Friday, October 12, 2012

The Prophet Muhammad Noble Qualities

The Prophet Muhammad Noble Qualities

Banu Salleh.

In the name of Allāh, the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful;
All the praise and thanks is due to Allāh, the Lord of al-‘ālameen. I testify that there is none worthy of worship except Allāh, and that Muhammad, Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wasallam, is His Messenger

Description: Prophet Muhammad (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wasallam) is known to have observed a very simple life not seeking material gains, greatness, glory, or power  but forever with Fear of Allāh, sincere humility was ingrained in his heart untill he died. The noble characteristics and the Sunnah which the Muslims must upheld it. He said, "Allāh has sent me as an apostle so that I may demonstrate perfection of character, refinement of manners and loftiness of deportment”. Allāh Says in the Qur’an:  “And We have not sent you, [O Muhammad], except as a mercy to the worlds.” (Al-Anbiya’ 21: 107)

1 - Appearance.

The height of Prophet Muhammad (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wasallam) was a little above the average. He was sturdy built with long muscular limbs and tapering fingers. The hair was long and thick with some waves in them. His forehead was large and prominent, his eyelashes were long and thick, his nose was sloping, his mouth was somewhat large and his teeth were well set. His cheeks were spare and he had a pleasant smile. His eyes were large and black with a touch of brown. His beard was thick and at the time of his death, he had seventeen gray hairs in it. He had a thin line of fine hair over his neck and chest. He was fair of complexion and altogether was so handsome that Abu Bakar As-Siddiq (radiyallāhu’anhu) composed this couplet on him:

"As there is no darkness in the moonlit night, so is Mustafa, the well-wisher, bright."

The Prophet’s (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wasallam) gait was firm and he walked so fast that others found it difficult to keep pace with him. His face was genial but at times, when he was deep in thought, there were long periods of silence, yet he always kept himself busy with something. He would not speak unnecessarily and what he said was always to the point without any padding. At times he would make his meaning clear by slowly repeating what he had said. His laugh was mostly a smile. He kept his feelings under firm control; when annoyed, he would turn aside or keep silent; when pleased he would lower his eyes [At-Tirmidzi]

1.1 - The Seal of Prophethood

Abdullah bin Sarjas (radiyallāhu’anhu) says: "I came to Rasūlullāh (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wasallam) while there were people sitting in his company. I went around to the back of Rasūlullāh (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wasallam) (The narrator may have done this physically). Rasūlullāh (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wasallam) understood what I was trying to do. He removed the sheet (body wrap) from his back. I saw the place of the “Seal of Prophethood “between his two shoulders. It was like a cluster surrounded by til (moles) which appeared to be like a wart. I came before Rasūlullāh (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wasallam) and said to him. May Allāh forgive you (or Allāh has forgiven you, as is mentioned in Surah Fath, 'That Allāh may forgive you, your former and your latter sins'). Rasūlullāh (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wasallam) replied: 'May Allāh forgive you too'. The people said to me that Rasūlullāh (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wasallam) has made du’ā for your maghfirah (forgiveness). I replied: 'Yes, and for you too, because Allāh Ta’āla has said: ‘O Muhammad, seek forgiveness for yourself and the Mu'min males and females also"'. [Shama’il Tirmidzi]

2 - His Character and Disposition

The uniqueness of the Prophet Muhammad (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wasallam) is that he was not only a great person in his own time, but he is great for all times, for all people of any race, color, nationality or geographical location. His example was good for the 7th century Arabs and it is good for the humanity living now at the beginning of this 21st century. He is an excellent example for the rich and poor, for young and old, for rulers and ruled, for the most intelligent as well as the most common people. Allāh sent him as His Prophet for all humanity.

Allāh also says: “Say, [O Muhammad], "O mankind, indeed I am the Messenger of Allah to you all, [from Him] to whom belongs the dominion of the heavens and the earth. There is no deity except Him; He gives life and causes death." So believe in Allah and His Messenger, the unlettered prophet, who believes in Allah and His words, and follow him that you may be guided.” [Al-A’raf 7: 158]

Prophet Muhammad (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wasallam) practiced what he preached. He very carefully and meticulously followed the Qur’an, Allāh’s Word that was revealed to him. He followed and lived the Qur’an at every moment in every detail of his life. His life was the reflection of Allāh’s Words. He became the Qur’an in person, the embodiment of the Qur’an or one may even say in a metaphorical sense “the Word in flesh”.

It is narrated that Sa’ad ibn Hisham (radiyallāhu’anhu) said he asked ‘Aishah, (radiyallāhu’anha), Prophet’s wife: “Tell me about the character of the Prophet (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wasallam).” She said, “His character was the Qur’an.” [Musnad Ahmad, Hadith No. 24139].

Allāh Says about the Prophet (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wasallam):"By the grace of Allāh, you are gentle towards the people; if you had been stern and ill-tempered, they would have dispersed from round about you" [Surah Ali-‘Imran, 3:159)

About him the Prophet (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wasallam) said:  "Allāh has sent me as a Messenger so that I may demonstrate perfection of character, refinement of manners and loftiness of deportment." [Mālik; Ahmad]

By nature, Rasulullah (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wasallam) was gentle and kind hearted, always inclined to be gracious and to overlook the faults of others. Politeness and courtesy, compassion and tenderness, simplicity and humility, sympathy and sincerity were some of the keynotes of his character. [Bukhari, Tarmidzi, Ibn Hisham]

In the cause of right and justice, The Prophet (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wasallam) could be resolute and severe but more often than not, his severity was tempered with generosity. He had charming manners, which won him the affection of his followers and secured their devotion. However, as virtual king of Arabia and an Apostle of Allāh, The Prophet (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wasallam) never assumed an air of superiority. It was not that he had to conceal any such vein by practice and artifice, but eternally with fear of Allāh, sincere humility was ingrained in his heart. The Prophet (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wasallam) used to say, "I am a Prophet of Allāh but I do not know what will be my end." [Bukhari]

In one of his sermons calculated to instill the fear of Allāh and the day of reckoning in the hearts of men, The Prophet (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wasallam) said: “O people of Quraish be prepared for the hereafter, I cannot save you from the punishment of Allāh; O Bani Abd Manaf, I cannot save you from Allāh; O ‘Abbas, son of Abdul Mutalib, I cannot protect you either; O Fatimah, daughter of Muhammad, even you I cannot save." [Sahihyn, Tirmidzi]

The Prophet (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wasallam) used to invoke: "O Allāh! I am but a man. If I hurt anyone in any manner, then forgive me and do not punish me." [Ahmad, Musnad, Vol. 6 pg. 103]

The Prophet (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wasallam) always received people with courtesy, showed respect to older people, and stated: “To honor an old man is to show respect to Allāh.” [Bukhari]

The Prophet (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wasallam) would not deny courtesy even to wicked persons. It is stated that a person came to his house and asked permission for admission. The Prophet (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wasallam) remarked that he was not a good person but might be admitted. When he came in and while he remained in the house, he was shown full courtesy. When he left ‘Aishah (radiyallāhu’anha) said: "You did not think well of this man, but you treated him so well." The Prophet (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wasallam) replied: “He is a bad person in the sight of Allāh who does not behave courteously and people shun his company because of his bad manners.” [Bukhari]

The Prophet (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wasallam) was always the first to greet another and would not withdraw his hand from a handshake until the other man withdrew his. If one wanted to say something in his ears, he would not turn away until one had finished [Abu Dawud, Tirmidzi]. He did not like people to get up for him and used to say: “Let him who likes people to stand up in his honour, he should seek a place in hell.” [Abu Dawud].

The Prophet (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wasallam) would himself, however, stand up when any dignitary came to him. He had stood up to receive the wet nurse who had reared him in infancy and had spread his own sheet for her. His foster brother was given similar treatment. [Abu Dawud].

The Prophet (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wasallam) avoided sitting at a prominent place in a gathering, so much so that people coming in had difficulty in spotting him and had to ask which the Prophet (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wasallam) was. Quite frequently uncouth Bedouins accosted him in their own gruff and impolite manner but he never took offence. [Abu Dawud].

