Monday, March 26, 2012

The Solāh Jama’

The Circumstances for Solāh Jama’

By Sayyid Sābiq

In the name of Allāh, the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful;
All the praise and thanks is due to Allāh, the Lord of al-‘ālamīn. I testify that there is none worthy of worship except Allāh, and that Muhammad, Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wasallam is His Messenger.

Allāh Says: “Verily, As-Solāh is enjoined on the believers at fixed hours” (Al-Nisā’, 4:103). But on certain circumstances a person is given concession to perform the Jama’ (join, combine) the solāt of Dzuhur and `Asar, and Maghrib and ‘Ishā’ except Solāt Fajar, at the time of the earlier (Jama’ Taqdim) or later (Jama’ Ta’khir) solāt, depending on which is convenient to him. Imām Shāfi`ie (rahimahullāh) prefers the earlier combination of solāt while Imām Hanafi prefers the formal combination, and both are permissible. 

The concession for Solāt Jama’ notably is much broader, not only limited for a traveler but includes fear, rain, sickness or other extraordinary or critical circumstances which he needs it.

1 – Jama’ the Solāh at`Arafah and Al-Muzdalifah

The scholars are in agreement that one is to combine the Solāh Dzuhur and ‘Asar during the time of the Solāh Dzuhur, at ‘Arafah [during the performance of the pilgrimage], and the Solāh Maghrib and ‘Isha’ during the time of the Solāh ‘Isha’ at Muzdalifah, following the example of the Allāh’s Messenger (Sallallāhu‘alayhi wasallam).

2 – Jama’ the Solāh during Traveling

It is permissible to combine two Solāh: Dzuhur and `Asar and Maghrib and ‘Isha’ during the time of either one of them while traveling, regardless of whether the person is actually on the road or has stopped at a place for some time.

Mu‘adz Ibn Jabal (radiyallāhu`anhu) reported that while the Allāh’s Messenger (Sallallāhu`alayhi wasallam) was at Tabuk and the sun had passed the meridian, the Allāh’s Messenger (Sallallāhu`alayhi wasallam) combined the Solāh Dzuhur and  `Asar before he started his journey. If he started his journey before the sun passed its meridian, he would delay the Solāh Dzuhur until the time when he stopped for Solāh ‘Asar. He would do likewise for the Solāh Maghrib. If the sun set before he began his journey, he would combine the Solāh Maghrib and ‘Isha’ [at that time]. If he began a journey before the sun had set, he would then combine them at the time of ‘Isha’. This is related by Abu Dawud and at-Tirmidzi who call it hasan.

Kuraib (radiyallāhu`anhu) reported that Ibn ‘Abbas (radiyallāhu`anhu) said: “Shall I not inform you of the Solāh of the Allāh’s Messenger (Sallallāhu`alayhi wasallam) during a journey?” We said: “Certainly.” Ibn ‘Abbas (radiyallāhu`anhu) said: “If the sun passed its meridian while Rasūlullāh (Sallallāhu`alayhi wasallam) stopped, he would combine the Solāh Dzuhur and ‘Asar before remounting [i.e., moving on]. If the sun had not passed its meridian while he had stopped [i.e., before breaking camp], he would travel until the time of Solāh `Asar and then he would combine Solāh Dzuhur and `Asar. If the sun set while Rasūlullāh (Sallallāhu`alayhi wasallam) had stopped, he would combine the Solāh Maghrib and ‘Isha’. If that did not occur while he had stopped, he would ride until the time of ‘Isha’ and then jama’ them.” This is related by Ahmad.

Imām Ash-Shāfi`ie (rahimahullāh) has something similar in his Musnad, namely that when the Prophet (Sallallāhu`alayhi wasallam) set out to travel before the sun passed its meridian, Rasūlullāh (Sallallāhu`alayhi wasallam) delayed the Solāh Dzuhur and combine it with the Solah ‘Asar during the time of the Solāh ‘Asar (i.e Jama’ Ta’khir).

