Monday, August 1, 2011

The Virtues of Qiyam Ramadhān

The Virtues of Qiyam Ramadhān

By Ibn Saleh

In the name of Allāh, the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful;
All the praise and thanks is due to Allāh, the Lord of al-‘ālameen. I testify that there is none worthy of worship except Allāh, and that Muhammad, Sallallāhu `alayhi wa sallam, is His Messenger.
1- Mukaddimah

Rasūlullāh (sallallāhu 'alayhi wa sallam) had informed the ummah on the virtues and excellence of Ramadhān : 

“Whoever fasts Ramadhān with faith and to seek reward from Allāh, he will be forgiven for all of his previous sins”; 

“Whoever stands for prayer at night during Ramadhān (Solātul Tarawih) with faith and to seek reward from Allāh, he will be forgiven for all of his previous sins”; 

Verily, if the man stands for night prayer with the Imām until he finishes, Allāh will write for him (the reward of) standing the entire night (in prayer).”

Whoever stands (for prayer at night) during Laylatul-Qadar (the Night of Decree) with faith and to seek reward from Allāh he will be forgiven for all of his previous sins.” 

[Al-Bukhari no. 2014, Abu Dawud (1370) and Muslim no. 759-760]

2. In the above Hadiths, the word “faith” means the faith in what Allāh has promised the observers of the Ramadhān; performs Solāh al-Tarawih and the Qiyamulail during Laitul-Qadar. “To seek reward” means, the observer's intent of seeking special recognition, blessing and forgiveness from Allāh alone.

3. The term Qiyam and Solāh al-Tahajjud is the same Solāh with different names. When these two names are used in Ramadhān, it is also referred as Qiyam or Solāh al-Tarāwīh including Witr; while spending the night in worship, after some sleep is called Tahajjud or Qimyamulail.  Both names have been used in the Qur'ān. 

3.1.The Qur’ān uses the phrase Qum al-layl when Allāh says: "O thou wrapped up in thy raiment! Keep vigil the night long (Qum al-layl), save a little, a half thereof, or abate a little thereof, or add (a little) thereto and chant the Qur’ān in measure…" [Al-Muzzammil, 73: 1-4]

3.2.The verb Fatahajjad is a derivative from the root word Hajada (to keep vigil), Allāh says: “And some part of the night awake for it (fatahajjad), a largess for thee. It may be that thy Lord will raise thee to a praised estate.” [Al-Isra’, 17: 79]

3.3.The later verse means to get up and perform Solat Tahajjud.   Tahajjud derives from the term night prayers or Qiyam, which means standing.  Qiyam also refers to spending the night in worship in general, whether it is solāh or any other form acts of worship.

2 - Who performs it with Faith and Hope the Previous Sins Will Be Forgiven.

4. Abu Hurayrah (radiyallāhu’anhu) said: “The Messenger of Allāh (sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam) used to encourage us to pray at night in Ramadhān, without making it an obligatory.  Rasūlullāh (sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam) said, ‘Whoever stands for qiyam at night in Ramadhān (Solāh al-Tarawih) out of faith and to seek reward from Allāh, all his previous sins will be forgiven.’ ‘When the Messenger of Allāh (sallallāhu 'alayhi wa sallam) died, this is how things were (i.e., Tarawih was not performed in congregation), and this remained during the Khalifah of Abu Bakar (radiyallāhu’anhu), until the beginning of the Khalifah of ‘Umar Al-Khattab (radiyallāhu’anhu). [Muslim]

5. Tarawih is derived from the Arabic root word, "rāha", which means to rest, relax and use as recreation. It is so called because the believers used to prolong it. After every four raka'at they would stop for rest and relaxation and resume until Tarawih was complete.

