Wednesday, October 31, 2012

Arrogance Negates Imān and Jannah

Arrogance Negates Imān and Jannah

In the name of Allāh, the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful;
All the praise and thanks is due to Allāh, the Lord of al-‘ālameen. I testify that there is none worthy of worship except Allāh, and that Muhammad, Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam is His Messenger.

In a narration on the authority of 'Iyad bin Himar (radiyallāhu’anhu), who said: The Messenger of Allāh (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wasallam) said, "Verily, Allāh has revealed to me that you should adopt humility. So that no one may wrong another and no one may be disdainful and haughty towards another." [This is recorded by Muslim]

This Hadith indicates anyone whom Allāh has granted wealth or authority, beauty or splendour, should take it as Allāh's Gift. He should take to adopt humility and humbleness and express his gratitude for it to Allāh. He should benefit people with the gifts bestowed upon him by Allāh and not make them a means of pride and oppression.

In another narration on the authority of Abu Hurayrah (radiyallāhu’anhu), who said: The Messenger of Allāh (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wasallam) said, “When a person says: 'People have been ruined, he is the one to be ruined the most’.”  [This is recorded by Muslim]

In another version: "He himself is the most ruined among them."

This Hadith prohibits a Muslim from saying the statement or something similar in the Hadith out of arrogance and pride. There is no harm, however, if one says it in view of the bad state of affairs to which Muslims have been reduced as a result of, for example, neglecting the teachings of Islām. The scholars, who hold this view, are Imām Mālik bin Anas, Imām Al-Khattabi, Al-Humaidi and others. This point has been made clear in Imām An-Nawawi's Al-Adhkār.

Allāh Almighty Says: 

“And your Lord said: "Invoke Me, [i.e. believe in My Oneness (Islamic Monotheism)] (and ask Me for anything) I will respond to your (invocation). Verily! Those who contempt (Yastakbirūn – existence of Kibr) My worship [i.e. do not invoke Me, and do not believe in My Oneness, (Islāmic Monotheism)] they will surely enter Hell in humiliation!"  [Surah Ghafir, 40:60]

Those who avoid the major sins and immoralities, only [commits] slight ones. Indeed, your Lord is vast in forgiveness. He was most knowing of you when He produced you from the earth and when you were fetuses in the wombs of your mothers. So do not claim yourselves to be pure; He is most knowing of who fears Him [i.e., those who are Al-Muttaqun (the pious)]”. [Al-Najm, 53:32]

"The way (of blame) is only against those who oppress men and wrongly rebel in the earth without justification; for such there will be a painful torment." [Ash-Shura, 42:42]

Ibn Taimiyyah (rahimahullāh) was once asked regarding the Hadith: One who possesses an iota of Kibr in his (spiritual) heart (intention, consciousness) shall not enter al-Jannah” Is this Hadith specific only to the believers (Mu‘minin) or (is it specific only to the) unbelievers (Kufar)? If we were to say that it is specific for the Believers then (is not) our statement trivial considering (the fact that) the believers shall enter al-Jannah (Paradise) due to their Imān. If, on the other hand, we were to say that the hadīth is specific for the unbelievers then what is the relevance of the statement (since it is already known that the unbelievers shall not gain admission to al-Jannah)?

Ibn Taimiyyah (rahimahullāh) answered:

(In another) authentically narration on the authority of ‘Abdullāh ibn Mas‘ūd, the Prophet (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wasallam) said:“The one who possesses half of mustard seed of Kibr in his heart shall not be granted admission to Jannah; and the one who possesses half of a mustard seed of Imān shall not enter the (Eternal) Fire.” [This is recorded by Imām Muslim, Abu Dawūd, At-Tirmidzi. ]

This hadith indicates “Al-Kibr  openly  opposes and negates Imān” and “it will results in the exclusion of its holder from entering al-Jannah” as is establish in Al-Qur’ān.

Allāh Says:“And your Lord said: "Invoke Me, [i.e. believe in My Oneness (Islamic Monotheism)] (and ask Me for anything) I will respond to your (invocation). Verily! Those who contempt (Yastakbirūn – existence of Kibr) My worship [i.e. do not invoke Me, and do not believe in My Oneness, (Islāmic Monotheism)] they will surely enter Hell in humiliation!" [Surah Ghafir, 40:60]

This is in particular the Kibr of Iblis (the Devil), Pharaoh and all the others who possessed Kibr that invalidated the Imān. This is also the Kibr that the Jews possess and those whom Allāh has described to us by saying:

“Is it that whenever there came to you a Messenger with what you yourselves desired not, you grew arrogant? Some, you disbelieved and some, you killed.”

