spoken truly.”

We were astonished at his thus questioning him and telling him that he was right, but he went on to say: ‘Inform me about imān (faith).’He (the Messenger of Allāh) answered: “It is that you believe in Allāh and His angels and His Books and His Messengers and in the Last Day, and in fate (qadar), both in its good and in its evil aspects.” He said: “You have spoken truly.”

Then he (the man) said: “Inform me about al-Ihsan.” He (the Messenger of Allāh) answered, “It is that you should serve Allāh as though you could see Him, for though you cannot see Him yet He sees you.” He said: “Inform me about the Hour.” He (the Messenger of Allāh) said: “About that the one questioned knows no more than the questioner.” So he said: “Well, inform me about the signs thereof (i.e. of its coming).” Said he: “They are that the slave-girl will give birth to her mistress, that you will see the barefooted ones, the naked, the destitute, the herdsmen of the sheep (competing with each other) in raising lofty buildings.”

Thereupon the man went off.

I waited a while, and then he (the Messenger of Allāh) said: “O 'Umar, do you know who that questioner was?” I replied: “Allāh and His Messenger know better.” Messenger of Allāh (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam)  said: “That was Jibril. He came to teach you your religion”.”

[Recorded by Muslim]


Imam Muslim (rahimahullāh) says: Towards the end of his life, ‘Abdullah bin 'Umar, the son of 'Umar bin al-Khattab, (radiyallāhu'anhum) was told by two people that a new Islamic sect had emerged from Iraq. They were called Al-Qadariah and they denied al-qadar (fate). Thus 'Abdullah bin 'Umar (radhiyallāhu’anhu) narrated this hadith which mentions qadar as one of the pillars of Imān to refute the misconception of this sect.


This hadith teaches the adab (ethics) of seeking knowledge:

1.      We should be clean and wear clean clothes.
2.      We should sit properly and closer to the speaker.
3.      Asking questions for better understanding.
4.      Seek knowledge from the right source or authority.
5.      The method of seeking knowledge is through asking questions:
6.      The type of questions we ask should be meaningful - questions that will lead to valuable knowledge and good action.
7.      Asking good questions will result in better learning as well as teaching. Those who are present when the questions are asked will also learn from the answers - thus, the questioner is teaching the others.
8.      When Ibn 'Abbas (radhiyallāhu‘anhu), one of the greatest Scholars among the Sahabah, was asked how he obtained all his knowledge, he replied: "with an inquisitive tongue (i.e. he always asked questions) and a contemplating heart".
9.     In many hadiths the Prophet, (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wasallam), himself will start by asking questions before he imparts with knowledge. Asking questions will prepare the mind or heart so that it will be ready for the answers or knowledge - ready to absorb and learn. In this hadith he calls Jibril "the questioner" which implies full appreciation and encouragement of asking questions specially the ones that will lead to gaining more knowledge.
10.  In the Qur’an itself there are more than 1,200 questions - to serve different purposes - to provoke the mind of the reader and force it to indulge in thinking about what heor she reads.

Scholars say that 
qadar can be seen at two levels:

1.      We believe that Allāh knew, with His ultimate knowledge, what all His creations will do, even before the creations took place. Allāh recorded all this knowledge in Al-Lawhul Mahfudz (The Preserved Tablet).
2.      We believe that it is the will of Allāh that these things will take place, whether they are good or bad.

Allāh created our willingness and our ability of doing things - we can only do something if we are willing and able to do it. However, we are responsible for the choices we make.

Misconceptions about Qadar

Many Muslims believe that what they are going to do is caused by what has already been written in Al-Lawhul Mahfudz - they confuse 'causation' with 'association'. In truth what we have is association, not causation. What we do is not caused by what is written by Allāh. Allāh with His ultimate knowledge knew what we are going to do. He could easily have put the good-doers intoJannah and the evil-doers into the Hellfire. But Allāh is 'Adil (Just) so He created us in this life as to test us which way to go. What we are going to do will match what has already been written but it's not a matter of causation - what we do is out of our own willingness and ability and we do have full responsibility on whatever choice we make.

Guidance (Hidayah) is a Gift (Rahmah) from Allāh.