6. ‘Amr Ibn Murrah Al-Juhani (radiyallāhu’anhu) said: “A man from Quda’ah came to the Messenger of Allāh (sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam) and said, ‘O Messenger of Allāh! What do you think if I testify that there is no god except Allāh, and that you, Muhammad, are His Messenger, and I pray the five daily prayers, and fast in the month (of Ramadhān), and pray at night in Ramadhān, and pay zakah?’  Rasūlullāh (sallallāhu 'alayhi wa sallam) said: ‘Whoever dies on that will be among the siddiqin (those who tell the truth) and the martyrs.’” [Muslim]

3 - Seeking Lailatul-Qadar

7. Rasūlullāh (sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam) said: “Whoever prays at night during Lailatul-Qadar [and manages to “catch” it] out of faith and the hope of reward, all his previous sins will be forgiven.” [Muslim] It is the Most Blessed Night and indeed a great amount of value. It falls on one the odd nights of the last ten days of Ramadhān [21, 23, 25, 27, 29]. 

7.1.The Night is better than worshiping Allāh thousand months, i.e. 83 years and 4 months. A believing person should strive to encounter the night with worship, if encountered all of the previous sins will be forgiven. Rasūlullāh (sallallāhu 'alayhi wa sallam) said: “Seek it in the last ten nights, on the odd-numbered nights.” [Al-Bukhari and Muslim] 

7.2. Zurr Ibn Hubaish (radiyallāhu’anhu) said: “I heard Ubayy Ibn Ka’ab (radiyallāhu’anhu) saying – and it was said to him that ‘Abdallāh Ibn Mas’ud (radiyallāhu’anhu) said: ‘whoever follows the Sunnah will ‘catch’ Lailatul-Qadar!’- Ubayy Ibn Ka’ab (radiyallāhu’anhu)  said: ‘May Allāh have mercy on him, he did not want people to take it for granted and only stay up to pray on one night. By the One besides Whom there is no other god, it is in Ramadhān – he was swearing without a doubt – and by Allāh, I do know which night it is. It is the night in which the Messenger of Allāh (Sallallāhu 'alayhi wa sallam) commanded us to qiyam. It is the night the morning of which is the twenty seventh, and the sign of it is that the sun rises on that morning white and without rays.’” [Muslim (1169) and others].

8. Jabir bin ‘Abdullāh (radiyallāhu’anhu)  reported:  “I heard the Apostle of Allāh (sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam) as saying: ‘There is an hour during the night in which no Muslim bondman will ask Allāh for good in this world and the next but He will grant it to him’.” [Muslim (1655)]This indicates that it is most mustajab to make duā’ during the third phase of the night while Tahajjud and bless is ensured by Allāh. 

8.1. It would be appropriate to make extensive supplications and repentance. ‘Aishah (radiyallāhu’anha) reported that she asked Allāh’s Messenger (sallallāhu 'alayhi wa sallam), “O Messenger of Allāh! If I knew which night is Lailatul-Qadar, what should I say during it?” And he instructed her to say: “Allāhummainna Ka’afuw Wun Tuhibbul ‘Afwa Fa’fu’ Anna [Wa ‘an walidina wa ‘an jami‘il Muslimina wal Muslimat. Birahmatika Ya arhamar rāhimīn].” (O Allāh! You are Forgiving, and you love forgiveness. So forgive us.[ And Muslim dan Muslimat, Thou are most Gracious and the Merciful]) [Recorded by Ahmad, Ibn Majah, and At-Tirmidzi :Sahih]

4 - The Time for Qiyam.

9. The Qiyam (Ramadhān of Tarawih, witr and Tahajjud) is to be offered after Solat ‘Isha until before SolāFajar. [Al-Bukhari, Muslim] Allāh has praised those who observe them:  "Those who spend the night in adoration of their Lord, prostrate and standing." [Al-Furqan, 25:64] "Their limbs do forsake their beds of sleep, the while they call on their Lord in fear and hope and they spend (in charity) out of the sustenance which we have bestowed on them." [As-Sajdah, 32:16]. It also indicates the basis for nightly prayer and the good rewards for those who observe it.

10. Rasūlullāh (sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam) said: "The best prayer after the obligatory ones is the night prayer." [Muslim] Elsewhere he said: "O people! Disseminate the salutations of peace As-Salām 'Alaikum; feed the needy food, and join the blood ties among the next of kin; and observe night prayer while people are at sleep, you will enter paradise peacefully."[Tirmidzi]

11. With regard to witr,  Rasūlullāh (sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam) said: “Allāh has added one more prayer for you, which is witir, so pray it between Salat al-‘Isha’ and Salat al-Fajar.” [Al-Tirmidzi, 425: sahih]. 