[Surah Al-Baqārah, 2: 87]

Al-Kibr, in its entirety, openly opposes the essentials of al-Imān. As such he who has an iota of Kibr in his heart shall not act upon that which Allāh has prescribed, nor shall he abstain from that which Allāh has prohibited. Instead his Kibr shall result in his denial and rejection of the Haqq (Truth) and instill in him the contempt of others.

The explanatory definition of al-Kibr is provided in the Hadīth of ‘Abdullāh Ibn Mas’ud (radiyallāhu’anhu) who narrated that the Prophet (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wasallam) said:

“The one who possesses an iota of Kibr in his heart shall not be granted admission to Jannah.”

A companion (amongst his hearers) then asked: “[But] O Messenger of Allāh! A man likes to have fine clothing and footwear. Is this included in Kibr?”  

The Prophet (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wasallam) replied: “No. Allāh is Beauty and loves Beauty. Kibr is the rejection of Truth (Battrul-Haqq) and condescension of others (wā ‘ghāmttun-Nās).”

[This is recorded by Muslim (0164), Ibn Khuzaimah, Abu Dawūd, At-Tirmidzi, Ibn Sa’ad on the authority of Ibn Mas’ud. At-Tabarāni reports it on the authority of ‘Abdullah bin Salām]

The statement ‘Battarul-Haqq’ denotes denial and rejection of the Truth, while ‘wā ghāmttun-nās’ implies contempt (disapproval) and condescension (arrogance) of others from amongst mankind. Therefore the one who possesses half of a mustard seed of it (kibr) rejects the Truth that he was ordered to accept and act upon. At the same time, the kibr instills in him a sense of condescension that inculcates in the individual an oppressive demeanor producing transgression over the rights of others.

The one who neglects his obligations (due to his rejection of them) and is oppressive to others from amongst the creation is not to be amongst the people of Jannah (while in this state), or deserving of it. On the contrary, such an individual is to be counted amongst the people who are threatened with punishment (Ahlul Wā‘īd)!

Ibn Taimiyyah (rahimalāh) emphasised: The one who possesses an iota of Kibr in his heart shall not be granted admission to Jannah,” implies that the individual is not from its (Jannah) people and is not deserving of it. But if he repents, or he possesses Hasānāt (righteous deeds) that expiate his sins, or Allāh has given him Ibtillah (trials and tests) in the form of calamities that have expunged his sins, or similar things; then for that individual the recompense of Kibr – which originally was a barrier for him to enter Jannah – is eliminated and he gains admission (to the Jannah). Similarly Allāh, due to His Divine Grace, may forgive the individual (the sin of) Kibr.

Allāh says:

“Verily, Allāh forgives not that partners should be set up with him in worship, but He forgives except that (anything else) to whom He pleases, and whoever sets up partners with Allāh in worship, he has indeed invented a tremendous sin.”

[Surah an-Nisā’ (4:48)]

None shall gain admission (to Jannah) while possessing an iota of Kibr. As a result, those (scholars) discussing this Hadīth, and other Hadīth that have a similar theme, have stated:

“Unconditional admission (to the Jannah) – that is not in conjunction with punishment (for the sin of Kibr) – is what is being negated in this Hadīth; not the admission to Jannah that is granted to those who enter the Fire (to be purified and cleansed) and then are allowed admission to Paradise thereafter. (On the other hand) if a Hadīth explicitly declares that a particular person is in Jannah or that a particular person is from the People of Jannah, it would then be understood that he would enter the Jannah and not enter the fire (beforehand).”

After this clarification we come to understand the true meaning of these narrations as being that the one who possesses an iota of Kibr in his heart is not from the people of Paradise (up to that point) and shall not gain admission into it without prior punishment (for his sin). Surely he deserves punishment – due to the enormity of the sin – similar to those who perform the Major (Kabā’ir) sins. Allāh may punish him in the Fire as long as He wishes, but none from amongst the people of Tawhīd shall remain in the Fire eternally.

This is to be the way we understand all the Hadīth that have a similar meaning. This understanding is to be used when seeking the meaning of his statement: “The one who severs the ties of the womb shall not enter Jannah". [This is recorded by Al-Imām Muslim (1765 – Mukhtasar) , al-Hākim, Al-Bayhaqi, Abu Dawūd, and at-Tirmidzi on the authority of Jubāyr bin Mut‘ām.]