Al-Baihaqi (rahimahullāh) recorded it with a good chain and he says: “To combine the two Solāh due to traveling is something that is well-known and was practiced by the companions of the Allāh’s Messenger (Sallallāhu`alayhi wasallam) and those who followed them.”

Imām Malik (rahimahullāh) records in ‘Al-Muwatta’ from Mu`adz Ibn Jabal (radiyallāhu ‘anhu): “The Allāh’s Messenger (Sallallāhu`alayhi wasallam) delayed his Solāh (i.e. Jama’ ta’khir) one day during the battle of Tabuk, he returned and performed Solāh Dzuhur and `Asar together and then went back. Then Rasūlullāh (Sallallāhu`alayhi wasallam) returned and said the Solāh Maghrib and ‘Isha’ together and went back again.” Imām Ash-Shāfi‘ie (rahimahullāh) when commenting on this report, says: “His statement, ‘then he returned and left again,’ only refers to a situation where the Allāh’s Messenger (Sallallāhu`alayhi wasallam) was staying in a certain place [i.e., he was not traveling from one site to another].”

Ibn Qudāmah (rahimahullāh) mentions the preceding hadith and said: “Ibn ‘Abdul-Barr said: ‘That hadith is sahih and its chain is confirmed. The people who are familiar with the life history of the Allāh’s Messenger (Sallallāhu`alayhi wasallam) say that the Battle of Tabuk took place in the ninth year of the Hijrah. This hadith is a clear proof and the strongest evidence against those who claim that one can only jama’ the solāh while one is actually moving from one site to another as the Allāh’s Messenger (Sallallāhu`alayhi wasallam) was settled:  he was not moving on travel since the Allāh’s Messenger (Sallallāhu`alayhi wasallam) was staying in his tent and would come out and combine two solāh and then return to his tent. [Al-Mughni]

Imām Muslim recorded this hadith in his Sahih and stated: “Allāh’s Messenger (Sallallāhu`alayhi wasallam) would perform the Solāh Dzuhur and ‘Asar together and the Maghrib and ‘Isha’ together. One must follow this hadith as it is confirmed [to be authentic] and it is a clear statement on this rule and there is nothing which contradicts it. The permission to combine the Solāh is a concession for anyone who is traveling but it is by no means confined to just those times when the person is actually on the road [i.e., traveling from one place to another]. The same is the case for shortening the Solāh and for wiping over the socks, but it is best to delay it.'”

Having the intention is not a condition for jama’ or qasar the Solāh.

Ibn Taimiyyah (rahimallāh) holds: “That is the position of the majority of the scholars. When the Allāh’s Messenger (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam) combined the Solāh with his companions or shortened the Solāh with them, he never ordered any of them to make the intention for combining or shortening the Solāh. In fact, when he left Medinah for Makkah, he prayed two raka‘at without combining the Solāh, and then he prayed the Solāh Dzuhur at ‘Arafah without telling the people that he intended to perform Solāh the ‘Asar right afterward, next he prayed the ‘Asar with them and they did not have the intention to combine their Solāh, and in that combination he prayed the latter Solāh early. When he went from Medinah, he led the people in the ‘Asar Solāh at Dzul-Hulayfah and he did not order them to make the intention to shorten the Solāh.”

Concerning offering the two combined Solāh right after each other, Ibn Taimiyyah said: “The correct opinion is that it is not a necessary condition to do so under any circumstances, neither during the time of the first Solāh nor during the time of the latter Solāh. There is no such limit in the Shari‘ah and doing so would defeat the purpose of the concession [i.e., permission to jama’ the two Solāh].”

Imām Ash-Shāfi‘ie (rahimallāh) said: “It is quite permissible for a person to perform the Maghrib in his house with the intention of combining the Solāh and then go to the masjid to perform Solāh ‘Isha’.” A similar statement has been related from Imām Ahmad (rahimahullāh).