11.1. Jabir bin ‘Abdullāh (radiyallāhu’anhu) said: The Messenger of Allāh (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam)said: “Whoever fears that he will not get up at the end of the night, let him pray Witir at the beginning of the night, but whoever thinks that he will be able to get up at the end of the night, let him pray Witir at the end of the night, for prayer at the end of the night is witnessed (by the angels) and that would be better.” [Muslim 755]

12. Nevertheless, between doing Tarawih in jama’ah at the beginning of the night and doing alone at the end of the night, it is mustahab to perform it in jama’ah, because that is counted as if one had qiyam the whole night through.  As Abu Dzarr Al-Ghifari (radiyallāhu’anhu) reported in a long hadith Rasūlullāh (sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam) said:   "Verily, if the man stands for night prayer with the Imām until he finishes, Allāh will write for him (the reward of) standing the entire night (in prayer)." [Abu Dawud 1375, At-Tirmidzi no. 806, Ibn Mājah no. 1327 and Ahmad 5:159.] It means if Tarawih congregation is organized with alternate Imām, one should follow all Imams until they conclude it, including the Witr, due to rewards awaiting the observers of this prayer. It should not also be neglected without reasons, for it is part virtuous training.

5 - SolāTarawih in Jama’ah

13. It was Rasūlullāh (sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam) who the first to establish the Sunnah of congregational Tarawih in the Masjid. Then he (sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam) did not continue with the Sunnah for fear that it might be made mandatory on the Ummah in Ramadhan, and they might not be able to do it. 

13.1.‘Aishah (radiyallāhu’anha) has been reported as saying: "The Rasūlullāh (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam) observed Tarawīh prayers in the Masjid one night and people prayed with him. He repeated the following night and the number of participants grew. The companions (radiyallāhu’anhum) congregated the third and fourth night, but the Messenger (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam)did not show up. In the morning he told them, "I saw what you did last night, but nothing prevented me from joining you except my fear that it might be made mandatory on you in Ramadhān." [Bukhari and Muslim]

13.2.Abu Dzarr Al-Ghifari (radiyallāhu’anhu) also narrated: “We fast the Ramadhān with the Messenger of Allāh (sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam)  and he did not lead us in qiyam at all until there were only seven days left (23rd.), he led us in prayer  until a third of the night had passed. When there were six days left, he did not lead us in qiyam. When there were five days left (25th.), he led us in prayer until half the night had passed. I said, ‘O Messenger of Allāh, I wish that you had continued until the end of the night.’ He (sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam) said, ‘If a man prays with the imām until he concludes it, it will be counted as if he prayed the whole night.’ When there were four nights left, he did not lead us in qiyam. When there were three nights left (27th.), he brought together his family, his wives and the people, and led us in qiyam until we were worried that we would miss al-falah. I asked, ‘What is al-falah?’ he said, ‘Sahur. Then he did not lead us in qiyam for the rest of the month.’” [Sahih Al-Bukhari, Sahih Muslim and others].

14. Solāt Tarawih in congregation was not an innovation of Khalifah Abu Hafs `Umar Ibn Al-Khattab (radiyallāhu’anhu), despite his saying to the contrary. For ‘Abd Al-Rahman Ibn ‘Abd Al-Qari (radiyallāhu’anhu) narrated: “I went out with ‘Umar Ibn Al-Khattab (radiyallāhu’anhu) to the mosque (Masjidil Nabawi) one night during Ramadhān, and saw the companions were scattered throughout the mosque, some praying individually, and some praying in small groups. ‘Umar (radiyallāhu’anhu) said, ‘By Allāh, I think that if I gathered all of them behind one reader it would be better.’ So, he resolved to do it, and he gathered them behind Ubayy Ibn Ka’ab (radiyallāhu’anhu) and Tamimu Ad-Dari (radiyallāhu’anhu) to alternate and lead the believers in eleven rak’at of night prayer (solah tarawih). Then I went with him on another night, and the people were all praying behind their reader, and  ‘Umar Ibn Al-Khattab (radiyallāhu’anhu) said, ‘What a good innovation this is. What if they sleep and miss – refers the latter part of the night – is better than what they are doing,’ – the people used to qiyam at the beginning of the night.” [Al-Bukhari]