A narration on the authority of Abu Hurairah (radiyallahu’anhu), the Messenger of Allah, (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wasallam), saidYou shall not enter Jannah so long as you do not affirm belief (in all those things which are the articles of faith) and you will not believe as long as you do not love one another. Shall I inform you of something that if you do you shall (truly) love each other? Spread the greetings of ‘as-Salāmu‘alaykum’ amongst yourselves.” [This is recorded by Muslim (0096)]

In another hadith on the authority of Abu Hurayrah (radiyallahu’anhu), the Messenger of Allah, (Sallallahu ‘alayhi wasallam), said:

"Do not be envious of one another; do not artificially inflate prices against one another; do not hate one another; do not shun one another; and do not undercut one another in business transactions; and be as fellow-brothers and servants of Allah.

A Muslim is the brother of a Muslim. He neither oppresses him nor humiliates him nor looks down upon him. Piety is here - and he pointed to his chest three times. It is evil enough for a Muslim to hold his brother Muslim in contempt. All things of a Muslim are inviolable for another Muslim: his blood, his property and his honour."

[This is recorded by Muslim]

In another narration on the authority of Abu Hurayrah (radiyallahu’anhu),the Prophet (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wasallam) said: “None of you will have faith till he wishes for his (Muslim) brother what he likes for himself.” [This is recorded by Al-Bukhari Vol.1, Book 2, No 12]

Abu Ayyub al-Ansari (radiyallāhu’anhu) said: The Prophet (sallallāhu ‘alayhi wasallam) said: “It is not permissible for a Muslim to forsake his brother for more than three days, each of them turning away when they meet. The excellence of them is the one who gives the greeting of Salam first.” [This is recorded by al-Bukhari, 2757; Muslim, 2560].

This is the understanding that we are to have when pondering over the Hadîth that contain Wā‘īd (Threat of Punishment). In this way we understand that the hadīth is general and can be attributed to both the Kufār (unbelievers) and Muslims.

If one was to say, “All the Muslims enter Jannah due to their Islām.” The response is that not all Muslims enter Jannah without punishment. Surely the people who have been threatened (with punishment in the Hereafter due to their sins) shall enter into the Fire to remain in it for the period that Allāh so wills even though they are not Kufār. The individual who has some Imān coinciding with major sins may enter into the Fire and exit from it as a result of the Shafā‘ah (Intercession – permission from Allāh to intercede) of the Prophet (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wasallam) or by other reported means as he has articulated. He said:

“My Shafā‘ah is for (shall benefit) the people of the Majors Sins (who did not commit Shirik) from amongst my Ummah.”

[This is recorded by At-Tirmidzi (Vol. 4, Pg. 45) on the authority of Anas bin Mālik and Jābir. At-Tirmidzi then states: “And this Hadīth is Hasan Sahīh Gharīb. The Hadîth is also recorded by Ibn Khuzaymah (Pg. 270), Ibn Hibban as is in the Mawrid (Pg. 640), and Al-Hākim (Vol. 1, Pg. 69)] [1]

The Prophet (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wasallam) said: “I shall bring out of the Fire the one who possesses half of a mustard seed of Imān.”  This is a segment of the famous Hadīth of Shafā‘ah collected by Al-Bukhari (Vol. 13, Pg. 472).

We understand what is in store for those whom Allāh has threatened with punishment – the murderer, fornicator or adulterer, the one who consumes intoxicants, and the one who misappropriates the wealth of the orphans, the one who witnesses falsehood and others who perform the deeds of the people of major sins. They – even if they are not unbelievers – are not deserving of the Jannah that they are promised (as Muslims) without first being (cleansed and purged through) punishment.

The various Mazhab (way and belief) of Ahl-Sunnah wal-Jamā‘ah certainly are not that of the Fūsiqun (deviant sinners) from amongst the general body of Muslims are not going to be eternally punished in the Fire as has been wrongly stated by Al-Khawārij [2] and Al-Mu’tazilāh. [3] They may perhaps be totally imperfect in their religion (Deen), Imān and obedience to Allāh [4]] but there might have Hasanāt wa Sayyi’āt that necessitate a measure of punishment and reward.