2.1 - The View of the Scholars Varies In Relations to the Distance

The view of the scholars varies in relations to the distance, some says viz, 81 km, 85 km and 91km. But according to the view of majority of scholars, the distance which avails for a traveler is defined as being four barid or sixteen Farsakh or two marhalah approximately fifty-six miles or ninety-one kilometers. The distance in which the concession of traveling is allowed is that which is customarily regarded as travelling, which is approximately eighty five kilometers. Whoever is going to travel this distance or more is allowed to avail him of the concessions granted to travellers, namely wiping over the socks for three days and nights, and jama’ and qasar the Solāh, and not fasting in Ramadhān.

Ibn Qudāmah (rahimahullāh) said:  The view of Abu ‘Abdallāh [i.e., Imām Ahmad] is that it is not permissible to qasar the prayers for a distance not of less than sixteen farsakhs, and a farsakh is three miles, so the distance is forty-eight miles.  Abdullāh Ibn ‘Abbas (radiyallāhu’anhu) estimated it from ‘Usfan to Makkah, or from al-Ta’if to Makkah, or from Jeddah to Makkah. Based on this, the distance at which it is permissible to qasar is the distance of one day and one night direct travel for that destination. This is the view of Ibn ‘Abbas and Ibn ‘Umar, and the view of Malik, al-Layth and Al-Shafi’ieThe equivalent in kilometers is approximately 91 km. [Al-Mughni]  

2.2 – The Duration and Intention.

If the traveler intends to stay in a place for more than four days then he is not entitled for the concession as a traveler. It falls under the same ruling as a resident according to the majority of fuqaha’. He is entitled for the concession if he intends to stay for four days or less; he must offer the solāt in full, not in the Qasar form. 

According to Imām Shāfi‘ie (rahimahullāh) the time limit is four days with previous intentions and eighteen days without intentionImām Shāfi‘ie has inferred from a hadith of Anas Ibn Mālik (radiyallāhu`anhu) as four days stay on the basis that the Prophet (Sallallāhu 'alayhi wasallam) stayed in Makkah only three days, i.e 5th, 6th, and 7th of Dzulhijjah during Farewell Hajj [Recorded by Muslim 1473]. The rest of the days he has been moving in Mina and ‘Arafat for Hajj ceremonies.

2.3 - When Compelled to stay or unsure the conclusion of job. 

If the traveller who stays in a place are compelled to stay more days to conclude what he came for, he may avail himself of the concessions granted to the traveller, even if that is for a long time. And there is no difference concession between travel by land or by sea.

[Fatawa Al-Lajnah Al-Da‘imah (8/99)]

2.4 - The two situations: Firstly, when he is actually on the road, secondly, when he has made a stop, i.e., he is not on the road; either he has reached the place to which he is traveling, or he has made a stop on his journey and stayed there for a while. 

It is permissible for any traveler to Jama’ the Solāh, whether he has made a stop or is on the road. But which is better for the traveler to jama’ the Solāt or to offer each solāh at its proper time? 

It is better for the traveler who has made a stop or reach the destination not to jama’ the solāt, but if he joins them there is nothing wrong with it, unless he needs to jama’ it because he is tired and needs to rest, or because it is hard for him to find water each time, and so on, in which case it is better for him to Jama’ the solāt and avail himself of the concession. But for the traveler who is on the road, it is better for him to Jama’ Solāt Dzuhur and ‘Asar, and Solāt Maghrib and ‘Ishā’ – in the way it is convenient for him, either doing it at the earlier solāt or the time of the later solāt. 