The Prophet (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wasallam) used to visit the poorest of ailing persons and exhorted all Muslims to do likewise [Bukhari]. The Prophet (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wasallam) would sit with the humblest of persons saying that righteousness alone was the criterion of one's superiority over another. He invariably invited people be they slaves, servants or the poorest believers, to partake with him of his scanty meals [Tirmidzi].

Whenever The Prophet (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wasallam) visited a person, he would first greet him and then take his permission to enter the house. The Prophet (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wasallam) advised the people to follow this etiquette and not to get annoyed if anyone declined to give permission, for it was quite likely the person concerned was busy otherwise and did not mean any disrespect [Tirmidzi].

There was no type of household work too low or too undignified for him. ‘Aishah (radiyallāhu’anha) has stated: "He always joined in household work and would at times mend his clothes, repair his shoes and sweep the floor. He would milk, secure, and feed his animals and do the household shopping." [Bukhari, Tirmidzi]

The Prophet (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wasallam) would not hesitate to do the menial work of others, particularly of orphans and widows [Nasa’ie, Darimi]. Once when there was no male member in the house of the companion Kabab bin Arat (radiyallāhu’anhu) who had gone to the battlefield, he used to go to his house daily and milk his cattle for the inhabitants [Tabaqat Ibn Sa’ad Vol. 6, p 213].

Prophet Muhammad’s followers loved him, respected him, and trusted him to an amazing extent.  Yet he continued to emphasize that deification should be directed to Allāh and not to him personally.  Anas bin Mālik, (radiyallāhu’anhu), one of Prophet Muhammad’s companions, said: “There was no person whom they loved more than the Prophet Muhammad (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wasallam), yet when he came to them, they did not stand up for him because he hated their standing up for him”, [Musnad Ahmad, (12117), and Al-Tirmidzi, (2754).]; as other people do with their great people.

3 - Mode of Living.

Prophet Muhammad (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wasallam) is known either before or during his mission as a Prophet of Allāh to have observed a very simple life not seeking material gains, greatness, glory, or power, but forever with Fear of Allāh, sincere humility was ingrained in his heart untill he died.

The Prophet’s house was but a hut with walls of unbaked clay and a thatched roof of palm leaves covered by camel skin. He had separate apartments for his wives, a small room for each made of similar materials. His apartment contained a rope cot, a pillow stuffed with palm leaves, the skin of some animal spread on the floor and a water bag of leather and some weapons. These were all his earthly belongings, besides a camel, a horse, and a mule and some land, which he had acquired in the later part of his life [Bukhari, Muslim, and Abu Dawud]. His blanket had several patches [Tirmidzi].

Once a few of his disciples, noticing the imprint of his mattress on his body, wished to give him a softer bed but the  Prophet (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wasallam) politely declined the offer saying: "What have I to do with worldly things? My connection with the world is like that of a traveler resting for a while underneath the shade of a tree and then moving on." [At-Tirmidzi, Al-Bukhari,]

Amr Ibn Al-Harith, a brother in law of the Prophet (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wasallam) said:  “When the Prophet (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wasallam) died, he did not leave a cent, a slave man or woman, or any property except his white mule, his weapons and a piece of land which he had dedicated for the good of the community” [Bukhari].

The Prophet (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wasallam) advised the people to live simple lives and himself practiced great austerities. Even when he had become the virtual king of Arabia, he lived an austere life bordering on privation. His wife Aishah (radiyallāhu’anha) said: “There was hardly a day in his life when he had two square meals” [Muslim, Sahih Muslim, Vol.2, pg 198]. When he died, there was nothing in his house except a few seeds of barley left from a mound of the grain obtained from a Jew by pawning his amour [Bukhari].

The Prophet (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wasallam) had declared unlawful for himself and his family anything given by the people by way of zakat or sadaqah [types of charity]. He was so particular about this that he would not appoint any member of his family as a zakat collector [Sahah-Kitab Sadqat].

4 - Dress.

The dress of Rasūlullāh (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wasallam) generally consisted of a qamis, tamad (trousers), a sheet thrown round the shoulders and a turban. On rare occasions, he would put on costly robes presented to him by foreign emissaries in the later part of his life. [Ahmad]. Ibn ‘Umar (radiyallāhu’anhu) reported: “When the Messenger of Allāh (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wasallam) fastened an amamah, he used to put the shamlah between his shoulders." [Shama’il Tirmidzi]

In another narration Umm Salamah (radiyallāhu’anha) related: "Of all the clothing, Rasūlullāh (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wasallam) preferred wearing the qamis (Thowb, kurtā) the most". [Shama’il Tirmidzi]

Ibn ‘Abbas (radiyallāhu’anhu) says that the Messenger of Allāh (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wasallam) used to say: "Choose white clothing, as it is the best clothing. And bury your dead in it." [Shama’il Tirmidzi]

The Messenger of Allāh (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wasallam) had very few spare clothes, but he kept them spotlessly clean [Bukhari].

Rasūlullāh (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wasallam) wanted others also to put on simple but clean clothes. Once a person putting on dirty clothes and he remarked, "Why can't this man wash them?" [Abu Dawud].

On another occasion, Rasūlullāh (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wasallam) enquired of a person in dirty clothes whether he had any income. Upon getting a reply in the affirmative, he observed: "When Allāh has blessed you with His bounty, your appearance should reflect it." [Abu Dawud]

The Prophet (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wasallam) used to observe: "Cleanliness is piety". [Al-Bakhari]

4.1 - The Prophet’s Ring

Ibn ‘Umar (radiyallāhu’anhu) narrated: “Allāh's Messenger (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wasallam) had a ring made of silver. He used it as a stamp on letters, but did not always wear it." (Shama’il Tirmidzi)

4.2 - The Prophet’s Sandal

Qatadah (radiyallāhu’anhu) reported: “I asked Anas (radiyallāhu’anhu) to describe the sandals of Allāh's Messenger (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wasallam) and he replied, 'Each sandal had two straps." (Shama’il Tirmidzi)

Abu Hurairah (radiyallāhu’anhu) related that the Prophet (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wasallam) said:  “Whenever one of you puts on his shoes, he should begin with the right, and when he removes his shoes he should begin with his left. The right foot should be first when putting on and last when removing.”(Shama’il Tirmidzi)

4.3 - The Prophet’s Fragrance

Abu Hurairah (radiyallāhu’anhu) narrated that the Messenger of Allāh (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wasallam) said: "The fragrance of a male is the fragrance which spread and is transparent, and the fragrance of a female is that which is colored and less fragrant.” (Shama’il Tirmidzi)

4.4 - The Prophet's Sword

Anas bin Mālik (radiyallāhu’anhu) reported: “The handle of the sword of the Prophet of Allāh (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wasallam) was made of silver.” (Shama’il Tirmidzi)

4.5 - The Prophet’s Eating and Drinking

Anas bin Mālik (radiyallāhu’anhu) said: “The Messenger of Allāh (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wasallam) used to lick his three fingers after having eaten.” [At-Tirmidzi]

Umar bin Abi Salamah (radiyallāhu’anhu) came to the Messenger of Allāh (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wasallam) while food was being served to him. The Messenger of Allāh (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wasallam) said: “O my son come near, recite Bismillāh, and eat with your right hand from that portion which is in front of you.” [At-Tirmidzi]

‘Amar bin Shu'ayb grandfather (radiyallāhu’anhu) related: "I had seen the Messenger of Allāh (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wasallam) drinking whilst standing and also whilst sitting." [At-Tirmidzi]

‘Aishah (radiyallāhu’anhu) said: "The drink most liked by the Messenger of Allāh (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wasallam) was that which was sweet and cold." [At-Tirmidzi]

4.6 - The Smiling, Laughing and Jesting Of the Prophet

‘Abdullah bin Harith (radiyallāhu’anhu) reported: “I did not see anyone who smiled more than the Messenger of Allāh.” [At-Tirmidzi]

‘Abdullah bin Harith (radiyallāhu’anhu) related: "The laugh of Allāh's Messenger (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wasallam) was but a smile." [At-Tirmidzi]

Abu Hurairah (radiyallāhu’anhu) reported: "The Sahabah asked, "O Messenger of Allāh, you joke with us? The Messenger of Allāh (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wasallam) replied, 'Yes, but only the truth." [At-Tirmidzi]