Allāh Almighty Says: 
"Verily, the Abrār (pious and righteous) will be in Delight (Jannah). And verily, the Fujjar (the wicked, disbelievers, sinners and evildoers) will be in the blazing Fire (Hell)." [Al-Infitar, 82:13, 14]

 ‘Abdullah Ibn ‘Umar (radiyallāhu’anhu) said: We counted Messenger's saying a hundred times during one single sitting: ‘Rabb ighfir li wa tubb ‘alayya innaka antat-tawwābul-raheem’ (O Allāh, forgive me and accept my repentance, for You are the Accepter of Repentance, Most Merciful). According to another report: ‘Rabb ighfir li wa tubb ‘alayya Innaka antat-tawābul-ghafūr” (O Allāh, forgive me and accept my repentance, for You are the Acceptor of Repentance, Oft-Forgiving).  [This is recorded by Abu Dawud and At-Tirmidzi].

In a narration Hilal bin Yāsir bin Zaid (radiyallāhu’anhu), the freed slave of the Prophet reported that his grandfather told him that Rasūlullāh (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wasallam) said: “He who says:  ‘Astaghfir ullāh-[al ‘adzeem, alladzi] lā ilāha illā, huwal-Hayyul-Qayyum, wa atūbu ilaīh (I seek the forgiveness of Allāh – [Devoid of imperfection, with whose name] There is no true god except Allāh, He, The Ever Living One The Self-Existing One, and I turn to Him in repentance), (three times); His sins will be forgiven even if he should have run away from the battlefield (while he was engaged in fighting for the Cause of Allāh)’.” [This is recorded by Abu Dawud: Hasan, At-Tirmidzi: Hasan Gharib and Al-Hakim].

Thawban bin Bjadad (radiyallāhu‘anhu) reported: Whenever Rasūlullāh (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wasallam) finished his Solāh, he would beg forgiveness three times and then he would say: "Allāhumma Antas-Salāmu, wa minkas-Salāmu, tabarakta ya Dzal-Jalali wal-Ikram. (O Allāh! You are the Bestower of security and security comes from You; Blessed are You. O Possessor of glory and honour)." Imām Al-Awza'ie (one of the subnarrators) of this Hadith was asked: "How forgiveness should be sought?" He replied: "I say: Astaghfirullāh, Astaghfirullāh, Astaghfirullāh (I seek forgiveness from Allāh!, I seek forgiveness from Allāh!, I seek forgiveness from Allāh)." [This is recorded by Muslim].

It was narrated that the Prophet (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wasallam) said to a man (one of the Sahabah): “What do you say when you prayer (Du’a after the Tashahhud)?” He said: “I recite the Tashahhud, then I say:  “Allāhumma inni as alukal-Jannah wa a‘udzu bika Minan-nār” (O Allāh, I ask You for Paradise and seek refuge in You from the Fire).I cannot murmur like you and like Mu‘adz.” Rasūlullāh (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wasallam) said: “It is about them that we were murmuring.” [This is recorded by Abu Dawud, 792: sahih]; 

‘Aishah (radiyallāhu’anha) reported that she asked Allāh’s Messenger (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wasallam), “O Messenger of Allāh! If I knew which night is Lailatul-Qadar, what should I say during it?” And he instructed her to say: “Allāhummainna ka ’a Fuw wun Tuhibbul ‘afwa Fa’fu’ anni (O Allāh! You are forgiving, and You love forgiveness. So forgive me)” [This is recorded by Ahmad, Ibn Majah, and At-Tirmidzi: sahih]

'Abdullah bin Mas'ud (radiyallāhu ‘anhu) reported that the Prophet (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wasallam) used to say: "Allāhumma inni as’alukal-huda wat-tuqa wal-‘afafa wal-ghina (O Allāh! I ask You for guidance, piety, chastity and self-sufficiency)". [This is recorded by Muslim].

This Hadith contains four words, the meanings and implications of which constitute its essence. These words are guidance, piety (fear of Allāh), chastity and sufficiencyGuidance here means guidance at every turn of life and steadfastness on the path of truth. Fear of Allāh is the greatest means of piety and strongest defense against sins. Chastity is the state of being free from what is unlawful. Self-sufficiency is the antonym of poverty and here it means the self-contentment. What it implies is that one should not care for what people possess. In view of all these qualities, the do’a of the Prophet (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wasallam) mentioned in this Hadith is very comprehensive and valuable.

