The Way A Latecomer Joining A Solah Jamā’ah
In the name of Allāh, the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful;
All the praise and Thanks is due to Allāh, the Lord of al-‘ālameen. I testify that there is none worthy of worship except Allāh, and that Muhammad, Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wasallam is His Messenger.
1 - The Way a Latecomer should join the Solah Jamā’ah with Calm and Dignity
I was late for solah jama’ah in which Imam is reciting Qur’an; Should I make it up silently or recite out loud?
As for the latecomer joining of Solah Jamā’ah, the sunnah is that to catch with whatever the part of the solah, not to hasten entering into it but doing it with calmness and dignity, even if when he hears the iqāmah. And whatever one miss, one makes it up at the end after the imam says the Taslim. This is the view of al-Shāfi’ie (rahimahullāh).
The evidence or dalīl is as the Prophet (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wasallam) said: “If you hear the iqāmah then walk to the solah, and you must be calm and dignified, and do not hasten. Whatever you catch up with, do it, and whatever you miss, makes it up.” [This was narrated by Al-Bukhari, 636; Muslim, 602].
The hadith indicates that the latecomer who joins the solah with the imam is to catch whatever one manage to do it, with calmness and dignified without hasten it albeit being the first part of his solah when he hears the iqāmah. And whatever one miss, one makes it up at the end after the imam says the Taslim.
[See Al-Majmū’ By Al-Nawawi, 4/420]
On this basis, if the latecomer joins the imam in the second rak’ah of Solah Maghrib, then this rak’ah is the second for the imam and the first for this person who is praying behind him, then the third rak’ah for the imam is the second rak’ah for the person praying behind him. Then when the imam says the Salām, the person behind him should stand up and complete his solah, and this will be the third rak’ah for him, and he should recite Al-Fātihah silently in it.
[Adapted from Islam Q&A (No: 23426): By Sheikh Muhammad Salih Al-Munajjid)]
2 – One can only Catch a Solah Jamā’ah if one catch up a rak`ah with the imām
If I join the solah in the Final Tashahhud, am I considered to have caught up with the solah in jamā’ah or not?
According to the Sunnah one can only Catch a Solah Jamā’ah if one catch up a rak`ah with the imām. Merely catching up with the Final Tashahhud or what comes before the Tashahhud, but not with the rak’ah, does not count or considered as having caught up with the Solah in jamā’ah. It has to catch the imam while in the position of ruku’.
The evidence or dalīl for this is the hadīth of Abu Hurayrah (radiyallāhu’anhu), who said that the Prophet (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wasallam) said: “Whoever catches up with a rak’ah of the solah has caught up with the solah [jamā’ah].” [Narrated by Al-Bukhari in Al-Mawāqeet, Bāb Man Adraka Min Al-Solāh Rak’ah, 580; Muslim, Kitāb Al-Masājid, 607, Abu Dawud and classified as sahih].
[Excerpted from Islam Q&A (No: 6551)]
3 – The Way of Catching Up a Rak`ah With Imam
If one comes and joins the Solāh when the imam is standing up from ruku’, but he has yet to say the Takbir, does this counted as a rak`ah for him or not and why?
The Fuqaha’ hold to the view that whoever catches up with the imām in ruku’ has caught up with the rak`ah.
The evidence or dalīl is the Prophet (Sallallāhu `alayhi wasallam) said: ‘Whoever catches up with ruku’ has caught up with the raka`ah.’ [This was narrated by Abu Dawud and classified as sahih]
The Sahābah acted in accordance with it:
1 – ‘Abdullah Ibn Mas`ud (radiyallāhu`anhu) said: “Whosoever does not catch up with the imām when he is ruku’ has not caught up with that rak`ah.” Its isnad is sahih.
2 – ‘Abdullah Ibn `Umar (radiyallāhu`anhu) said: “If you come when the imām is ruku’, and you put your hands on your knees before the imām stands up, then you have caught up (with that rak`ah).” Its isnād is sahih.
3 - Zayd Ibn Thabit (radiyallāhu`anhu) said: “Whoever catches up with the rak`ah before the imām raises his head from ruku’ has indeed caught up with the rak`ah.” Its isnād is jayyid.