[Mawaqeet al-Solāh, p. 26)] 

It was recorded in the Sahīhayn: the Messenger of Allāh (Sallallāhu`alayhi wasallam) when given the choice between two things but he would choose that which was easier, so long as it was not a sin, in which case he would be the most careful of people to avoid it.  [Narrated by Muslim, 3560; Muslim, 2327] 

The Prophet (Sallallāhu`alayhi wasallam) did not jama’ the solāh on all his journeys, rather he jama’ it sometimes and sometimes he did notBased on this some scholars are of the view that it is permissible for the traveller to Jama’ his Solāh unless he is on the road, but if he made a stop it is permissible for him to Jama’ them. The Prophet (Sallallāhu`alayhi wasallam) jama’ his solāh during the campaign of Tabuk when he had made a stop. [Hadith narrated by Ahmad and Abu Dawud; classified as sahih] 

The apparent meaning of these ahādith is that the Prophet (Sallallāhu`alayhi wasallam) jama’ his solāh when he had made a stop. That was either to show that it is permissible, for the reason that there may be there are circumstances which the solah needed to be jama’. The obvious reason is the need. 

But the Prophet (Sallallāhu`alayhi wasallam) did not jama’ his solāh when he stopped at Mina during the Farewell Hajj. 

Based on this Sunnah, a traveler who has made a stop need not jama’ the solāt but there is nothing wrong with it if he does join his solāt or he may needs it. Like in instances he need to jama’ his solāh, either because he is too tired and needs to rest, or because it is too hard to find water every time, and so on, then it is better for him to jama’ it, and avail himself of the concession. 

 [Mawaqeet al-Solāh]

Thus, traveller who has made a stop has the choice: if he wishes he may jama’ the solāh at the time of the later solāh or at the time of the earlier solāh. It is better for him to offer each solāh at its proper appointed time, as Rasūlullāh Prophet (Sallallāhu 'alayhi wasallam) did in Mina. And, it should be noted that solāh in congregation is essential for a traveller and it is not permissible for him to jama’ the solāh and observe it alone. 

Shaykh Ibn Baaz (rahimahullah) said: 

“The one for whom Allāh has prescribed qasar of solat, namely the traveller, it is also permitted to jama’ the solat but the two concessions do not necessarily go together. He may qasar the solat without jama’ them, and not to jama’ them is much better if the traveller has arrived at his destination and is no longer on the road, as Rasūlullāh (Sallallāhu `alayhi wasallam)  did in Mina during the Farewell Pilgrimage; in Mina, Rasūlullāh (Sallallāhu`alayhi wasallam)  qasar the solat but did not jama’ them. But Rasūlullāh (Sallallāhu`alayhi wasallam) observed both jama’ and qasar solat during the campaign to Tabūk; which indicates that this (concession) is prescribed to make things easy when there is a need (necessity) for it. And Rasūlullāh (Sallallāhu `alayhi wasallam) used to qasar and jama’ the Solat if he was on the road and was not staying in the place” 

[Majma’ Fatāwa Ibn Bāz, 12/289]

3 – Jama’ the Solāh during Rain

Al-Athram recorded in his Sunnan that Abu Salamah Ibn ‘Abdurrahman said: “It is a Sunnah to combine Solāh Maghrib and ‘Isha’ when it is raining.” Al-Bukhari records that the Allāh’s Messenger (Sallallāhu`alayhi wasallam) jama’ the Solāh Maghrib and ‘Isha’ on a rainy night.

A summary of the opinions of the different schools of fiqh on this point follows:

The Shāfi‘ie School says that it is allowed for the resident to jama’ the Dzuhur and  ‘Asar or the Maghrib and  ‘Ishā’, solāt each pair in the time of the earlier Solāh  only, given that it is raining when one begins the earlier Solāh and it is expected to be raining by the time one begins the second solāt.

According to the Māliki School, it is allowed to combine the Maghrib and  ‘Isha’ in the masjid at the time of the Maghrib due to rain or expected rain, if there is mud and darkness along the way, or if there is a lot of mud and it prevents the people from wearing their shoes. Nevertheless, he dislikes that the Dzuhur and ‘Asar should be jama’ due to rain.