Al-Hasan Al-Basri (radiyallāhu’anhu) said : “An old woman came to the Messenger of Allāh (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wasallam) and made a request, O Messenger of Allāh! Make Du’a that Allāh grants me entrance into Jannah. The Messenger of Allāh replied, ‘O Mother! An old woman cannot enter Jannah’. The woman started crying and began to leave. The Messenger of Allāh (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wasallam) said: “Say to the woman that one will not enter in a state of old age, but Allāh will make all the women of Jannah young virgins. Allāh Ta’āla says, Lo! We have created them a (new) creation and made them virgins, lovers, equal in age (Surah Wāqi’ah, 35-37)”. [At-Tirmidzi]

4.7- The Prophet’s weeping

‘Abdullah bin Mas’ud (radiyallāhu’anhu) said: “Allāh's Messenger (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wasallam) once asked me to recite the Qur’an to him. I said, “O Messenger of Allāh, should I recite it to you when it has been revealed to you” Allāh's Messenger (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wasallam) responded, “I love to hear it from another person.” Thereupon, I began reciting Surah An-Nisā’. When I reached the ayah, "How when we bring of every person a witness, and We bring you (O Muhammd) a witness against them?' (An-Nisā’, 4:41), I saw tears flowing from both of his eyes." [At-Tirmidzi]

Aishah (radiyallāhu’anhu) narrated: One night, Allāh's Messenger (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wasallam) kept repeating one ayah the whole night, and continued to weep:  “If you should punish them - indeed they are your servant; but if you forgive them-indeed it is You who is the Exalted in Might, the Wise.” (5:118) [At-Tirmidzi]

4.8 – Prophet’s Speech

The Prophet's voice was clear, his speech eloquent. Rasūlullāh (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wasallam) looked dignified in silence and attractive while speaking. Rasūlullāh (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wasallam) always spoke to the point, and his words were explicit and distinct. He was very patient so that everyone can understand; He never spoke a word that could be misinterpreted or never spoke any foul words. Rasūlullāh (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wasallam) was a naturally powerful orator.

Rasūlullāh (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wasallam) was well versed in Arabic and quite familiar with the dialects and accents of every tribe. He spoke with those who hosted him using their own accents and dialects. He mastered and was quite eloquent at Bedouin dialect as well as the clarity and the splendor of the aesthetic speech of town. Above all, there was the assistance of Allāh embodied in the revealed Verses of the Qur’an.

4.9 -The Prophet’s walk

Abu Hurairah (radiyallāhu’anhu) said: “I did not see anyone walk faster than the Messenger of Allāh (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wasallam). It was as if the earth folded for him. A few moments ago he would be here, and then there. We found it difficult to keep pace when we walked with him, and he walked at his normal pace." (Shama’il Tirmidzi)

4.10 – Patience

Amr bin ‘Abasa (radiyallāhu’anhu), relates that he asked the Prophet, (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wasallam), “What is faith?” He replied, “Patience and a magnanimous spirit.” ‘Amr then asked, “What is the best form of faith?” He replied, “Good character.” [Al-Bukhari]

Khabbab bin Al-Arat (radiyallāhu’anhu) narrated: We complained to Allāh's Apostle (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wasallam) of the persecution inflicted on us by the infidels) while he was sitting in the shade of the Ka’bah. We said to him, "Would you seek help for us? Would you pray to Allāh for us?" Rasūlullāh (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wasallam)  said: "Among the nations before you a (believing) man would be put in a ditch that was dug for him, and a saw would be put over his head and he would be cut into two pieces; yet that (torture) would not make him give up his religion. His body would be combed with iron combs that would remove his flesh from the bones and nerves, yet that would not make him abandon his religion. By Allāh, this religion (i.e. Islam) will prevail till a traveler from Sana (in Yemen) to Hadrarmaut will fear none but Allāh, or a wolf as regards his sheep, but you (people) are hasty.” (Al-Bukhari)

4.11 - Bravery and Courage

Bara bin Azab (radiyallāhu’anhu) narrated: "In the battle of Hunayn, as Muslims were being taken out by archers, the people turned to the Messenger of Allāh (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wasallam). Abu Sufyan bin Harith was leading the Messenger of Allāh (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wasallam) mule. Rasūlullāh (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wasallam) got down, prayed, and invoked Allāh's help. Rasūlullāh (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wasallam) said: 'I am the Prophet. This is the truth. I am the son of Abdul Mutallib. O Allāh, descend your help." Bara' continued. "When the battle grew fierce, by Allāh, we would seek protection by the Prophet's side, and the bravest among us was he who confronted the onslaught in the front, by the Prophet's side." (Muslim)

4.12 - Humility

‘Aishah (radiyallāhu’anha) narrated: "He used to remain busy serving and helping his household, and when the time for prayer came he would perform ablution and go for prayer. He would patch his own sandals and sew his own garments. He was an ordinary human being, milking his sheep, and doing his own chores." [At-Tirmidzi]

Being the Messenger of Allāh (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wasallam), a living example for all the eternity, and the discussion of his noble and great character would never come to an end. It is as the scholars have said: "Describing the greatness of Allāh's Messenger (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wasallam) is that ocean that knows no shore." (Ibn Hajar Fathul Bāri)

5 - Daily Routine.

On the authority of ‘Ali, Tirmidzi has recorded that the Prophet (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wasallam) had carefully apportioned his time according to the demands on him for:

1. Offering worship to Allāh
2. Public affairs, and
3. Personal matters.

After The Early Morning Prayers (Solat Fajar) the Prophet (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wasallam) would remain sitting in the mosque reciting praises of Allāh till the sun rose and more people gathered. He would then preach to them. After the sermons were over, he would talk genially with the people, enquire about their welfare and even exchange jokes with them. Taxes and revenues were also distributed at this time [Muslim, Sahih Muslim, and Sunan At-Tirmizi]. He would then offer Solah Dhuha (Chaste Prayers) and go home and get busy with household work [Bukhari, Muslim, and At-Tirmizi]. The Prophet (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wasallam) would return to the mosque for The Mid-Day (Solat Dzuhur) and afternoon prayers listen to the problems of the people and give solace and guidance to them. After The Afternoon Prayers (Solat ‘Asar) , he would visit each of his wives and, after The Evening Prayers(Maghrib), his wives would collect at one place and he would have his dinner [Muslim, Sahih Muslim].

After The Night Prayers (Solat ‘Ishā’), the Prophet (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wasallam) would recite some surahs of the Qur’an and before going to bed would pray: "O Allāh, I die and live with thy name on my lips."

On getting up, he would say: "All praise to Allāh Who has given me life after death and towards Who is the return."

The Prophet (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wasallam) used to brush his teeth five times a day, before each of the daily prayers.

After midnight, he used to get up for The Tahajjud Prayers Solat Tahajjud), which he never missed even once in his life [Bukhari, Sahih Bukhari]. The Prophet (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wasallam) was not fastidious about his bed: sometimes he slept on his cot, sometimes on a skin or ordinary mattress, and sometimes on the ground [Zarqani].

On Friday, the Prophet (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wasallam) used to give sermons after The Weekly Jumma’ah Prayers (Solat Jumma’ah). He was not annoyed if anyone interrupted him during the sermons for anything. It is stated that once, while he was delivering his sermon, a Bedouin approached him and said, "O Messenger of Allāh, I am a traveler and am ignorant of my religion. “The Prophet (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wasallam) got down from the pulpit, explained the salient features of Islam to him and then resumed the sermon” [At-Tirmidzi].

On another occasion his grandson Husain, still a child, came tumbling to him while he was delivering a sermon. He descended and took him in his lap and then continued the sermon [At-Tirmidzi].