This to indicate that if a person joins when the imām is the state of ruku’, only one of the following three situations will applies:
1. He says Takbirat Al-Ihram: “Allahu Akbar (Allah the Greatest)” to commence the solah whilst standing, then he ruku’ whilst the imam is still ruku’. In this case he has caught up with the rak`ah with the imām.
2. He says Takbirat Al-Ihram whilst the imām is ruku’, but he ruku’ after the imām has stood up from ruku’. In this case he is not counted as having caught up with the raka`ah with the imām, and he has to make up the solah.
3. He ruku’ straightaway without saying Takbiratul-Ihram. In this case his Solāh is invalid, because he has omitted one of the pillars or essential parts of the Solāh, which is Takbiratul-Ihram.
[Excerpted from Islam Q&A (No: 22155)]
4 - They Way of catching up with the imam when he is in ruku’?
If I enter the masjid and the imam is ruku’, and if I ruku’ with him will that rak’ah count for me, even though I have not recited Al-Fātihah? Should I say one Takbīr or two?
4.1 - One should ruku’ with him, when the Imam is in Ruku'..
If a person enters the masjid when the imam is ruku’, he should ruku’ with him, and his will have caught up with the rak’ah if he joins the imam when he is ruku’, even if he did not ruku’ fully until after the imam stands up. Imam Abu Dawūd (rahimahullāh) said: I heard Ahmad (rahimahullāh) was asked regarding a man who catches up with the imam when he is in ruku’; he begins with Takbīratul Ihram and ruku’, and then the imam stands up. Ahmad (rahimahullāh) said: If he placed his hands firmly on his knees before the imam stood up, then he is considered to have caught up with the rak’ah.
[See: Masā’il Al-Imām Ahmad by Abu Dawūd, p. 35; Hāshiyat Al-Rawd, by Ibn Qāsim, 2/275; Al-Majmū, 4/215].
Then he should be at ease in ruku’, and rise from ruku’, and follow his imam.
Shaykh Ibn Baaz said: If a person catches up with the imam when he is ruku’, that rak’ah counts for him, even if he does not say the Tasbīh until after the imam has stood up. [Majmū’ Fatāwa Ibn Baaz, 11/245-246]
4.2 - One Takbīr is sufficient, i.e., The Opening Takbīr
If he catches up with him when he is ruku’, then one Takbīr is sufficient, i.e., The Opening Takbīr counts for the Takbīr of Intiqal for ruku’ too. That was narrated from Zayd Ibn Thābit, Ibn ‘Umar, Sa’eed, ‘Ata’, Al-Hasan and Ibrāhīm Al-Nakha’ie. It was also the view of the four imams: Abu Hanīfah, Mālik, Ash-Shāfi’ie and Ahmad. Abu Dawūd said: I said to Ahmad: What if I catch up with the imam when he is ruku’? He said: One Takbīr is sufficient for you. [Masā’il Al-Imam Ahmad, P. 35]
That is because the time for ruku’ is usually too short to combine two Takbīrs, and it is suffice combining two acts of worship of the same type in the same place. The intention to ruku’ does not cancel out the intention to start solah. So, The Pillar or Essential Part, namely the Opening Takbīr, overriding namely the Takbir Intikal for ruku’, just as Tawāf Al-Ifādah suffices for the Farewell Tawāf if it is done last of all.
[See Al-Mughni, 2/183; Al-Qawā’id by Ibn Rajab, number 18]
If a person can say two Takbīrs, one for commencing the solah and one for ruku’, that is better. Abu Dawūd said: I said to Ahmad: Is the saying of two Takbīrs dearer to you? He said: If he says two Takbīrs there is no dispute on the matter. [Masā’il Al-Imam Ahmad, p. 35]
Shaykh Ibn Baaz (rahimahullāh)said: It is better and more on the safe side to say Takbīr twice, once for starting the solah, which is a pillar or essential part of the solah which must be done when he is standing, and the second time for ruku’ when he starts to ruku’. If he fears that he may miss the rak’ah, then The Opening Takbīr will suffice according to the more correct of the two scholarly opinions, because they are two acts of worship being combined at the same time and the greater will suffice for the lesser. And this rak’ah will count according to the majority of scholars. [Majmū’ Fatāwa Ibn Baaz, 11/244-245]
The one who is joining the solah has to say The Opening Takbīr standing. If he says it whilst leaning forward to ruku’, it is not valid.