15. ‘Umar's use of the word Bid`ah in the hadith has been presented and unjustifiably cited as justification for concocting up various so called good innovations. Hence, the Khalifah 'Umar's act to gather the believers in Jama’ah is not Bid’ah. For it was the Rasūlullāh (Sallallāhu `alayhi wasallam)himself who started jama'ah by praying in congregation the first and second day, then stopped only as he feared it would become mandatory. After his death, the fear of Tarawīh becoming mandatory (Fardhu) was not only remote, it was impossible. With the death of Rasulullāh (Sallallāhu `alayhi wasallam), there will be no more revelation to change any law or rule by abrogation.

6 - Women is allowed to Participate

16. Rasūlullāh (sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam) said: "Prevent not the women servants of Allāh, from going to the Masjid of Allāh."[Muslim].However, when they attend the Masjid they should wear no perfume, nor raise their voices, and or show their beauty. Allāh states: "...they should not display their beauty and ornaments except what (must ordinarily) appear thereof..."[Al-Nur, 24:31]. What ordinarily appears refers to the outer garments, for when the Messenger (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam)commanded women to attend Eid prayer, Umm 'Atiyah (radiallāhu`anha) said: "O Messenger of Allāh, some of us do not have the outer garment (jilbab). Rasūlullāh told her to let a sister (who has more than one) gives her one to wear." [Muslim]

17. It is Sunnah that women pray behind the men in the rear lines. The Messenger (sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam) has been reported as saying: "The best lines for men are the front lines and the worst lines for men are the rear lines. The best lines for women are the rear and the worst lines of women are the front line.” [Muslim]

18. During his time Khalifah ‘Umar Ibn Al-Khattab (radiyallāhu’anhu) gathered the people to pray qiyam, and appointed Ubayy Ibn Ka’ab (radiyallāhu’anhu) to lead the men and Sulayman Ibn Abi Hathmah (radiyallāhu’anhu) to lead the women. [Al-Bukhari]  ‘Arfajah Al-Thaqafi (radiyallāhu’anhu) said: “Ali Ibn Abi Talib (radiyallāhu’anhu) used to command the people to pray during the night in Ramadhān, and he would appoint an imām for the men and an imam for the women. I was the imām for the women.” The reason for not praying qiyam in congregation during Ramadhān no longer valid, it is prescribed in Islam, remained in effect. ‘Umar Al-Khattab (radiyallāhu’anhu) revived the practice, as recorded in Sahih Al-Bukhari and elsewhere.

7 - The women should leave the Masjid as soon as the Imam says Salam

19.The women should leave the Masjid as soon as the Imam says: As-Salamu 'alaikum. They should not delay without a valid reason. In a hadith by Umm Salmah (radiyallāhu`anha), she said: "When Rasūlullāh (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam) saluted to end prayer, the women would stand up to leave and the Messenger would remain in his place for a while." Umm Salmah (radiyallāhu`anha) said: Allāh is the best knower, but perhaps the Messenger did that so women would leave before men could overtake them". [Bukhari]
8 - Number of Rak’at of Solah Tarawih

20. The Salaf differs on the number of rak’at in Tarawīh and Witr. The numbers mentioned are:  41, 39, 36, 29, 23, 19, 13, and 11 rak’at and then perform three rak’at of Witr prayers. Of all mentioned, none is sounder than 11 rak’at, Eight rak’at Tarawih and three Witr.  It is a clear matter Rasulullāh (sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam) did not fix a specific number of rak’at, neither in Ramadhān nor in any other times.