6 - Generosity

Anas bin Mālik (radiyallāhu’anhu) reported: "It never happened that Allāh's Messenger (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wasallam) was asked anything for the sake of Islam and he did not give. There came to him a person and he gave him a large flock (of sheep and goat) and he went back to his people and said, "My people, embrace Islam, for Muhammad gives so much charity it is as if he has no fear of poverty." [Muslim]

Ibn Shihad reported:  Allāh's Messenger (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wasallam) went out along with the Muslims and they fought at Hunayn, and Allāh granted victory to His religion and to the Muslims. Allāh's Messenger (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wasallam) gave one hundred camels to Safwan bin Umayyah. He again gave him one hundred camels, and then again gave him one hundred camels. Sa’id bin al-Musayyib said that Safwan told him, "By Allāh! Allāh's Messenger (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wasallam) gave me what he gave me, and he was the most detested person in my eyes. But he continued to give until he became the dearest to me." [Muslim]

7 - Faith and Trust in Allāh

Prophet Muhammad (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wasallam) preached to the people to trust in Allāh Subhānahu wa Ta’ala. His whole life was an inspirational example of the precept. In the loneliness of Makkah; in the midst of persecution and danger; in adversity and tribulations; and in the thick of enemies in the battles of Uhud and Hunain, ‘the complete faith and trust in Allāh Almighty’ is the feature in his life. However great the danger that confronted him, he never lost hope and never allowed himself to be unduly agitated.
Rasūllulāh (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wasallam) received an interesting offer.  An envoy of the pagan leaders, Utbah, came to him saying: “...If you want money, we will collect enough money for you so that you will be the richest one of us.  If you want leadership, we will take you as our leader and never decide on any matter without your approval.  If you want a kingdom, we will crown you king over us...”  Only one concession was required from Prophet Muhammad (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wasallam) in return for that, to give up calling people to Islam and worshipping Allāh alone without any partner.  Wouldn’t this offer be tempting to one pursuing worldly benefit?  Was Prophet Muhammad (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wasallam) hesitant when the offer was made?  Did he turn it down as a bargaining strategy leaving the door open for a better offer?  The following was Prophet Muhammad (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wasallam) answer: “In the Name of Allāh, the Most Gracious, and the Most Merciful” And Rasūlullāh (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wasallam) recited to Utbah the verses of the Surah Al-Fussilat 41:1-38.11 The Following are some of these verses: “A revelation from (Allāh), the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful; a Book whereof the verses are explained in detail; a Qur’ān in Arabic, for people who know, giving good news and warning, yet most of them turn away, so they do not listen”.  [Surah Al-Fussilat, 41:2-4]

Abu Talib knew the feelings of the Quraish when the Prophet (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wasallam) started his mission. He also knew the lengths to which the Quraish could go, and requested the Prophet (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wasallam) to abandon his mission, but the latter calmly replied: “Dear uncle, do not go by my loneliness. Truth will not go unsupported for long. The whole of Arabia and beyond will one day espouse its cause.” [Ibn Hisham]

On another occasion and in response to his uncle, Abu Talib ’s plea to stop calling people to Islam, the Prophet’s, (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wasallam), answer was as decisive and sincere: “I swear by the name of Allāh, O Uncle!, that if they place the sun in my right-hand and the moon in my left-hand in return for giving up this matter (calling people to Islam), I will never desist until either Allāh makes it triumph or I perish defending it.” [Al-Sirah Al-Nabawiyah, Ibn Hisham, vol. 1, pp. 265-266.]

Prophet Muhammad (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wasallam) and his few followers did not only suffer from persecution for thirteen years but the unbelievers even tried to kill him several times.  On one occasion they attempted to kill him by dropping a large boulder, which could barely be lifted, on his head. [13 Al-Sirah Al-Nabawiyah, Ibn Hisham, vol. 1, pp. 298-299.]  Another time they tried to kill him by poisoning his food. [Ad-Darimi, (68), and Abu Dawūd, (4510)] 

A dejected and oppressed disciple was comforted with the words: “By Allāh, the day is near when this faith will reach its pinnacle and none will have to fear anyone except Allāh.” [Bukhari]

To another well-wisher, the Prophet's (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wasallam) said: “Allāh will not leave me forelorn.”

It was the same trust in Allāh Subhānahu wa Ta’ala which emboldened the Prophet (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wasallam) to say his prayers openly in The Haram in the teeth of opposition. The Quraish were once gathered there and were conspiring to put an end to his life when he next entered the haram. His young daughter Fātimah, who happened to overhear their talk rushed weeping to her father and told him of the designs of the Quraish. He consoled her, did his ablutions and went to the Ka’abah to say prayers. There was only consternation among the Quraish when they met him [Ahmed, Musnad, Vol. 1, pg. 368].

Then leaving his house for Madinah he asked Ali bin Abi Talib to sleep on his bed and told him: “Do not worry; no one will be able to do you any harm” [Ibn Hisham] Even though the enemies had surrounded the house, he left the house reciting the Quranic verse: “We have set a barricade before them and a barricade behind them and [thus] have covered them so that they see not” [Surah Yasin, 36:9)

Abu Bakar As-Siddiq (radiyallāhu’anhu) was frightened when pursuers came close to the cavern in which he and Prophet Muhammad (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wasallam) were hiding during their flight, but the Prophet (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wasallam) heartened him: “Grieve not. Allāh is with us.”

A guard was kept at the Prophet's house in Madinah because of the danger that surrounded him but he had it withdrawn when the Quranic verse was revealed: “Allāh will protect you from the people” [Surah Al-Māidah, 5:67].

A man was caught waiting in ambush to assault the Prophet (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wasallam) but he was directed to be released with the words: “Even if this man wanted to kill me, he could not.” [Ahmad, Musnad, Vol.3 pg. 471]

A Jewess from Khaibar had put poison in the Prophet's (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wasallam) food. He spat it out after taking a morsel but a disciple who had his fill died the next day. The Jewess was brought before the prophet (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wasallam) who questioned her: “Why did you do this?” “To kill you,” was her defiant reply. The Prophet (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wasallam) in turn told her, "Allāh would not have allowed you to do it." [Muslim]

In the battle of Uhud when the rear guard action of the Makkan army had disorganized the Muslim army and had turned the tables, the Prophet (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wasallam) stood as firm as a rock even though he had suffered personal injuries. When Abu Sufian bin Sakhaar taunted the Muslims and shouted "Victory to hubal!" [Hubal was one of their idols], the Prophet (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wasallam) asked ‘Umar Al-Khattab (radiyallāhu’anhu) to shout back, “Allāh is our protector and friend. You have no protector and friend. Allāh is Great, Magnificent.” [Ibn Hisham].

Again, in the Battle of Hunain, when the unexpected assault of the army had swept the Muslim force off its feet and a defeat seemed imminent, the Prophet (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wasallam) did not yield ground. With trust in Allāh Subhanahu Wa Ta’ala, he showed such courage that the Muslim army rallied behind him to win a signal victory.

8 - Justice.

The Prophet (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wasallam) asked people to be just and kind. As the supreme judge and arbiter, as the leader of men, as generalissimo of a rising power, as a reformer and apostle, he had always to deal with men and their affairs. He had often to deal with mutually inimical and warring tribes when showing justice to one carried the danger of antagonizing the other, and yet he never deviated from the path of justice. In administering justice, he made no distinction between believers and nonbelievers, friends and foes, high and low. From numerous instances reported in the traditions, a few are given below.

Sakhar, a chief of a tribe, had helped Muhammad (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wasallam) greatly in the siege of Taif, for which he was naturally obliged to him. Soon after, two charges were brought against Sakhar: one by Mughira of illegal confinement of his [Mughira's] aunt and the other by Banu Salim of forcible occupation of his spring by Sakhar. In both cases, he decided against Sakhar and made him undo the wrong. [Abu Dawud]

Abdullah Bin Sahal (radiyallāhu’anhu), a companion, was deputed to collect rent from Jews of Khaibar. His cousin Mahisa accompanied him but, on reaching Khaibar, they had separated. Abdullah was waylaid and caused to a death. Mahisa reported this tragedy to the Prophet (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wasallam) but as there were no eyewitnesses to identify the guilty, he did not say anything to the Jews and paid the blood money out of the state revenues [Bukhari]

A woman of the Makhzum family with good connections was found guilty of theft. For the prestige of the Quraish, some prominent people including Asama Bin Zaid interceded to save her from punishment. The Prophet (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wasallam) refused to condone the crime and expressed displeasure saying:

"Many a community ruined itself in the past as they only punished the poor and ignored the offences of the exalted. By Allāh, if Muhammad's [My] daughter Fātimah would have committed theft, her hand would have been severed." [Bukhari]

The Jews, in spite of their hostility to the Prophet (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wasallam), were so impressed by his impartiality and sense of justice that they used to bring their cases to him, and he decided them according to Jewish law. [Abu Dawud]