It is Allāh who created us and gave us the mind so we can distinguish between right and wrong to a certain capacity. It is Allāh who equipped us with fitrah to like the truth and good and to dislike the wrong and evil. It is Allāh who gave us the ability and power to do things and it is Allāh who sent the Messenger with the Message to guide us in things, which are beyond the reach of our conception. So when it comes to guidance it is a bounty from Allāh.

But when it comes to misguidance, it has to do with us. When we do bad deeds, it is from our own willingness and ability.

Those who turn away from guidance do so because they want to turn away, i.e. they choose not to be guided. They have been misguided because they are arrogant - they refuse to listen.

“And so when they swerved from the right way, Allāh let their hearts swerve from the truth”.

[Surah As-Saff, 61: 5]

Nevertheless there are people who have not received the Message of Islam or guidance at all or the Message has not reached them in the clearest form, i.e. it is incomplete or distorted. These people are called Ahlul Fatrah and will be excused and not be punished, even though there are misguided.

There are certain situations where we can do something about our qadar. For example:
1.    Illness or sickness is qadar - but we have been commanded by the Prophet, (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wasallam), to look for a cure should we become ill. Finding a cure is also qadar. Thus, a qadar could be dealt with through another qadar.
2.      If something unfortunate happens to us, e.g. if we lost our job, we don't just say that it's qadar and do nothing about it. We look for another job, the consequence of which is another qadar.

'Umar Ibn Al-Khattab (radhiyallāhu‘anhu), was traveling with a group of Sahabahs during his 
Khalifah (leadership). They were coming to a town when they heard that it had a contagious or infectious disease, i.e. cholera. 'Umar ibn Al-Khattab asked his group whether they should proceed or go back (to Madinah). The majority of the Sahabah said they should go back but some said they should proceed. Then one Sahabi said he knew a hadith where the Prophet, (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wasallam), said, "If you hear that this disease exists in a country, don't travel to that country." So 'Umar decided that they should go back. Another Sahabi (it seems from the second group) asked him whether he was running away from a qadar. 'Umar (radhiyallāhu‘anhu) replied that they were moving away from one qadar to another qadar.

Thus, whenever there is a problem, a challenge or any hardship which we can remove, overcome, solve or minimize, it is a must that we do so. Some scholars like Imam Al-Jilani (rahimahullāh) use the term: "overcoming qadar" in this regard.

In one hadith, the Prophet, (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wasallam), said, “Be keen for whatever is beneficial for you. Seek the help of Allāh. And don't be reckless.” This hadith implies we must make the effort. The right concept of qadar is: we are responsible for whatever we do.

For example: If we were to drive recklessly and caused an accident where someone died or was injured, we cannot simply say that it isqadar, abusing the concept to justify our mistakes. It is qadar that the incident took place because it is by the permission of Allāh. But we are responsible for the death because it is through our willingness and ability that it happened. That's why in the courts we will be found guilty. If qadar can be used as an excuse, then many crimes will go unpunished - a thief can simply claim that his stealing wasqadar!

Those who abuse the concept of qadar are those who fail to be responsible. They abuse it to justify their failure. The correct way of using qadar as an excuse is: if someone exerts himself to do his best to fulfil an obligation but due to an unavoidable circumstance, which was out of his control, he could not achieve that obligation - then he might be excused. For example, a student has studied hard for an exam but on the day of the exam he falls sick and does poorly or cannot even attend the exam, then he can say that it is qadar and that it is the will of Allāh.

When it comes to religious obligations, the matter is the same. We cannot blame qadar for committing sins or failing to do a wajib as some Muslims might do. We have to know that we are responsible. We might get into a weak status of Iman in doing a sin or delaying a wajib. Islam is such a practical religion that it gives us room for repentance and getting back to the right path.

In the above hadith the Prophet,  (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam), defines Al-Islam, i.e. the five pillars, as the outward actions of the limbs, Al-Iman as being associated with belief - the inner actions of the heart, and Al-Ihsan as the highest level to attain. But the first two definitions can be interchanged with each other - sometimes Islam can be used to describe internal actions and Iman can mean external actions. There are a few hadiths which The Prophet, (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wasallam), mentions that there are more than seventy actions which are considered as Iman.

If the term Islam is used on its own, it means the whole thing - Al-Islam, Al-Iman and Al-Ihsan. Similarly, when Iman is used on its own it means Al-Iman, Al-Islam and Al-Ihsan. The Prophet, (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wasallam), mentions at the end of this hadith that the deen consists of these three things.