 According to the Hanbali School, it is only allowed to jama’ the Solāh Maghrib and ‘Isha’ in the time of the former or the latter 
due to snow, ice, mud, severe cold, or rain which soaks the clothes. This concession is allowed only for one who solat with a congregation in the masjid and who comes from a distance over which he could be harmed by the rain. However, for one who solat in a congregation in his house or whose path to the masjid is covered or protected, or for one whose house is right next to the masjid, it is not allowed to jama’ the Solāh.

4 – Jama’ the Two Solāt Due To Some Illness or Other Excuse

Imām Ahmad, Qadi Hussain, Al-Khattabi, and Al-Mutawali of the Shāf'i‘ie School are of the opinion: It is allowed to Jama’ two Solāh, either during the time of the earlier or later Solāh, due to illness as it is a greater hardship than rain. An-Nawawi (rahimahullāh) says: “This is a strong opinion based on [sound] evidence.” Ibn Qudāmah (rahimahullāh) said: “The illness which permits one to combine the solāt is the one which would otherwise cause hardship and more weakness [if he prayed each Solāh separately].” [Al-Mughni]

The Hanbali school is the most accommodating as it allows one to Jama’ the Solāh, at the time of the early or later Solāh , for one who is ill as well as for the woman who is breast-feeding and will face hardship in cleaning her dress for every Solāh, for the woman who is plagued by a prolonged flow of blood, for the person who cannot control his urine, and for one who cannot purify himself or herself, and for the one who fears for his life, property, or family.

Ibn Taimiyyah (rahimallāh) says: “Among the opinions the most accommodating on this question is that of the Hanbali school which allows one to Jama’ the Solāh if he is busy – in critical need since An-Nasā‘ie has related something to that effect from the Allāh’s Messenger (Sallallāhu`alayhi wasallam) and they also say that the cook and baker, and so forth, may also Jama’ their Solāh if they fear their wealth (i.e., their investment or what they are working on) will otherwise be ruined.”

5 – Jama’ the Solāh Due To Some Critical Need

Imām An-Nawawi (rahimahullāh) writes in his commentary on Sahih Muslim: “The majority of the scholars are of the opinion that it is allowed for the resident to Jama’ the solāh due to some critical need. This is the statement of Ibn Sireen and Ashhab from the companions of Malik, and Al-Khattabi records it from Al-Qifal and Imām Ash-Shāfi‘ie (rahimahullāh) and from Abu Ishaq Al-Maruzi, and from a number of ashab al-ahādith, and it is the conclusion of Ibn Al-Munzhir. The position is based by the statement of Ibn ‘Abbas (radiyallahu‘anhu): “The Allāh’s Messenger (Sallallāhu`alayhi wasallam) jama’ his Solāt because Rasūlullāh (Sallallāhu`alayhi wasallam) did not want to put his ummah to hardship and not because of illness or any other reason.”

The hadith from Ibn ‘Abbas, mentioned previously, has been recorded by Imām Muslim who states: “The Messenger of Allāh combined the Dzuhur and ‘Asar and then the Maghrib and ‘Isha’ in Medinah without there being any danger or rain.” Ibn ‘Abbas (radiyallāhu`anhu) was asked: “What did he desire by that action?” Ibn ‘Abbas (radiyallāhu`anhu) replied: “He (Rasūlullāh, Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wasallam) did not want any hardship for his ummah.”

Al-Bukhari and Muslim (rahimahullāh) recorded from Ibn ‘Abbas (radiyallāhu`anhu) that Rasūlullāh, Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wasallam) performed solāt seven raka‘at and eight raka‘at, i.e., the Dzuhur and ‘Asar together and the Maghrib and ‘Isha’ together, in Medinah.