21. Abu Salamah bin Abdal Rahman asked ‘Aishah (radiyallāhu’anha) about how Rasūlullāh performed qiyam in Ramadhān. She said, “The Messenger of Allāh (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam) did not observe either in Ramadhān or in other months more than eleven rak’at (of the night prayer). He (in the first instance) observed four rak’at. Ask not about their excellence and their length (i.e. these were matchless in perfection and length). He again observed four rak’at, and asks not about their excellence and their length. He (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam) would then observe three rak’at (of the Solāh Witr). [Al-Bukhāri, Muslim (1607) and others].

22. However, there is nothing wrong with offering more than 11 rak’at as Rasūlullāh (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam ) was asked about night prayer and he said: "It may be done in two rak’at, and if anyone fears the appearance of morning, he should pray one rak'ah as a Witr for what he has already prayed." [Al-Bukhari no. 990 and Muslim no. 749]

23. In their desire to pray more rak’at, some people make Tarawih in extreme speed. That is wrong, especially when the speed leads to a breach of certain rules of prayer. In that case, the prayer will not be valid. Similarly, it is undesirable for an Imam to pray with such speed whereby the followers will have difficulty observing the necessary deeds in Solāt.

24.  Ibn Taymiyyah (rahimahullāh) stated that the matter concerning this is broad (i.e. an easy matter). He also mentioned that it is better for whoever lengthens his recitation, ruku’ and sujud to lessen the number of Rak’at, and whoever lightens (shortens) the recitation, ruku’ and sujud, to increase the number of rak’at. This is the meaning of his statement.  Other scholars concured with him. One may chose to perform 11 or 13 rak’at during Ramadhān and other times. This is indeed in agreement with the practice of Rasulullāh (sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam) in most of his situations (i.e. what he usually did). This is easier for those who are offering qiyam for humility and tranquility. Likewise, there is no harm whoever likes to offer more rak’at. It is best for whoever performs with the Imām  in Tarawih is that he does not stop until the Imām concludes it. This is due to the statement of Rasulullāh (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam): "Verily, if the man stands for night prayer with the Imām until he finishes, Allāh will write for him (the reward of) standing the entire night (in prayer)." [Abu Dawud 1375, At-Tirmidzi no. 806, Ibn Mājah no. 1327 and Ahmad 5:159.] If Tarawih congregation is organized with alternate Imām, one should follow all Imams until they conclude it, including the Witr, due to rewards awaiting the observers of this prayer. It should not also be neglected without reasons, for it is part virtuous training.

9 - Reciting Qur’an in SolāTarawih

25. Rasulullāh (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam)did not set a limit reciting the Qur’an during qiyam. His recitation used to vary; sometimes it would be long, at other times short. Sometimes in every raka’ah he would recite the equivalent of ‘Yā ayyuha’l-muzammil’, which is twenty ayat; sometimes he would recite the equivalent of fifty ayat. He used to say, “Whoever prays at night and reads one hundred ayat will not be recorded as one of the negligent.” According to another hadith: “…and reads two hundred ayat will be recorded as one of the devout and sincere believers.”

26. When Rasulullāh (sallallāhu 'alayhi wa sallam) were sick, he recited the seven long surahs in his qiyam, i.e., Al-Baqarah, Al-‘Imran, Al-Nisa’, Al-Ma’idah, Al-An’ām, Al-A’rāf and Al-Tawbah.  In the account of Hudhayfah Ibn Al-Yaman (radiyallāhu’anhu) praying behind Rasūlullāh (sallallāhu 'alayhi wa sallam), in one raka’ah he recited Al-Baqarah, Al-Nisa’ and Al-‘Imran and he recited them in a slow and measured tone. When ‘Umar Al-Khattab (radiyallāhu’anhu) appointed Ubayy Ibn Ka’ab (radiyallāhu`anhu) to lead the people in praying eleven raka’at in Ramadhān, Ubayy (radiyallāhu’anhu) used to recite ayat by the hundreds, so that the people behind him would be leaning on sticks because the prayers were so long, and they did not finish until just before Fajar.[ Al-Bukhari]