If the Iman is weak it will affect Al-Islam (good deeds or actions). According to al-Imam Abu Hanifah (rahimahullāh): Even though Al-Iman and Al-Islam are different, Al-Iman necessitates the actions (Al-Islam).

Some Scholars say the Muslims are considered strangers among the Disbelievers; and the Mua'minin are considered strangers among the Muslims; and the Muhsinin are considered strangers among the Mua'minin.

Al-Ihsan (the highest level of Iman where we worship Allāh as if we see Him or if we don't see Him we know He sees us) is about fearing Allāh and glorifying Him. This will lead us to strive for our best in performing our 'ibadah - we will be more sincere in our 'ibadah. Thus Al-Ihsan is also about the best actions of the heart. The actions that will lead to Al-Ihsan: to love Allāh the most, to fear Allāh the most, to seek the help of Allāh, to have hope in Allāh that He will give us mercy and guide us, to trust Allāh wholly.

When Jibril, alayhis-Salam, asks the Prophet, (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam), about the Hour (the Day of Judgement), the Prophet, (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam), replies that neither he nor Jibril knows the answer. This is an example set by the Prophet, (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam), where even someone with vast knowledge like himself does not know everything and admits so.

Imam Mālik (rahimahullāh) was asked forty questions by someone and to most of them he answered "I don't know - Allāh knows better". The man was surprised that the great Imam Malik didn't know the answers. Seeing the man surprised, Imam Malik (rahimahullāh) told him that when he goes back to his town, to tell the people that he met and asked Imam Mālik questions and Imam Malik said he didn't know the answers. Imam Malik (rahimahullāh) didn't want to be accountable for giving wrong answers. Thus, if we are to become an educator or a scholar, we should have the courage to admit what we do not know. We should not give an answer which may contain incorrect information.

The signs of Akhirah mentioned in this hadith are minor signs, as opposed to major ones. We believe in these signs but we should not worry about them too much - we should not worry about when these signs will occur. We should actually be careful as some of these signs are bad deeds and we must steer away from these bad deeds.


This hadith contains everything about Islam: the five pillars of Islam, the beliefs that make up Iman (including the belief of fate or qadar), the attainment of the highest level of Iman which is Ihsan, the adab of seeking knowledge and of teaching.

Allāh Almighty says: "Verily, the Abrar (pious and righteous) will be in Delight (Jannah).And verily; the Fujjar (the wicked, disbelievers, sinners and evildoers) will be in the blazing Fire (Hell)." [Al-Infitar, 82:13, 14]

'Abdullah bin Mas'ud (radiyallāhu‘anhu) reported that the Prophet (Sallallāhu 'alayhi wasallam) used to say: "Allāh umma inni as `alukal-huda wat-tuqa wal-`afafa wal-ghina (O Allāh ! I ask You for guidance, piety, chastity and self-sufficiency)". [Recorded by Muslim].

Guidance here means guidance at every turn of life and steadfastness on the path of truth. Fear of Allāh  is the greatest means of piety and strongest defense against sins. Chastity is the state of being free from what is unlawful. Self-sufficiency is the antonym of poverty and here it means the self-contentment. What it implies is that one should not care for what people possess. In view of all these qualities, the do’a of the Prophet (Sallallāhu`alayhi wasallam) mentioned in this Hadith is very comprehensive and valuable.

Anas Ibn Mālik (radiyallāhu’anhu) who said: “The supplication most often recited by Rasūlullāh (Sallallāhu`alayhi wasallam):Rabbana-ātina-fid-dunya hasanah, Wa fil-ākhirati-hasanah, Wa-qina-'ādzabānnār (O Lord! Bestow upon us in this world that which is good and in the Hereafter that which is good, and save us from the punishment of the Fire).’” (Al-Baqārah 2:201) [This is recorded by Al-Bukhāri, Muslim, and Tarmidzi]. Tarmidzi (rahimullāh) said: “Hasanah is very comprehensive and includes in all kinds of good and benefits of this world and of the Hereafter. Good health, wealth and satisfaction of the world and good status in Jannah, forgiveness from sins and Allāh’s bounties and favours in both worlds are included in this duā’” [Recorded in Jāmi’ At-Tarmidzi]

Almighty Almighty Knows best.