Once, while he was distributing the booty or spoils of war, people flocked around him and one man almost fell upon him. The Prophet (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wasallam), pushed the men with a stick causing a slight abrasion. He was so sorry about this that he told the man that he could have his revenge, but the man said, "O Messenger of Allāh, I forgive you." [Abu Dawud]

In his fatal illness, the Prophet (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wasallam) proclaimed in a concourse assembled at his house that if he owed anything to anyone the person concerned could claim it; if he had ever hurt anyone's person, honor or property, he could have his price while he was yet in this world. A hush fell on the crowd. One man came forward to claim a few dirhams, which were paid at once. [Ibn Hisham]]

9 - Equality

The Prophet (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wasallam) asked people to shun notions of racial, family or any other form of superiority based on mundane things and said that righteousness alone was the criterion of one's superiority over another. It has already been shown how he mixed with everyone on equal terms, how he ate with slaves, servants and the poorest on the same sheet [a practice that is still followed in Arabia], how he refused all privileges and worked like any ordinary laborer. Two instances may, however, be quoted here:

Once the Prophet (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wasallam) visited Sa’ad Bin Abadah (radiyallāhu’anhu). While returning, Sa’ad sent his son Quais with him. The Prophet (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wasallam) asked Quais to mount his camel with him. Quais hesitated out of respect but the Prophet (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wasallam) insisted: “Either mount the camel or go back.” Quais decided to go back. [Abu Dawud]

On another occasion he was traveling on his camel over hilly terrain with a disciple, Uqbah Bin ‘Amir. After going some distance, he asked Uqbah to ride the camel, but Uqbah thought this would be showing disrespect to the Prophet (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wasallam). But the Prophet (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wasallam) insisted and he had to comply. The Prophet (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wasallam) himself walked on foot, as he did not want to put too much load on the animal. [Nasā’ie]

The prisoners of war of Badar included Al-‘Abbas bin Abdul Muttalib (radiyallāhu’anhu), the uncle of the Prophet (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wasallam). Some people were prepared to forgo their shares and remit the Prophet's (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wasallam) ransom but he declined saying that he could make no distinctions. [Bukhari]

During a halt on a journey, the companions apportioned work among themselves for preparing food. The Prophet (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wasallam) took upon himself the task of collecting firewood. His companions pleaded that they would do it and that he need not take the trouble, but the Prophet (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wasallam)  replied:"It is true, but I do not like to attribute any distinction to myself. Allāh does not like the man who considers himself superior to his companions." [Zarqani, Vol 4 pg. 306]

10 - Mercy, Forgiveness and Compassion.

Allāh Says about the character of Prophet (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wasallam): in many places in Al-Quran: "And verily, you are on an exalted standard of character." [Al-Qalam, 68:4] And Allāh describes Rasūlullāh (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wasallam) a mercy for the worlds: “And We have sent you (O Muhammad) not but as a mercy for the worlds.” [Al Anbiya, 21:107]

10.1 - A Mercy for the Believers

The Prophet (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wasallam) without a shadow of doubt was the epitome of mercy. This is not only due to Allāh describing him as such, but due to the manifestation of mercy in his character. There are two particular scenarios that stick out above the rest:

‘Abdullah Ibn Amr Ibn Al-‘As (radiyallāhu’anhu) narrated: Verily the Messenger of Allāh (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wasallam) recited the words of Allāh, the Great and Glorious that Ibrahim uttered: My Lord! Lo! They have led many of mankind astray: "But whoso followed me, he verily is of me" (Ibrāhīm, 14:35), and Jesus (‘alaihissalam) said: "If thou punished them, lo! They are Thy slaves, and if Thou forgiveth them--verily Thou art the Mighty, the Wise" (Al-Māidah, 5:117). Then he raised his hands and said: ‘O Lord, my Ummah, my Ummah, and wept’. So Allāh, the High and the Exalted, said: O Gabriel, go to Muhammad (though your Lord knows it fully well) and ask him: what makes thee weep? So Gabriel (p.) came to him and asked him, and the Messenger of Allāh (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wasallam) informed him of what he had said (though Allāh knew it fully well). Upon this Allāh said: O Gabriel, go to Muhammad and say: Verily We shall please thee with regard to your Ummah and shall not displease thee. [Muslim]

The Messenger’s compassion towards the believers was of the utmost degree. The Qur’an describes his compassion in the following verse, which means: “There has certainly come to you a Messenger from among yourselves. Grievous to him is what you suffer; [he is] concerned over you [i.e., your guidance] and to the believers is kind and merciful.” [Al-Tawbah: 9:128] 

Sa’ad bin ‘Ubādah (radiyallāhu`anhu) once became ill, so Allāh’s Messenger (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wasallam) visited him in his house. On seeing his faithful companion in a pitiful state, Rasūlullāh (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wasallam) was moved to tears. Then, Rasūlullāh (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wasallam) said: “Allāh does not punish because of tears, or because of grief, but he punishes because of this; and he pointed to his tongue.” [Al-Bukhari]

10.2 - A Mercy for the Enemies

The prisoners of war taken captive at the battle of Badr were amongst his bitterest enemies. Nevertheless, he (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wasallam) made sure that they were given the best of treatment. Among them was Suhayl bin ‘Amr who was a fiery speaker and was denouncing the Prophet (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wasallam). ‘Umar (radiyallāhu`anhu) one the Prophet’s closest companions, suggested that two of his lower teeth be pulled out so that he might not be so vile in his speeches. The Prophet (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wasallam) replied: “Were I to do this, Allāh would disfigure me on the Day of Judgement, despite the fact that I am His Messenger.”

 ‘Aishah (radiyallāhu’anha) narrates that Allāh's Messenger (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wasallam) never took revenge on his own or on behalf of anyone. She also said that  the Prophet (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wasallam) was not unseemly or obscene in his speech, nor was he voiced loudly in the streets, or he return evil for evil, but he would forgive and pardon. The people of the Quraish rebuked him, taunted and mocked at him, beat him and abused him. They tried to kill him and when he escaped to Medinah, they waged many wars against him yet when he entered Makkah victorious with an army of 10,000; he did not take revenge on anyone. He forgave all of them. Even his deadliest enemy Abu Sufian bin Harb, who fought so many battles, was forgiven, and anyone who occupied in his house was also forgiven. The leaders of T'aif, who engaged rogues to throw stones at him when he visited that town to invite them to Islam, were also forgiven. 

In Makkah, his people inflicted him with every kind of suffering, eventually forcing him to emigrate to Madīnah, and then waged war on him for five years. However, when he conquered Makkah without bloodshed in the twenty-first year of his Prophethood, he forgave them. 

At-Tabari narrated:"Being a Prophet of absolute mercy, one who came to secure the happiness of mankind both in this world and the next, The Prophet (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wasallam) entered Makkah, bowing on the back of his mule, as a victorious conqueror. He displayed neither hint of self pride nor thought of either vengeance or retaliation. He proceeded toward the Ka'bah in utmost modesty and absolute gratitude to Allāh Almighty, who had made him victorious in his sacred mission. Rasūlullāh (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wasallam) stopped at the Ka’bah and asked those who assembled there, 'How do you expect me to treat you?' They responded unanimously: "You are a noble one, the son of a noble one. Rasūlullāh (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wasallam) announced to them his decision: “No blame wills there be upon you today. Allāh will forgive you; and He is the Most Merciful of the Merciful (Yusuf, 12:92) You can disperse.” 

This marked the end of the polytheism in Makkah. While Rasūlullāh (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wasallam) was toppling down the idols at the Ka'bah one after the other, Rasūlullāh (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wasallam) recited, 'Say, "Truth has come and falsehood has disappeared. Indeed falsehood is subject to disappearance." And, almost all of the Makkans, who had been the enemies of Islam until one day before, acquired the honour of becoming companions to Allāh's Messenger (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wasallam). [Tafsir At-Tabari]

"An Abyssinian slave Wahshi bin Harb, who killed his uncle, Hamzah bin Abdul Mutallib, in the Battle of Uhud, and after the victory of Makkah embraced Islam and came to him, was forgiven. 