27. It was narrated in a sahih account that ‘Umar Al-Khattab (radiyallāhu’anhu) called the readers during Ramadhān, and told the fastest of them to recite thirty ayat, the moderate ones to recite twenty-five ayat, and the slowest ones to recite twenty ayat. However, if a person offers qiyam by himself; he can make it as long as he wishes; if others agree with the imam, and he may also make it as long as he wishes. The longer it is, the better, but a person should not go to extremes and spend the whole night in qiyam, except on rare occasions, following the example of  Rasūlullāh  (sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam)  said: “The best guidance is the guidance of Muhammad.” [Narrated by Muslim (867)] If a person is praying as an imām, he should make it only as long as is easy for the people behind him, because Abu Hurayrah (radiyallāhu’anhu) reported Rasulullāh (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam)said: “If any of you leads the people in solāt, let him make it short, because among them are the young and the old, the weak, and those who have pressing needs. But if he is praying alone, let him make it as long as he likes.” [Muslim 942]

10- Al-Witr after SolāTarawih.

28. Witr is offered in odd rak’at and it should be the last night prayer said before Solah Fajar. One of the way, Rasulullāh (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam)was always consistent with eleven rak’at for night prayers and caps it with one rak’ah witr). According to his wife, Aishah (radiyallāhu’anha) who reported: " Rasūlullāh (Sallallāhu 'alayhi wasallam) never observed prayers  (night prayers) after ‘Isya’  and before Fajar (Morning Prayer), more than eleven rak’at. He saluted after every two rak’at, and he performed Solāh Witr with one rak’ah". [Recorded by the group  except Tirmidzi]

29. In a different mode, one may make four rak’at, and salute, and continue with another four and salute, and then he caps them with three rak’at of Witr.  `Aishah (radiyallāhu`anha) was asked how many raka’at the Rasūlullāh (sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam) used to pray in witir? She said, “He (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam)used to pray four and three (witr), or six and three (witr), or ten and three (witr). He never  used to pray (night prayers) less than seven (4+3 witr), or more than thirteen (10+3 witr).” [Abu Dawud, Ahmad and others] And Rasulullāh (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam) said : “Witr is true, so whoever wishes can pray five, and whoever wishes can pray three, and whoever wishes can pray one.” [Abu Dawud, Ahmad and others] 

It means, solah al-witr is offered in odd rak’at with a minimum of one rak’ah.

11- Do not make it resemble Solat al-Maghrib

30.  Rasūlullāh (Sallallāhu 'alayhi wa sallam) said: “Do not make it resemble Solat al-Maghrib.” [Narrated by al-Hakim (1/304), al-Bayhaqi (3/31) and al-Daraqutni (p. 172), and which was classified as sahih by al-Hakim in accordance to the conditions of Al-Bukhāri and Muslim.] Rasūlullāh (sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam) meant was that we should not sit to recite the first Tashahhud in a manner that resembles Maghrib. [Fathul-Bāri by Ibn Hajar, 4/301, Al-Hafiz said: Its isnād is sahih. See also ‘Awn al-Ma’bud, commentary on hadith no. 1423; Salat Al-Tarawih by Al-Albāni, p. 97.] There are two ways: one, by giving Salām after the first two rak’at, and add another rak’ah and Salam, which is the best way of doing it; or by praying three rak’at without sitting, but giving Salām at end of the third rak’at.

12 - The Recitation in SolāWitr

31. It is Sunnah to recite Sabbih bi ismi Rabbika al-‘A’lā in the first rak’ah, Qul Yā ayyuha’l-Kafirūn in the second rak’at, and Qul Huwa Allāhu ahad in the third rak’at. Sometimes Qul a’udzu bi Rabbi’l-Falaq and Qul a’udzu bi Rabbi’l-Nās may be added as well. [Narrated by al-Nasāie, Abu Dawud and Ahmad] In another narration it was reported in a sahih hadith that Rasūlullāh (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam)once recited one hundred ayat of Surah al-Nisa’ in one raka’ah of witr.