[Excerpted from  commentary By Dr. Jamal Ahmed Badi on Hadith 2 : "Al -Islam, Al- Ihsan and Al-Qadar", 40 Hadiths Of Imam Nawawi Via ICTruth]

Please See: 
Strengthening the Levels of Worship

Sunday, June 14, 2009


 The Concept Tawhid in Islam

 In the name of Allāh, the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful;

All the praise and Thanks is due to Allāh, the Lord of al-‘ālameen. I testify that there is none worthy of worship except Allāh, and that Muhammad, Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam is His Messenger.

The concept Tawhid in Islam is about Allah’s True Nature and His Oneness, which we acquired it through the Mercy and Guidance of Allah delivered by His prophets and revealed texts, [1] In order to provide a better understanding of Islamic Tawhid, we have provided a description of Allah and some of His attributes as it appears in a famous, classical text of Islamic knowledge.

The following is an original translation of excerpts from Revival of the Religious Sciences by Imam Abu Hamid Al-Ghazali [2]:

Allah is singular in His essence with no partner, Unique with no equivalent, Absolute, no opposite has He, Alone without peer. He is beginning less without predecessor, perpetual of being without end, singularly sustaining everything without stop. He is not victim to termination or cessation, or to the elapsing of spans or the passing of interims. Rather He is the First and the Last; the Outward and the Inward – and He has knowledge of everything.

He is not a body with form, nor is He a confined or quantifiable substance. He does not resemble bodies in quantifiably or divisibility. Rather He resembles nothing existent, nor does anything existent resemble Him. There is absolutely nothing like Him, nor is He like anything.

No measure confines Him, no space contains Him, no direction encompasses Him, nor do the heavens surround Him.

He is above everything until the farthest reaches of the stars – an above-ness that does not increase His nearness to the heavens; rather He is exalted in degree above the heavens to the same extent that He is exalted in degree above the depths of the earth. Notwithstanding, He is near to all existence, and He is nearer to the bondsman than his jugular vein. His nearness, however, no more resembles the nearness of bodies one to another than His essence resembles the essences of bodies.

He is too sublime that space should encompass Him, as He is too hallowed that time should restrict Him. Rather He was, before He created time and space, and He is now as He was always. He is separate from His creation by His attributes. He is transcendentally holier than to be subject to change and movement. Rather He remains in His qualities of absolute majesty, not subject to abating, and in His qualities of perfection with no need of increase.

He is Living, Almighty, Irresistible, Overpowering; deficiency does not affect Him nor does incapacity. “No slumber can seize Him nor sleep.” [3] Extinction and death do not counteract Him. He is possessed of absolute dominion, sovereignty, and grandeur; to Him is creation and command.

He is matchless in creating and beginning, solitary in causing existence and originating. He creates all beings and their acts, decrees their sustenance and spans. Nothing possible is outside His grasp, and He is never detached from the absolute governing of all affairs. His abilities cannot be enumerated, and His knowledge is boundless.

He knows all things knowable, encompassing all that transpires between the depths of the earths to the ends of the universe. Nothing of an atom’s weight in the earth and the heavens escapes His Knowledge; rather He knows the creeping of a black ant across a soundless stone on a lightless night. He knows the movement of the particles on a windy day. He knows the hidden and what is beyond. He presides over the thoughts of the conscience, the movements of the cerebrations, and the recondite subtleties of the psyche, with a beginningless, eternal Knowledge that has been with Him forever.

He is the willer of all that exists, and He is the director of all that occurs. Nothing occurs in the seen or unseen world, be it minimal or abundant, small or large, good or evil, beneficial or harmful, of belief or disbelief, knowledge or ignorance, triumph or ruin, increase or decrease, obedience or defiance, except by His decree, foreordainment, command, and volition. What He wills is, and what He does not will is not.

A servant has no escape from disobeying Him except through His conferred success and mercy; he has no power to obey Him except through His assistance and will. If all of mankind united together to move or retard a single atom in the universe without His will and volition, they would be unable to do so.

He hears and He sees. No audible thing, however faint, escapes His hearing, and no visible thing, however minute, is hidden from His sight. Distance does not impede His hearing and darkness does not obstruct His seeing. His attributes do not resemble the attributes of the creation to the same extent that His essence does not resemble the essences of creation.