The wife of Abu Sufian, Hindun bint ‘Utbah she cut open the chest of Hamzah and torn his liver and heart into pieces in the Battle of Uhud. She quietly came to the Prophet (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wasallam) and accepted Islam. The Prophet (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wasallam) recognised her but did not say anything. She was so impressed by his magnanimity and stature that she said, "O Messenger of Allāh (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wasallam), no tent was more deserted in my eyes than yours; but today no tent is lovelier in my eyes than yours." 

Ikramah, son of Abu Jahal, was a great enemy of Rasūlullāh (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wasallam) and Islam. He ran away after the victory of Makkah and went to Yemen. His wife embraced Islam and brought him to the Rasūlullāh (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wasallam). The Prophet (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wasallam) was pleased to see him and greeted him with the words: "O emigrant rider, welcome." And Ikramah became a Muslim.

Sufwan bin Urnaiyah, one of the chiefs of Makkah, was also a great enemy of the Prophet (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wasallam) and Islam. He sent Umair Ibn Wahab, with a promise of reward, to kill Rasūlullāh (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wasallam). When Makkah was conquered, he ran away to Jeddah and hoped to go to Yemen by sea. Umair Ibn Wahab came to the Prophet (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wasallam) and said, "O God's Messenger! Sufwan ibn Umaiyah is a chief of his tribe. He has run away from fear and will throw himself into the sea." Sufwan bin Urnaiyah was given amnesty. When he came back, he requested the Prophet (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wasallam) to give him two months to think. He was given four months and then he became a Muslim by his own will. 

Habir Ibn Al-Aswad was another vicious enemy of The Prophet (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wasallam) and of Islam. He had inflicted a grievous injury to Zainab, daughter of the Prophet (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wasallam). She was pregnant and was emigrating to Medinah. The polytheists of Makkah obstructed her and Habir Bin Al-Aswad intentionally threw her down from the camel. She was badly hurt and had a miscarriage. He had committed many other crimes as well. He wanted to run away to Persia but then he came to Prophet Muhammed (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wasallam) who forgave him.  [Tabaqat Ibn Hisham]

‘Abdullah bin Ubayy, leader of the hypocrites of Medinah, was forgiven. The Prophet (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wasallam) offered his funeral prayer and prayed to Allāh for his forgiveness. The Qur'an mentions this incident in these words:

 "And never (O Muhammed) pray for one of them who dies, nor stand by his grave. Lo! They disbelieve in God and His Messenger, and they died while they were evil doers." 

‘Abdullah bin Ubayy worked all his life against Muhammed and Islam and left no stone unturned in bringing him into disrepute and in trying to defeat his mission. He withdrew his 300 supporters in the Battle of Uhud and almost broke the backbone of the Muslim. He had engaged in intrigues and hostilities against the Prophet (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wasallam) and the Muslims. It was he who raised the incident of ifk (false accusations of Aishah's adultery) through his allies to discredit the Prophet (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wasallam) by spreading scandal about his wife, ‘Aishah. 

"Lo! They who spread the slander are a gang among you. Deem it not a bad thing for you; nay, it is good for you. Unto every man of them will be paid that which he has earned of the sin; and as for him among them who had the greater share therein, his will be an awful doom." [Surah An-Nur, 24:11] 

The Prophet Muhammed (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wasallam) was all for forgiveness and no amount of crime or aggression against him were too great to be forgiven by him. He was the complete example of forgiveness and kindness, as mentioned in the following verse of the Qur’an: 

"Keep to forgiveness [O Muhammed], and enjoin kindness, and turn away from the ignorant." [Surah Al-Araf, 7:199] 

The Prophet (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wasallam) always repelled evil with the good of forgiveness and kind behaviour, for, in his view, an antidote was better than poison. The Prophet (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wasallam) believed and practiced the precept that love could foil hatred and aggression could be won over by forgiveness. Prophet Muhammed (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wasallam) overcame the ignorance of the people with the knowledge of Islam, and the folly and evil of the people with his kind and forgiving treatment. With his forgiveness, he freed people from the bondage of sin and crime, and also made them great friends of Islam. Prophet Muhammed (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wasallam) was an exact image of the following verse of the Qur'an: 

"Good and evil are not alike. Repel evil with what is better. Then he, between whom and you there was hatred, will become as though he was a bosom friend." [Surah Fusilat, 41:34] 

10.3 - A Mercy for Women

Prophet Muhammad (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wasallam) was also very kind and affectionate towards women. Women were very badly treated in those times. The Prophet (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wasallam) gave them honour and dignity at par with men in the community. ‘Umar (radiyallāhu’anhu) reported: "We did not have much regard for women while we were at Makkah, but they were better treated in Madīnah. Allāh's Messenger established women's rights through his sayings and commandments, which improved their position and status."

10.4 - A Mercy for Children

Allāh’s Messenger (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wasallam) was particularly compassionate towards children. Showing mercy and love to children has a special place in the Prophet Muhammad's manners. Rasūlullāh espouse the importance of mercy in children's spiritual development, the Prophet (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wasallam) stated, "Whoever does not show mercy to his children is not one of us” [Muslims]. The Prophet Muhammad (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wasallam) taught that children should be approached with mercy, love, respect, and trust, while Islamic teachings particularly emphasize mercy and love.

The Prophet (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wasallam) was especially fond of children and used to get into the spirit of childish games in their company. The Prophet (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wasallam) would have fun with the children who had come back from Abyssinia and tried to speak in Abyssinian with them. It was his practice to give lifts on his camel to children when he returned from journeys [Bukhari, Sahih Bukhari, Vol. 2 pg.886]. 

A companion, recalling his childhood, said: "In my childhood I used to fell dates by throwing stones at palm trees. Somebody took me to the Prophet (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wasallam) who advised me to pick up the dates lying on the ground but not to fell them with stones. He then patted me and blessed me." [Abu Dawud]

Another hadith ‘Aishah (radiyallahu’anha) said “One day the Prophet (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wasallam) was in one of the markets of Medinah. He left the market and so did I. Then he asked thrice, "Where is the small child?" Then he said, "Call Hasan." So Hasan got up and started walking with a necklace of beads around his neck. The Prophet (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wasallam) stretched his hand, and Hasan did the same. The Prophet (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wasallam) embraced him and said, "O Allah! I love him, so please love him and love those who love him”.  Since Allah's Apostle said that, nothing has been dearer to me than Hasan. [Al-Bukhari, Libas] 

The Prophet (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wasallam) would pick up children in his arms, play with them, and kiss them. [Abu Dawud]  ‘Aishah (radiyallahu’anha) narrated: “Once Rasūlullāh (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wasallam) was hugging his beloved grandsons, Hasan and Husain, when Aqrah bin Hābis told him, ‘I have got ten children. So far, I have not kissed any of them.’ Allāh’s Messenger (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wasallam) responded: “The one with no pity for others is not pitied.” [Al-Bukhari and Muslim] According to another version, he said: “What can I do for you if Allāh has removed from you the feeling of compassion?” [At-Tirmidzi]  In one narration, The Prophet (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wasallam) gave this meaningful reply: “The uncompassionate will not be treated mercifully” [Al-Bukhari, “Adab” 18].

Allāh’s Messenger (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wasallam) was particularly compassionate towards children. The Prophet shorten the recitation of the surah in the solat when a child cries: Although Rasulullah (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wasallam) recited sixty verses during the first raka’ah of Solat Fajar, the Prophet (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wasallam) completed the Solat by reading one of the shortest verses in the second raka’ah when he heard a child cry. When Rasullullah (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wasallam) was asked why he did that, he gave this meaningful reply: “When I stand for solat, I intend to prolong it, but on hearing the cries of a child, I cut it short, as I dislike troubling the child's mother.” [Al-Bakhari, An-Nasa’ie, Qiblah 35]

In some cases, The Prophet (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wasallam) held babies in his arms to be able keep them in places of Solat while he was performing it. The Prophet (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wasallam) held them in his arms while he was standing and carefully placed them to his side when prostrating. On this subject the Prophet Muhammad (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wasallam) did not make any distinction between boys and girls. It was narrated that the Prophet Muhammad (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wasallam) came to the masjid carrying Umamah, his granddaughter, on his shoulder. Keeping her on his shoulders, the Prophet Muhammad (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wasallam) led [the people] in the Solat. When he bowed, he put her down and took her up when he got up. He kept on doing so until he had finished his Solat. [Al- Bukhari, Muslim]

The Prophet Muhammad (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wasallam) did not seek to remove children from the congregation while he was preaching.  One of his sahābah said: "I saw our Prophet giving a sermon. Hasan was sitting on his knees. During his speech he occasionally would bow down, kiss the child, and say: "I love him." [Al-Bukhari]

The Prophet (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wasallam) said: “Whoever has three (or two or one) girls or sisters and treats them well and does not prefer male children over them and educates them in the best manner, Allāh will make them a shield against hell and will put them in heaven” [Ibn Majah, ; At-Tirmizi, ; Abu Dawud].This hadith indicates about compassion and mercy to their daughters.