13 - Du’a Al-Qunut

32. The Du’ā Al-Qunut is recited at the final Rak’at of Solāh Witr which Rasūlullāh (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam)taught to his grandson Al-Hasan Ibn ‘Ali (radiyallāhu’anhu), which is: “Allāhumma’hdinī fiman hadayta wa ‘āfinīfiman ‘āfayta wa tawallanī fiman tawallayta wa bārik lee fimā a’tayta wa qinī sharra mā qadayt, fa innaka taqdhī wa lā yuqdhā ‘alayk. Wa innahu lā yadzillu man wālayta wa lā ya’izzu man ‘ādayt. Tabārakta Rabbanā wa ta’ālayt. Lā majā minka illa ilayk [Imam Baihaqi adds: Falakalhamdu ‘ala māqadayt, Astaghfiruka wātubuilāyk. Wasallallāhu ‘ala Muhammadin Nabiyil ummi wa ‘ala ālihi wasahbihi wa sallam]. (O Allāh, guide me along with those whom You have guided, pardon me along with those whom You have pardoned, be an ally to me along with those whom You are an ally to, and bless for me that which You have bestowed. Protect me from the evil You have decreed for verily You decree and none can decree over You. For surety, he whom You show allegiance to is never abased and he whom You take an enemy is never honored and mighty. O our Lord, Blessed and Exalted are You. There is no refuge from You except with You). [Imām Baihaqi (rahimallāh) adds: You are most blessed and upon you all the praise you had bestowed. I seek Your Forgiveness and repentance. And O Allāh! Send prayers on Muhammad the Unlettered Prophet and on the family and his companions])” [Narrated by Abu Dawud, 1213; Al-Tirmidzi (464), al-Nasa’ie, 1725; classified as sahih by al-Albani in al-Irwa’, 429].

33. Ash-Shaf'ie (rahimahullāh) and others are of the opinion that the qunut in The Solāh Witr should be made during the latter half of the month of Qiyam Ramadhan. This is based on what Abu Dawud records that, ‘Umar ibn al-Khattab (radiyallāhu’anhu) convoked the people in prayer, under the leadership of Ubayy ibn Ka’ab (radiyallāhu’anhu), and they prayed together for twenty nights, and he did not make the qunut except for during the latter half of the month of Ramadhan. It is moreover related that Muhammad ibn Nasr asked Sa’id ibn Jubair about the qunut in the witr prayer. Sa'id answered: “ ‘Umar sent an army that suffered serious setback, which caused ‘Umar (radiyallāhu’anhu) to be alarmed, so, when it was the latter half of Ramadhan, he made the qunut to supplicate for them.

34. During the time of Umar Ibn Al-Khattab (radiyall
āhu’anhu) it was add the curses against the kuffar, sending blessings on Rasūlullāh (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam)or praying for the Muslims. It was mentioned at the end of the hadīth of ‘Abd Al-Rahman Ibn ‘Ubayd Al-Qari (radiyallāhu’anhu) mentioned above, it says: “…  ‘Allāhumma qātil al-kafarata alladhīna yasudduuna ‘an sabīlik wa yukadhdhibuna rusulak wa lā yu’minuna bi wa’dik. Wa khālif baina kalimatihim wa alqi fi qulubihim al-ru’b wa alqi ‘alaihim rijzaka wa ‘adzābak ilāh al-haqq (O Allāh, destroy the kuffar who are trying to prevent people from following Your path, who deny Your Messengers and who do not believe in Your promise (the Day of Judgement). Make them disunited, fill their hearts with terror and send Your wrath and punishment against them, O God of Truth).’”  Then he would say: “Allāhumma iyyāka na’bud wa laka nusalli wa najud, wa ilayka nas’ā wa nahfud, wa narju rahmataka rabbanā wa nakhāfu ‘adhābak al-jadd. Inna ‘adhābaka liman ‘ādayta mulhaq (O Allāh, You do we worship, to You do we pray and prostrate, for Your sake we strive and toil. We place our hope in Your Mercy, O our Lord, and we fear Your mighty punishment, for Your punishment will certainly overtake the one whom You have taken as an enemy.” After which he would say “Allāhu akbar” and go down in sujud. [Narrated by al-Baihaqi]

14 - Supplications after the Solāh Witr 

35.In a narration Rasūlullāh (sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam) would say after Salam:  “Subhānal-Malik il-Quddus, subhānal-Malik il-Quddus, subhānal-Malik il-Quddus (Glory be to the Sovereign, the Most Holy), elongating the syllables, and raising his voice the third time. [Narrated by , Abu Dawud, al-Nasā’ie (1699) and classified as hasan by al-Albāni in Sahih Sunan al-Nasā’ie; See Zaad Al-Ma’ād by Ibn Al-Qayyim, 1/337].