Everything other than Him is an originated thing that He created by His power from nothingness, since He existed in eternity alone and there was nothing whatsoever with Him. He originated creation thereafter as a manifestation of His power and as a realization of His preceding Will, not because He had any need of it.

He is Magnanimous in creating and in imposing obligations upon His creation; He is not compelled to do it by necessity. He is Gracious in beneficence and reform, though not through any need. Munificence and Kindness, Beneficence and Grace are His. He rewards His believing worshipers for their acts of obedience according to generosity and encouragement rather than according to their merit and obligation, for there is no obligation upon Him in any deed towards anyone. Tyranny is inconceivable in Him, for there is no right upon Him towards anyone. [4]

While these are the Islamic beliefs on Allah in written form, it must be noted that a person is not accountable for his intellectual understanding of them, but rather he is responsible for truly incorporating them in his heart. True conviction in Allah’s existence and in His actual relationship with every one of us comes only with His Mercy and Guidance. As such, Muslims ask Allah in every prayer (solah and do’a) for guidance unto His Straight Path.

And Allāh Almighty Knows best.


[1] For a more-detailed presentation of these concepts, see Introducing Islam’s “Messengers” and “Revelation” sections respectively.
[2] A famous Islamic jurist, theologian, and sage who died in the beginning of the 6th century after Hijrah (1111 CE).
[3] Surah Al-Baqarah, 2: 255.
[4] This passage was an original translation of excerpts of al-Ghazali’s “Foundations of Belief,” found in Book II of his Revival of the Religious Sciences. A fuller version of the section can be found on the Dartmouth College MSA website.

[Excerpted from IslamOnline]

Wednesday, June 3, 2009

Belief in Scriptures

Belief in Scriptures

In the name of Allāh, the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful;
All the praise and Thanks are due to Allāh, the Lord of al-ā’lamīn. There is none worthy of worship except Allāh, and that Muhammad, Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam, is His Messenger.

Description: Why God revealed His message in the form of scriptures, and a brief description of the two of the Scriptures of God: the Bible, and the Qur'an.

Belief in the scriptures revealed by God, Allah Almighty, is the third article of Islamic faith.

Firstly, there  are four main reasons for the revelation of scriptures:

(1) The scripture revealed to a prophet is a point of reference to learn the religion and obligations towards God and fellow human beings. God reveals Himself and explains the purpose of human creation through revealed scriptures.

(2) By referring to it, 'disputes and differences between its followers in matter of religious belief and practice or in matters of social practice could be settled.

(3) The scriptures are meant to keep the religion safe from corruption and deterioration, at least for some time after the death of the prophet. At the present time, the Qur'an revealed to our Prophet Muhammad, (may the blessing and mercy of God be upon him), is the only scripture to remain safe from corruption.

(4) It is God’s proof against human beings. They are not allowed to oppose or overstep it.

A Muslim firmly believes that divinely revealed books were actually revealed by the Compassionate God to His prophets 
(peace be upon them)to guide mankind. The Qur'an is not the only spoken Word of God, but God also spoke to prophets before Prophet Muhammad (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wasallam) .

“…and to Moses God spoke directly.” (An-Nisaa', 4:164)

God describes true believers are those who:

“…believe in what has been sent down to you (Muhammad) and what has been sent down before you…” (Al-Baqarah, 2:4)

The most important and central message of all scriptures was to worship God and God alone.

“And we sent never a prophet before you except that we revealed to him, saying, ‘there is no God but I, so worship Me.’” (Al-Anbiyaa', 21:25)

Islam is more inclusive in the holy revelations it affirms than any other heavenly religion in its present form.

Muslims uphold and respect the following scriptures:

(i) The Qur'an itself, revealed to the Prophet Muhammad 
(Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wasallam) .

(ii) The Torah (Tawrah in Arabic) revealed to the Prophet Moses 
(peace be upon him)(different from the Old Testament read today).

(iii) The Gospel (Injeel in Arabic) revealed to Prophet Jesus 
(peace be upon him)(different from the New Testament read in churches today).

(iv) The Psalms (Zabur in Arabic) of David (peace be upon him).

(v) The Scrolls (Suhuf in Arabic) of Moses and Abraham 
(peace be upon them).

Third, Muslims believe whatever is true in them and has neither been altered or deliberately misconstrued.