‘Aishah (radiyallāhu’anha) narrates: “A woman came to me. She had two girls with her. She wanted something. However, I did not have anything except one date. I gave it to her. The woman divided it into two pieces and shared it between her daughters; nothing was left for her. They left. Later the Prophet (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wasallam) came. When I told him about this situation, he (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wasallam) said:Whoever befriends and treats their daughters well like this, the girls will be a shield for them against the fire” [Al-Bukhari].

The Importance given to the protection of children is a hadith, which the Prophet (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wasallam) said: “Allāh divided His mercy into one hundred pieces. He kept ninety-nine pieces and sent one piece to earth. Due to this piece, animals step carefully so as not to harm their offspring” [Al-Bukhari; Muslim]. 

In another hadith the Prophet (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wasallam) says: “Those who have to protect their family and children and are killed for this reason are martyrs” [Al-Bukhari, Muslim, At-Tirmidzi, Abu Dawud, Ibn Mājah,  Nasa’ie].

10.5 - A Mercy for Slaves

The Prophet (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wasallam) strongly enjoined the duty of kind and generous treatment upon slaves, servants and labourers engaged in manual work. Jābir bin Samrah (radiyallāhu’anhu) related the Apostle of Allāh (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wasallam) as saying: "Feed them with the food which you eat, clothe them with such clothing as you wear, and do not cause trouble to Allāh's creatures." The Prophet (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wasallam) is further stated to have said: "Those whom Allāh has made your dependents are your brothers, servants and helpmates. Anybody whose brother has been made subservient to him ought to feed him with the food he eats and clothe him with the clothes he wears; command him not to do that which he is unable to do and if it becomes necessary to do so then he should help him in doing the job." 

10.6 - A Mercy for Animals

His compassion encompassed not only human beings, but also animals. The Prophet (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wasallam) not only preached to the people to show kindness to each other but also to all living souls. He forbade the practice of cutting tails and manes of horses, of branding animals at any soft spot, and of keeping horses saddled unnecessarily [Muslim, Sahih Muslim]. If he (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wasallam) saw any animal over-loaded or ill fed, he would pull up the owner and say:"Fear Allāh in your treatment of animals." [Abu Dawud].

A companion came to him with the young ones of a bird in his sheet and said that the mother bird had hovered over them all along. He was directed to replace her offspring in the same bush [Abu Dawud]

Shaddād bin 'Aws (radiyallāhu`anhu) reported the Rasūlullāh (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wasallam) as saying: “Allāh has commanded you to show kindness to everyone, so if you have to kill, kill in a good manner, and if you slaughter an animal, slaughter it gently. If anyone of you has to slay an animal, he should sharpen the blade first and treat the animal well.” Ibn ‘Abbās (radiyallāhu`anhu) related that a man threw a goat on its side and then started sharpening his knife. When the Prophet (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wasallam) saw him he said: "Do you want to kill it twice? Why did you not sharpen the knife before”?

The Prophet (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wasallam) forbade his companions to keep the unintelligent creatures hungry or thirsty, to disturb or to overburden them. He commended that kindness and putting them at ease were meritorious acts tending to bring man nearer to Allāh. Abu Hurayrah (radiyallāhu`anhu) reported the Prophet (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wasallam) as saying: "A traveller who was thirsty saw a well in the way. He got inside the well and when he came out he saw a dog licking mud due to thirst. The man realised that the dog was as thirsty as him, so he got into the well again, filled his leather sock with water and carried it out holding it with his teeth. Thus, he quenched the thirst of the dog. Allāh was pleased with this act of kindness and pardoned his sins." The Companions asked: "O Messenger of Allāh is there recompense in the matter of beasts and wild animals also?" The Prophet (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wasallam) replied: "There is recompense in regard to every creature that has a living heart." 

‘Abdullāh bin ‘Umar (radiyallāhu`anhu) related that the Prophet (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wasallam) said: “A woman was cast away to hell only because she had withheld food and water from her cat and refused to set it free so that the cat might satisfy its hunger by eating worms and insects.”

Once on return from a military campaign, a few Companions took away the chicks of a bird from their nest to stroke them. The mother bird came back and when it could not find its chicks in the nest, it began to fly around screeching. When informed of the matter, Allāh’s Messenger (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wasallam) ordered the chicks to be put back in the nest. [Abu Dawūd; Bukhari]

As his army marched towards Makkah to conquer it, they passed a female dog with puppies. The Prophet (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wasallam) not only gave orders that they should not be disturbed, but posted a man to see that this was done. The Prophet (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wasallam) stated: "Verily, there is heavenly reward for every act of kindness done to a living animal."

On the whole the Prophet (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wasallam) was ornamented with peerless attributes of perfection. He was brought up, educated and taught (the Qur’ān) by Allāh. He was even praised by Allāh:

“And verily, you [O Muhammad (Sallallāhu `alayhi wasallam)] are on an exalted standard of character.” [Al-Qalam 68:4]

Allāh's Messenger (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wasallam) was the kindest of men in the same way as he excelled all others in courage and valour. Being extremely kind-hearted, his eyes brimmed with tears at the slightest sign of inhumanity. 

The love and compassion of Allāh’s Messenger (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wasallam) for all kinds of creatures was not of the kind claimed by today’s ‘humanists’. He was sincere and balanced in his love and compassion. He was more compassionate than any other person. He was a Prophet raised by Allāh, the Creator and Sustainer of all beings, for the guidance and happiness of conscious beings - mankind and jinn - and the harmony of existence. Therefore, he lived not for himself but for others; he is a mercy for all the worlds. 

“Indeed, in this [Qur’an] is notification for a worshipping people. And We have not sent you, [O Muhammad], except as a mercy to the worlds.” [Al-Anbiyā’: 21:106-107]

10.7 - Love for the Poor.

The Prophet (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wasallam) enjoined upon Muslims to treat the poor kindly and to help them with alms, zakat, and in other ways. He said: "He is not a perfect Muslim who eats his fill and lets his neighbor go hungry."

He asked:  “Do you love your Creator? Then love your fellow beings first."

Monopoly is unlawful in Islam and he preached that "It is difficult for a man laden with riches to climb the steep path that leads to bliss."

The Prophet (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wasallam) did not prohibit or discourage the acquisition of wealth but insisted that it be lawfully acquired by honest means and that a portion of it would go to the poor. He advised his followers: “To give the laborer his wages before his perspiration dried up.”

The Prophet (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wasallam) did not encourage beggary either and stated: “Allāh is gracious to him, who earns his living by his own labor, and that if a man begs to increase his property, Allāh will diminish it and whoever has food for the day, it is prohibited for him to beg." [Bukhari].

To his wife, Aishah (radiyallāhu’anha) the Prophet (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wasallam) said:  “O Aishah, love the poor and let them come to you and Allāh will draw you near to Himself.” [Bukhari]

One or two instances of the Prophet's (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wasallam) concern for the poor may be given here. A Madinite, Ibad Bin Sharjil, was once starving. He entered an orchard and picked some fruit. The owner of the orchard gave him a sound beating and stripped off his clothes. The poor man appealed to the Prophet (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wasallam) who objected the owner thus:  "This man was ignorant, you should have dispelled his ignorance; he was hungry, you should have fed him." His clothes were restored to the Madinan and, in addition, some grain was given to him [Abu Dawud].