Imam An-Nawawi (rahimahullāh) said : If a person catches up with the imam when he is ruku’, he should say The Opening Takbīr standing, then say the Takbīr of Intiqal for ruku’ as he is leaning forward to ruku’. If he says some of The Opening Takbīr when he is not standing upright, then his solah does not count as an obligatory solah, with no difference of opinion among the scholars on this point; it also does not count as a nawafil solah, according to the correct view. [Al-Majmū’ (4/111)]
It is essential to say The Opening Takbīr when standing straight, before leaning forward, because if a person leans forward when saying The Opening Takbīr, he will have said The Opening Takbīr when he was not standing straight, and The Opening Takbīr must be said when standing straight.
4.3 - That rak’ah counts for him even if he does not recite Al-Fātihah
If he ruku’ with the imam, that rak’ah counts for him even if he does not recite Al-Fātihah. This is the view of the majority and it is the correct view, in sha Allah, because the Prophet (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wasallam) said to Abu Bakrah (radiyallāhu’anhu), when he came to the Prophet (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wasallam) when he was in ruku’ and he ruku’ before he reached the row. He mentioned that to the Prophet (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wasallam) and Rasulullah (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wasallam) said: “May Allāh make you more keen, but do not do it again.” [Narrated by Al-Bukhari, 783]
The point here is that if catching up with ruku’ did not count as catching up with the rak’ah with the imam, the Prophet (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wasallam) would have told him to make up that rak’ah in which he did not catch up with the recitation, but it was not been reported from him. This indicates that the one who catches up with ruku’ has caught up with the rak’ah.
[See: Silsilat Al-Ahādīth Al-Sahīhah, P. 230]
Al-Shawkāni (rahimahullāh)said: Similarly the Prophet (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wasallam) told the one who joins the solah to do what the imam does, and it is known that this cannot be done unless he ruku’ with his imam. If he starts to recite Al-Fātihah, he has caught up with the imam in a state where he is not doing what his imam does, so he has disobeyed the command to follow the imam. [‘Awn Al-Ma’būd, 3/157]
With regard to the evidence for it being obligatory to recite Al-Fātihah in solah, this is general in meaning and includes the one who joins the solah late and the one who does not join the solah late. This hadīth specifically indicates that the obligation to recite Al-Fātihah is waived for the one who catches up with his imam when he is ruku’, so this hadīth makes an exception from the general meaning of the other ahādīth.
[See Majmū’ Al-Fatāwa, 23/290]
The recitation of Al-Fātihah is waived for the person observing solah following an imam in two cases:
1 – If he catches up with the imam when he is ruku’
2 – If he catches up with the imam just before he ruku’, and he cannot complete the recitation of Al-Fātihah
[See: Ahkām Hudūr Al-Masājid (p. 141-143)].
[Excerpted from Islam Q&A (No: 75156)]
In a hadith from ‘Abdullah bin Mas‘ud (radiyallāhu‘anhu) who reported: The Prophet (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wasallam) used to supplicate: “Allāhumma inni as ‘alukal-Huda, Wat-Tuqa, Wal-‘Afafa, Wal-Ghina (O Allāh! I beseech You for Guidance, Piety, Chastity and Contentment).” [Muslim].
This du’a contains four words, the meanings and implications of which constitute its essence. These words are guidance, piety (fear of Allah), chastity and sufficiency.Guidance here means guidance at every turn of life and steadfastness on the path of truth. Fear of Allah is the greatest means of piety and strongest defense against sins. Chastity is the state of being free from what is unlawful. Self-sufficiency is the antonym of poverty and here it means the self-contentment. What it implies is that one should not care for what people possess. In view of all these qualities, the prayer of the Prophet (Sallallahu ‘alayhi wasallam) mentioned in this Hadith is very comprehensive and valuable.
And Allāh Almighty knows best.