Fourth, Islam affirms that God revealed the Qur'an as a witness over the previous scriptures and confirmation of them, because He says therein:

“And We have sent down to you (O Muhammad) the Book (the Qur'an) in truth, confirming the scripture that came before it and trustworthy in highness and a witness over it (the collection of old scriptures)…” (Al-Maidah, 5:48)

Meaning the Qur'an confirms whatever is true in previous scriptures and rejects whatever alterations and changes human hands have made to them.

Original Scriptures and the Bible

We must distinguish between two matters: the original Torah, Gospel, and Psalms and the present day Bible. The originals were God’s revelation, but the present day Bible does not have the exact original scripture.

No divine scripture exists today in the original language it was revealed in, except the Qur'an. The Bible was not revealed in English. Different books of today’s Bible are at best tertiary translations and different versions exist. These multiple translations were done by people whose knowledge, skill, or honesty is not known. As a result, some bibles are larger than others and have contradictions and internal inconsistencies! No originals exist. The Qur'an, on the other hand, is the only scripture in existence today in its original language and words. Not one letter of the Qur'an has been changed since its revelation. It is internally consistent with no contradictions. It is today as it was revealed 1400 years ago, transmitted by a rock-solid tradition of memorization and writing. Unlike other sacred texts, the entire Qur'an has been memorized by almost every Islamic scholar and hundreds of thousands of ordinary Muslims, generation after generation!

The previous scriptures essentially consist of:

(i) Stories of man’s creation and earlier nations, prophesies of what was to come like signs before the Judgment Day, appearance of new prophets, and other news.

The stories, prophecies, and news in the Bible read in churches and synagogues today are partly true and partly false. These books consist of some translated fragments of the original scripture revealed by God, words of some prophets, mixed with explanations of scholars, errors of scribes, and outright malicious insertions and deletions. Qur'an, the final and trustworthy scripture, helps us sort out fact from fiction. For a Muslim, it is the criterion to judge the truth from the falsehood in these stories. For example, the Bible still contains some clear passages pointing to God’s unity.[1] Also, some prophecies regarding the Prophet Muhammad are found in the Bible as well.[2] Yet, there are passages, even whole books, almost entirely recognized to be forgeries and the handiwork of men.[3]

(ii) Law and rulings, the allowed and prohibited, like the Law of Moses.

If we were to assume the law, that is the lawful and the prohibited, contained in the previous books did not suffer corruption, the Qur'an still abrogates those rulings, it cancels the old law which was suitable for its time and is no longer applicable today. For example, the old laws pertaining to diet, ritual prayer, fasting, inheritance, marriage and divorce have been cancelled (or, in many cases, reaffirmed) by the Islamic Law.

The Holy Qur'an

The Qur'an is different from other scriptures in the following respects:

(1) The Qur'an is miraculous and inimitable. Nothing similar to it can be produced by human beings.

(2) After the Qur'an, no more scriptures will be revealed by God. Just as the Prophet Muhammad 
(peace be upon him) is the last prophet, the Qur'an is the last scripture.

(3) God has taken it upon Himself to protect the Qur'an from alteration, to safeguard it from corruption, and to preserve it from distortion. On the other hand, previous scriptures suffered alteration and distortion and do not remain in their originally revealed form.

(4) The Qur'an, for one, confirms early scriptures and, for another, is a trustworthy witness over them.

(5) The Qur'an abrogates them, meaning it cancels the rulings of the previous scriptures and renders them inapplicable. The Law of the old scriptures is no longer applicable; the previous rulings have been abrogated with the new Law of Islam.

And Allāh Almighty Knows best.


[1] For example the declaration of Moses: “Hear, O Israel The Lord our God is one Lord” (Deuteronomy 6:4) and the announcement of Jesus: “...The first of all the commandments is, Hear, O Israel; the Lord our God is one Lord.” (Mark 12:29).
[2] Refer to (Deuteronomy 18:18), (Deuteronomy 33:1-2), (Isaiah 28:11), (Isaiah 42:1-13), (Habakkuk 3:3), (John 16:13), (John 1:19-21), (Matthew 21:42-43), and more.
[3] For example, refer to books of the Apocrypha.

[Excerpted from IslamReligion.com, Published on 16 Jan 2006 - Last modified on 01 Jul 2007]