Muslim (rahimahullāh) also records from ‘Abdullah Ibn Shaqiq that ‘Abdullah Ibn ‘Abbas (radiyallāhu‘anhum) addressed the people one day after Solāh ‘Asar until well after the sun had set and the stars began to appear. The people said to him: “The Solāh, the Solāh.” A man from the Tribe of Taim continuously repeated: “The Solāh, the Solāh.” Ibn ‘Abbas (radiyallāhu`anhu) said: “Are you teaching me the Sunnah? May you have no mother?” Then Ibn ‘Abbas said: “I saw the Messenger of Allāh combine the Dzuhur and ‘Asar and the Maghrib and ‘Isha’.”  ‘Abdullah Ibn Shaqiq commented: “I felt some uneasiness in my heart about what he had said, so I went to Abu Hurairah (radiyallāhu`anhu) to ask him about that and he confirmed what Ibn ‘Abbas (radiyallāhu`anhu) had said.”

Ibn Taymiyyah (rahimahullāh) said: “The reason for Solat Qasar is travel only, and it is not permitted when one is not traveling. As for Solat Jama’it is when one has a critical reason or a need for it, if he needs tohe may jama’ them when traveling of a short or long distances [a minimum of 16 Farshahs or 2 marhalah 91 KM: according to Ibn ‘Abbas, Ibn ‘Umar, Imām Ahmad, Imām Malik, Imān Shafie, Al-Layth], and he could jama’ them when it is raining and the like, or when he is sick and the like, or for other reasons. The aim behind this is to spare the ummah from hardship.  The reasons which make it permissible to jama’ the solat are broader than those which make it permissible to qasar them.” 

The ‘Majmū’ al-Fatawa’ further clarified the circumstances for Solat Jama’: “It is granted for every traveler, and for the non-traveler if the circumstances is too difficult for him to offer every solat on time, such as one who is sick, or if there is rain, or he is involved with some critical work that he cannot leave or delay in order to perform solat, such as a student taking an exam or a doctor who is doing surgery and so on.”  [Majmū’ al-Fatawa (22/293)]

Thus the reasons for doing Jama’ Solat are more numerous than Qasar Silat, apart from travelling it includes the extraordinary circumstances critical which warrant it.  As such a person could jama’ the solat when traveling, or when not traveling, but because of sickness or istihādah (non-menstrual vaginal bleeding) or because he fears for himself or his property, or because of heavy rain and other critical reasons that warrants the jama’ of the solat, but without qasar it, as it is only granted for travelers only. 

6 – The Validity of Jama’ Solāh after Their Legal Excuse Ceases To Exist

Ibn Qudāmah (rahimahullāh) said: “If someone performs both solāh at the time of the earlier Solāh and then his reason for doing so ceases to exist after he has completed the Solāh and before the time of the next Solāh begins [i.e., the next Solāh being the one which he had just prayed during the earlier time], then what he has done is sufficient for him and he need not repeat the second Solāh at its proper time. Since he performed the Solāh in a proper manner, he is free from any extra obligation due to that action. He fulfilled his obligation during a circumstance in which he had some legal excuse, and his action is not invalidated by the fact that this excuse no longer exists. This is similar to the case of a person who performed tayammum, and after he finishes his Solāh, he finds water.” [Al-Mughni]

7 - Solāh on a Ship, Train or Plane

A Solāh on a ship, train, plane, and so on, is valid and there is no dislike for such an act as it makes life easier for the one performing it. ‘Abdullah Ibn ‘Umar (radiyallāhu`anhu) says: “I asked the Allāh’s Messenger (Sallallāhu`alayhi wasallam) about Solāh on a ship and Rasūlullāh, Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wasallam) said: ‘Pray standing upon them unless you fear that you will be drowned [i.e., the boat might capsize]’.” This is related by Ad-Daraqutni and by Al-Hakim. The later grades it sahih according to the criteria of Al-Bukhari and Muslim.