The creditor was harassing a debtor, Jabir Bin Abdullah (radiyallāhu’anhu), as he could not clear his debt owing to the failure of his date crop. The Prophet (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wasallam) went with Jabir to the house of the creditor and pleaded with him to give Jabir some more time but the creditor was not prepared to oblige. The Prophet (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wasallam) then went to the oasis and having seen for himself that the crop was poor, he again approached the creditor with no better result. He then rested for some time and approached the creditor for a third time but the latter was adamant. The Prophet (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wasallam) went again to the orchard and asked Jabir to pluck the dates. As Allāh would have it, the collection not only sufficed to clear the dues but also left something to spare [Bukhari].

The Prophet (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wasallam) love for the poor was so deep that Prophet (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wasallam) used to pray: “O Allāh, keep me poor in my life and at my death and raise me at resurrection among those who are poor.” [Bukhari].

11 - His Names

The Prophet (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wasallam) has many names reflecting his attributes and qualities. Some of the most beautiful names of the Prophet (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wasallam) mentioned in both the Qur’an and Hadith are the following:

Muhammad (the praised one), Ahmad (most praiseworthy), Hamid (the giver of praise and thanks), Ar-Rasul (the Messenger), An-Nabi (the Prophet), Shahid (the witness), Rashid (the righteous), Bashir (the giver of good news), Nadhir (the warner), Da’ie (the caller to Allāh), Hadi (the guide), Mahi (the remover of evil), Fatih (the conqueror), Ra’uf (the compassionate), Rahim (the merciful), Mujtaba (the chosen one), Mustafa (the selected one), Murtada (the well-pleasing in the sight of Allāh), As-Sadiq (the truthful), Al-Amin (the trustworthy), Musaddiq (the confirmer of truth), Habibullah (Allāh’s beloved one), Safiullah (the one selected by Allāh), Najiullah (the one protected by Allāh), Shakur (the most grateful one), Karim (the noble one), Hakim (the wise one), Sayyid (the leader), Siraj Munir (the shining lamp), Jawwad (the generous one), `Adil (the Just), and Khatam Ar-Rusul (the Final Messenger).

Those were the attributes and qualities that the Prophet (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wasallam) enjoyed which made the hearts of souls of the people close to him, draw near to him and love him. Those traits made him so popular that the restraint and enmity of his people grew less and they started to embrace Islam in large crowds.

This description is in fact no more than a rapid review or rather short brief lines of Muhammad’s (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wasallam) aspects of full perfection. It is trying to encompass the whole perfect picture of the Prophet (Sallallāhu `alayhi wasallam). No one can ever claim to be possessed of full knowledge or complete mastery of the great attributes of the greatest man in this universe. Rasūlullāh (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wasallam)  was a man who always sought Allâh’s light, to such an extent that he was wholly imbued with the Qur’ânic approach. May Allah Bless him.

12.The  Salawāt upon The Prophet(sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam)

It was related that Abdullāh bin Zaid (radiyallāhu’anhu), one who was shown the adzān (the call for Solāt) in a dream, narrated it on the authority of Abu Mas’ud Al-Ansari (radiyallāhu’anhu) said:

“We approach Rasūlullāh (sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam) at a gathering at Sa’ad bin ‘Ubadah. Bashir bin Sa’ad said to Rasūlullāh (sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam), “Allāh has commanded us to send Salāh upon you, O Rasūlullāh. How can we send Salāh (salawāt) upon you?” Rasūlullāh (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam) remained quiet for so long that we wished that he had not asked him, then Rasūlullāh (sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam) said: “[For Salāh on me] 

Say: Allāhumma salli ‘ala Muhammadiñ Wa ‘ala āli Muhammad kamā sallaita ‘ala āli Ibrāhīm; Wa bārik ‘ala  Muhammadiñ wa ‘ala āli Muhammad kama bārakta ‘ala āli Ibrāhīm, fil-‘ālameen; Innaka Hamīdun Majīd.

(O Allāh! Send Prayers upon Muhammad and the members of his household as You Sent Prayers upon the members of Ibrahim's household; And Send Blessings to Muhammad and the members of his household as You  granted Blessings upon the members of the household of Ibrāhīm, among all the nations’ Verily You are Most Praiseworthy, Full of Glory)’;

‘And the Salutation [i.e ‘As-salāmu ‘alaika ayyuhan-Nabiyyu wa rahmatullāhi wa barakātuh’] as you about knows it’.”

[Recorded by Muslim (803): Book on Blessings on the Prophet (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wasallam) after Tashahhud; this narration uses the phrase: ‘ala āli Ibrāhīm, fil-‘ālameen; Innaka Hamīdun Majīd”]; this narration is Linguistically sound; more comprehensive] This was also recorded by Abu Dawud (976 and 980): sahih, An-Nasa’ie, At-Tirmidzi and Ibn Jarir. At-Tirmidzi said, "It is Hasan Sahih.''

13.The Virtues of Salawāt.

The Salawāt reflects the honour, love, faith, attachment to our Prophet (Sallallāhu 'alayhi wa sallam) which signifies to be the deep faith in Allāh. None is considered a true believer until one loves him more than one parents and all others. The Salawāt indicates the honour, love, belief, attachment to him as our Prophet (Sallallāhu 'alayhi wa sallam) which signifies to be the deep faith in Allāh.

Allāh Almighty says:  “Say: ‘O people! I am sent unto you all, as the Messenger of Allāh, to Whom belongs the dominion of the heavens and the earth: there is no god but He: it is He that gives both life and death. So believe in Allāh and His Messenger, the unlettered Prophet, who believed in Allāh and His Words: follow him that (so) you may be guided.” [Al-A’raf 7: 158]

Allāh tells the mankind the purpose of sending Prophet Muhammad (Sallāhu ‘alayhi wassalam) as He Says in the Qur’an:  “And We have not sent you, [O Muhammad], except as a mercy to the worlds.” [Al-Anbiya’ 21: 107]  

Anas Ibn Mālik (radiyallāhu'anhu) narrated the Prophet (Sallallāhu 'alayhi wa sallam) said: “No one of you truly believes until I am dearer to him than his father, his son, his own self and all the people.” [Narrated by Al-Bukhāri, 15; Muslim, 44].

The Prophet (Sallallāhu 'alayhi wa sallam) also said: “Whenever someone seeks Allāh’s blessings for me, Allāh returns the soul to my body until I reply to his salutation." [Reported by Abu Dawud]

Imām Ahmad related that Abu Talhah Al-Ansārī (radiyallāhu’anhu) said: The Messenger of Allāh (Sallallāhu’alayhi wasallam) arose one morning in a very pleasant mood with signs of good tidings apparent on his face. They said, “O Messenger of Allāh, we see that you look happy.” Rasūlullāh (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam) said: “The angel came to me and told me, ‘O Muhammad, would it not please you if your Lord, may He be glorified, said: ‘No member of your Ummah sends Solāh (Salawāt) upon you but I send Solāh upon him tenfold, and no member of your Ummah sends greetings of Salām upon you but I send greetings of Salām upon him tenfold’.’” I said, “Of course.’” [This was also recorded by An-Nasā'ie Ibn Abi Shaybah, ‘Abd bin Hamīd and At-Tirmidzi; Cited with slightly different wording in Imām Abu Sulayman al-Jazuli's Dala'il Al-Khayrat (The Index of Good Things)]

‘Abdullāh bin Mas’ud (radiyallāhu’anhu) narrated that the Messenger of Allāh (Sallallāhu’alayhi wasallam) said: "Those who are most deserving of my intercession on the Day of Judgment are those who used to increasingly seek Allāh’s Blessing (salawāt) for me.” [This is recorded by Ahmad, Al-Bukhari, At-Tirmidzi and Ibn Hibbān said hasan]

Anas Ibn Mālik (radiyallāhu’anhu) reported that the Messenger of Allāh (Sallallāhu’alayhi wasallam) said: “There are three under the shade of Allāh on a day when there is no shade except His; the one who relieved a distress from someone from my nation; the one who invigorate my Sunnah and the one who invoked blessings on me (Salawāt) the most”. [This is recorded in the Mustadrak and the Musnad of al-Firdaus; Al-Hāfiz As-Suyūtī also recorded it in his Burūj Al-Hilāl.]

And the Prophet (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam) likened those who do not salawāt upon him when his name is mentioned as a miser: "The miser  (wretched; niggardly, mistaken) is the one who hears my name mentioned and does not seek blessings for me.” [Reported by At-Tirmidzi]

And Allāh Almighty Knows best.

[Via Srikandeh]

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