36. Abu Dawud and Nasa'ie record that Ubayy ibn Ka'ab (radiyallāhu’anhu) said: “The Prophet (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam)would recite al-A’la and al-Kāfirun in The Solah Witr. When he made the taslim, he would say: “Subhānal-Malik il-Quddus (Glory be to the Sovereign, the Most Holy),' three times, prolonging the third repetition and saying it aloud.” This is the wording in which an-Nasa’ie recorded it. Ad-Daraqutni has the addition: “And he would say, “Rabbul malā ikatu warruh (Lord of the angels and the souls).” .

37. Rasulullāh (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam)would then make supplications.  According to what Ahmad, Nasa’ie, Abu Dawud, Ibn Majah, and at-Tirmidzi record from It was narrated from ‘Ali ibn Abi Tālib (radiyallāhu’anhu) that the Prophet (sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam) used to say at the end of Witr: “Allāhumma inni a’udzu bi ridāka min sakhatika wa bi mu’āfātika min ‘uqubatika wa a’udzu bika minka, la uhsi thana’an ‘alayka anta kama athnayta ‘ala nafsika”(O Allāh, I seek refuge in Your pleasure from Your wrath and in Your forgiveness from Your punishment. I cannot praise You enough; You are as You have praised Yourself.)[Narrated by al-Tirmidzi, 1727; classified as sahih by al-Albāni in al-Irwa’, 430; Sahih Abi Dawud, 1282]

15 -Make Solāh Witr the end of your night prayer.

38. ‘Abdullāh Ibn 'Umar (radiyallāhu’anhu) reported that a person asked the Messenger of Allāh (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam)about the night prayer. The Messenger of Allāh (Sallallāhu 'alayhi wasallam) said"In sets of two, in sets of two. Then when one of you fears the emerging of morning, he prays one (rak’ah) that will serve as a Solāh Witr (i.e. make the number odd) of what he has prayed." [Al-Bukhari no. 990 and Muslim no. 749] Ibn 'Umar (radiyallāhu’anhu) also reported Allāh's Messenger (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam)as saying: “Make Witr the end of your night prayer” [Muslim (1639)]

16- Two Rak’at after Witr

39. Abu Salamah bin Abd al-Rahman asked 'Aishah (radiyallāhu`anha) about the prayer of the Messenger of Allāh (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam), 'Aishah (radyiallāhu’anha)  said: “He (Sallallāhu `alayhi wa sallam) observed thirteen rak’at (in the night prayers) - He observed eight rak’at and would then observe [three rak’at] Witr and then observe two rak’at sitting, and when he wanted to ruku’ he stood up and then bowed down (ruku’), and then observed two rak’at (Fajar nawafil) in between the Adzan and lqamah of the Solāh Fajar.” [Muslim 1608]

40.  Rasūlullāh (sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam) did this also during travelling as he said, “This travelling is exhausting and difficult, so after any one of you prays witr, let him perform two raka’at. If he wakes up, this is fine; otherwise these two rak’at will be counted for him.” It is Sunnah to recite Idha zulzilat al-ard and Qul yā ayyuha’l-kāfirun in these two raka’at.

17 -There should not be two Solāh Witrs in one night

41. If one performed  Solāh Witr after Solatul Tarawih at the beginning of the night and then Allāh enables you to get up at the end of the night, one may offer qiyam,   in two by two , but it should be without Solāh Witr, as  Rasūlullāh (sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam) said: “There should not be two Witr in one night.” [Abu Dawud 1439]


[ Adapted from Islam Q&A based on “ Qiyam Ramadhān” by Al-Albāni and "Solat Tarawih" by Tajuddin Shu’aib via MSA]

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