 ‘Abdullah Ibn Abi ‘Utbah reported: “I accompanied Jabir Ibn ‘Abdullah and Abu Sa‘id Al-Khudri and Abu Hurairah (radiyallāhu‘anhum) on a boat, and they performed Solāt standing in a congregation, with one of them as their imām, although they could have gone ashore [if they had so desired].” This is related by Sa’id Ibn Mansur.

8 - Some Supplications for the Traveler

It is preferred for the traveler to say, upon leaving his house: “In the name of Allāh, the Exalted! We have trusted in Allāh. There is no power or might, save with Allāh. O Allāh, I seek refuge in Thee from being misguided and from misguiding others, or that I stray from your path or cause others to stray from your path, or that I am wronged or that I do wrong to others, or that I act foolishly or have someone act foolishly with me.”

Then, the person may say whatever he wishes of the supplications which have been recorded from the Allāh’s Messenger (Sallallāhu`alayhi wasallam). Here are some of them:

 ‘Ali Ibn Rabi‘ah narrated: “‘Ali (radiyallāhu`anhu) was brought a riding animal. When he put his foot in the stirrup, he said: ‘In the name of Allāh.’ Then, when he sat on it, he said: ‘Praise is to Allāh. Glory is to the One Who made this subservient to us for we were not able to make [it subservient] and it is to our Lord that we will return.' He then praised Allāh three times and extolled His greatness three times and then said: ‘Glory be to you; there is no God but Thee. I have wronged my soul, so forgive me. No one forgives sins, except you.’ Then, he laughed. I said to him: ‘Why do you laugh, commander of the faithful?’ He replied: ‘I saw the Messenger of Allāh (Sallallāhu`alayhi wasallam) doing the same and then laughing. I asked him: “What makes you laugh, O Messenger of Allāh?” Rasūlullāh (Sallallāhu`alayhi wasallam) said: “The Lord is pleased with His slave who says: ‘O Lord, Forgive me,’ and He says: ‘My slave knows that no one forgives sins, save Me’.” This is related by Ahmad and Ibn Hibban, and by al-Hakim who says it is sahih according to the criteria of Imam Muslim.

Al-‘Azdi reported that Ibn ‘Umar (radiyallāhu`anhu) taught him that the Allāh’s Messenger (Sallallāhu`alayhi wasallam) would extol Allāh’s greatness three times while seating himself on his camel for a journey. Then Rasūlullāh (Sallallāhu`alayhi wasallam)   would say: “Glory is to the One who made this subservient to us for we were not able [to make it subservient]. It is to our Lord that we shall return. O Allāh, we ask of Thee, in this journey of ours, righteousness and piety and to (be able to) perform such deeds that are pleasing to you. O Allāh, make this journey of ours easy for us and make its length short for us. O Allāh, companion on this journey and the One who looks after our family and property in our absence. O Allāh, I seek refuge in Thee from the difficulty of traveling and the unhappiness in what I see and in finding that something harmful has happened when I return to my property and family.”

When Rasūlullāh (Sallallāhu`alayhi wasallam)   would return from his journey he would add: 
“Returning [are we] repentant, serving and praising our Lord.” This is related by Ahmad and Muslim.

Ibn ‘Abbas (radiyallāhu`anhu) reported that when the Allāh’s Messenger (Sallallāhu`alayhi wasallam) desired to travel, he would say: “O Allāh, You are my companion in my travels and the One Who looks after my family [while I am gone]. O Allāh, I seek refuge in you from unworthy travel companions and an unpleasant situation upon my return. O Allāh, make the distance short for us and the travel easy for us.”When Rasūlullāh (Sallallāhu`alayhi wasallam) desired to return, he would say: “We are returning, [while] repenting to Allāh, worshipping our Lord and praising Him.” When Rasūlullāh (Sallallāhu`alayhi wasallam) would enter upon his family, he would say: “We are repenting to our Lord. We hope that none of our sins would remain.” This is related by Ahmad, At-Tabarāni, and al-Bazzār with a sahih chain.

 ‘Abdullah Ibn Sarjas (radiyallāhu`anhu) reported that when the Allāh’s Messenger (Sallallāhu`alayhi wasallam) had to travel, he would say:“O Allāh, I seek refuge in You from the difficulty of the journey, and sorrow on return, and disorder after things are set right, from the cry of the oppressed, and from seeing harm having come to our property and family.” And when he returned, Allāh’s Messenger (Sallallāhu`alayhi wasallam) would make a similar supplication, but instead of saying: “from seeing harm having come to our property and family,” Rasūlullāh (Sallallāhu`alayhi wasallam) would mention family first and then property. This is related by Ahmad and Muslim.

‘Abdullah Ibn ‘Umar (radiyallāhu`anhu) reported that when the Allāh’s Messenger (Sallallāhu`alayhi wasallam) went out for a battle or a journey, and night came upon him, he would say: “O Earth, my Lord and your Lord is Allāh. I seek refuge in Allāh from your evil and the evil of what is on you and the evil of what has been created upon you and the evil of what walks upon you. I seek refuge in Allāh from lions and large black snakes, and from snakes and scorpions, and from the evil or all that inhabit the land, and the evil of a father and what he has fathered.” This is related by Ahmad and Abu Dawud.

Khawlah bint Hakim As-Sulimiyah (radiyallāhu`anhu) reported that the Allāh’s Messenger (Sallallāhu`alayhi wasallam) said: “Whoever stops at a stopping place should say: ‘I seek refuge by the perfected word of Allāh the Exalted, from the evil of what has been created,’ then nothing will harm him until he leaves that stopping place.” This is related by the group, save Al-Bukhari and Abu Dawud.

 ‘Ata Ibn Abi Marwan states from his father that Ka‘ab took an oath by the One who opened up the sea for Moses that Suhaib related to him that whenever the Allāh’s Messenger (Sallallāhu`alayhi wasallam)  saw a city which he wished to enter, he would say: “O Allāh, Lord of the seven heavens and what they shade, Lord of the seven earths and what they carry, Lord of the satans and those that they misguide, Lord of the winds and what they blow away, I ask of You for the good of this city and the good of its inhabitants and the good of what is in it. I seek refuge in you from its evil and the evil of its inhabitants and the evil of what is in it.” This is related by An-Nasā‘ie, Ibn Hibban, and Al-Hakim who calls it sahih.

Ibn ‘Umar (radiyallāhu`anhu) says: “We would travel with the Allāh’s Messenger (Sallallāhu`alayhi wasallam), and when he would see the city that he wished to enter, Rasūlullāh (Sallallāhu`alayhi wasallam) would say: ‘O Allāh, give us blessings from what is in it,' three times. And, ‘Allāh, give us provisions from its harvest and make us beloved to its inhabitants and make the pious people of its inhabitants beloved to us.”This is related by At-Tabarāni in “Al-Awsat” with a good chain.

‘Aishah (radiyallāhu`anha) says: “Whenever the Allāh’s Messenger (Sallallāhu`alayhi wasallam) came to a place that he wished to enter he would say: ‘O Allāh, I ask of you of the good of this place and the good of what you have collected therein. O Allāh, grant us provisions from its harvest and protect us from its diseases. Make us beloved to its inhabitants and make the pious people of its inhabitant’s beloved to us.’ This is related by Ibn As-Sani.

Abu Hurairah (radiyallāhu`anhu) reported that when the Allāh’s Messenger (Sallallāhu`alayhi wasallam) was on a journey and daybreak approached he would say: “Let one listen and witness the praise of Allāh and His good favor toward us. Our Lord, accompany us and show us favour [as we] seek refuge in Allāh from the hell-fire.” This is related by Muslim.

And Allāh Almighty Knows best.

Excerpted from Fiqh-us-Sunnah, Volume 2: “Jama’ The Two Solāt” by Sayyid Sābiq

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