Ibn Abi Hatim and Ibn Jarir recorded that Umm Salamah (radiyallāhu’anha), said that the Prophet (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wasallam)used to supplicate: ‘Ya muqallibal-qulubi, thabbit qalbi ‘ala deenika (O Controller of the hearts make my heart steadfast in Your religion).” Rasūlullāh (Sallallāhu `alayhi wasallam) then recited: Rabbana la tuzia’qulubana ba’ daiz hadaitana wahab Lana min laduñ karahmah; Iñnaka an tal wahhāb. (Our Lord! Let not our hearts deviate (from the truth) after Thou have guided us, and grant us mercy from Thou. Truly, Thou are the Bestower.) (Ali-'Imran, 3:8) [This is recorded by Muslim and At-Tirmidzi]
Anas Ibn Mālik (radiyallāhu’anhu) who said: “The supplication most often recited by Rasūlullāh (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wasallam): Rabbana-ātina-fid-dunya hasanah, Wa fil-ākhirati-hasanah, Wa-qina-‘ādzabānnār (O Lord! Bestow upon us in this world that which is good and in the Hereafter that which is good, and save us from the punishment of the Fire).’” (Al-Baqārah 2:201) [This is recorded by Al-Bukhāri, Muslim, and Tarmidzi]. Tarmidzi (rahimullāh) said: “Hasanah is very comprehensive and includes in all kinds of good and benefits of this world and of the Hereafter. Good health, wealth and satisfaction of the world and good status in Jannah, forgiveness from sins and Allāh’s bounties and favours in both worlds are included in this duā’” [ Jāmi’ At-Tarmidzi]

This is a concise dissertation regarding the issue.

And Allāh Almighty Knows best.


1. Turn to the Chapter of “Shafā‘ah for the People of Major Sins” (Pg. 61-108) in the highly beneficial book of the world-renowned Muhadith ash-Shaikh Muqbil bin Hādî al-Wādi‘ī (rahimahullah) titled, “Ash-Shafā‘ah.” In the chapter the Shaikh reports seventy-six (76) hadith showing that those who perform Major sins are not excluded from the Shafā‘ah of Rasūllullāh . This particular hadīth can be found in the book on page 85 – Hadīth number 56. Shaikh Abi ‘Abdir-Rahmān Muqbil bin Hādī reports that the Hadīth is collected by At-Tirmidzi (Vol. 4, Pg. 45) on the authority of Anas bin Mālik and Jābir. He then states: “And this Hadīth is Hasan Sahīh Gharīb (Good and Authentic yet Scarce in this mode). The Hadīth is reported by Ibn Khuzaymah (Pg. 270), Ibn Hibban as is in the Mawrid (Pg. 640), and Al-Hākim (Vol. 1, Pg. 69) said – This Hadīth is Authentic and meets the requirements set by Bukhari and Muslim even though they did not narrate it.” Later on the Shaikh says, “Al-Hāfidz Ibn Kathīr said in his Tafsīr (Vol. 1, Page 487) that its chain of narration is sahīh and meets the requirements set by Al-Bukhari and Muslim.” The Shaikh then takes us step by step through the chain of narration and proves convincingly that the hadīth does not meet the requirements of l-Bukhari and Muslim due to the presence of Mu‘āmar reporting from Thābit. For further detailed analysis turn to Pg. 85-88. In Shaykh al-Albāni’s Sahīh al-Jāmi‘ he declares the hadīth sahīh on the authority of Jābir, Ibn ‘Abbas, Ibn ‘Umar, Ka‘ab bin ‘Ujrah and Anas bin Mālik.

2. Translator: Khawarij is the plural of Kharijî – They are those who declared that a Muslim becomes a disbeliever due to commiting a major sin alone.

3. Translator: Al-Mu‘tazila deem the one who does not agree with their understanding of Tawhīd (7 false principles) is deemed a Mushrik. They believe that the sinners who are Muslim shall be in a place between Jannah and the Fire. There beliefs are built on false logical deductions that led them to negate many of the Names and Attributes of Allāh. They were the deviant group who opposed Imām Ahlis-Sunnah Ahmad Ibn Hanbal by falsely claiming that the Qur’ān is created and not the Speech of Allāh.

4. Translator: The Murji’ah believes that sins, major or minor, do not effect faith and that Imān neither increases nor decreases. They claim that actions are not part of faith and that people do not vary in faith.

[Excerpted with modification fromArrogance Negates Imān”, By Ibn Taimiyyah (d. 728 AH/1328 CE) via Islā (a translation by Yahya Adel Ibrahim)]

No comments: