Tuesday, March 6, 2012

The Pillars Solāt

The Pillars of the Solāt

(Acccording to Shafi’ie School)

In the name of Allāh, the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful;
All the praise and thanks is due to Allāh, the Lord of al-‘ālameen. I testify that there is none worthy of worship except Allāh, and that Muhammad, Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam is His Messenger.

Solāt is made up of either Fardhu or Sunnah. The Daily Solāt Fardhu consists of two, three and four rak’at. Obligatory Acts are the Pillars or the Rukun of the Solāt. It is acts that could not be omitted. It has to conform with to that spelled out. If omitted, one has to go back and do it in order to make the Solāt valid or else the Solāt is void. 

According to Shafi’ie School the Pillars of Solāt is as follows:

1- Intention ( Niyyah)

Allāh says: “And We did not command them save to worship Allāh, making the religion sincerely for Him” (Al-Bayinah, 98:5). ‘Umar Al-Khattab (radiyallāhu’anhu) narrated that the Prophet (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam) said: “Every action is based upon intention. For everyone is what he intended. Whoever made the migration to Allāh and His Prophet (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam), and then his migration is to Allāh and His Prophet (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam). Whoever's migration was for something of this world or for the purpose of marriage, then his migration was to what he migrated to.” (Recorded by al-Bukhari) 

In the “Ighatha al-Lufan”, Ibn al-Qayyim (rahimahullāh) states: “The intention is the aim and purpose of something. It is a condition of the heart, and it does not come from the tongue. For that reason, the Prophet (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam) and his companions never spoke their intentions. What has been introduced into this matter during the actions of purity and the Solāt comes from Shaytān and is a trap for those who are unsure about how to make it. You will find them repeating it over and over, but that is not part of the Solāt at all.”

Imām Nawawi (rahimahullāh) says: “The intention is the purpose, so the person about to perform Solāt brings to mind that Solāt and what is relevant of its characteristics, such as which Solāt it is, whether it is obligatory etc. and he brings these things together in his intention with the First Takbir (Takbiratulihram).” [Rawdah at-Tālibeen (1/224)]

The fuqahā’ were consensus that intention consist of ta’rub and ta’yin with sincerity for the sake of Allāh; formed in the heart; parallel to the commencement of the Solāt when saying the Takbiratul Ihram, “Allāhu Akbar” and raising the hands at shoulder level. Scholars viewed it as recommended (mandub) act to articulate or lafaz it as to assist the Niyyah in heart. The kaifiyat of the Niyyah is, “I’m observing Solāt fardhu Dzuhur four rak’at for the sake Allāh”. It is a recommended act; one either can do it or leave it according to one’s choice; without making an issue about it.

2 - Saying Takbiratulihram: The Opening Takbir for the Commencement of Solāt

‘Ali Ibn Talib (radiyallāhu’anhu) reported that the Prophet, (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam) said: The key to Solāt is Purity. What put one into its inviolable state are the Takbir (Opening Takbir) and the Taslīm releases one from it.” It is an authentic report. It is related by Ash-Shafi`ie, Ahmad, Abu Dawud, Ibn Mājah and at-Tirmidzi,(rahimahullāh) who called it the most authentic report on this topic. Al-Hakim and Ibn as-Sakin also considered it as sahih. The Takbir consists of saying “Allāhu Akbar (Allāh is the Greatest)”. 

Abu Hamaid (radiyallāhu’anhu) reported that when the Prophet (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam) stood for Solāt, he would stand straight, raise his hands and say, “Allāhu Akbar (Allāh is the Greatest).” This is related by Ibn Mājah, and in the Sahihs of Ibn Khuzaimah and Ibn Hibban. Al-Bazzar related something similar to it, but with a chain that is sahih according to Muslim's criterion. ‘Ali and others also reported this. 

3 - Qiyam: Standing during the Obligatory Solāt 

One must stand during the Solāt, if at all possible. The Prophet (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam) used to stand in Solāt for both obligatory and voluntary, carrying out the command of Allāh, “Guard and preserve the Solāt and the mid-most, and stand for Allāh with devotion.” (Baqarah, 2:238) ‘Umar Ibn Hussain (radiyallāhu’anhu) reported, “I had some physical problem, so I asked the Prophet (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam), about the Solāt, and he said, “ Perform Solāt standing; if you are not able to; perform Solāt sitting, if you are not able to; Solāt (while lying) on your side.” (Recorded by al-Bukhari) 

Most scholars say that one should not put his feet together while standing in Solāt

For voluntary Solāt, one can pray sitting even if he can stand, but one who stands receives a larger reward than one who sits. ‘Abdullāh ibn ‘Umar (radiyallāhu’anhu) related that the Prophet, (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam), said: “The Solāt of one who sits is half of the Solāt.” (Related by al-Bukhari and Muslim) 

If one cannot stand, he may perform Solāt according to what he is capable of doing, as Allāh does not burden a soul beyond its ability. He will get a complete reward for the Solāt. Abu Musa Al-Ash’ari (radiyallāhu’anhu)  reported that the Prophet (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam) said, “If a slave (of Allāh) is sick or travels, he will get a reward for that acts similar to what he would get if he was healthy and at home.” 

4 - Reciting Al-Fātihah in Every Rak’ah

There are many authentic hadith which state that it is obligatory to recite Al-Fātihah in every rak’ah. Thus, there is no difference of opinion on this point. Some of these hadith are: 
‘Ubadah Ibn As-Samit (radiyallāhu’anhu) related that the Prophet (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam) said, There is no Solāt for one who does not recite the opening of the Surah al-Fātihah).” This is related by "the group." 

Abu Hurayrah (radiyallāhu’anhu) reported that the Prophet (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam) said, “Whoever prays a Solāt and does not recite the opening chapter of the Qur’ān has not performed Solāt correctly.” (Related by Ahmad, al-Bukhari and Muslim. Ad-Daraqutni also recorded a hadith with a sahih chain with almost exactly the same wording. )

Abu Sa’īd Al-Khudri (radiyallāhu’anhu) said: “We were ordered (by Rasūlullāh Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam) to recite the opening chapter of the Qur’ān and what (else) was easy (for us).” This is related by Abu Dawud. Al-Hafiz and Ibn Sayyid an-Nass consider its chain as sahih. In some of the narrations dealing with the Solāt's incompleteness, it states, “And then recites the 'Mother of the Book' (al-Fātihah),” and he said: “And do that in every rak’ah.” 

In a Hadith Qudsi, on the authority of Abu Hurayrah (radiyallāhu’anhu) from the Prophet (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam), who said:

 “If anyone observes solât in which he does not recite Umm al-Qur'an (Essence of the Qur'ān i.e al-Fâtihah), it is deficient; he said this three times, and not complete.”

It was said to Abu Hurayrah (radiyallāhu’anhu): [Even though] we are behind the imâm? ( i.e. standing behind the imâm (leader) listening to him reciting Al-Fātihah)

Abu Hurayrah (radiyallāhu’anhu) said: Recite it to yourself, for I have heard the Prophet (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam) say: “Allâh (Subhānahu wata’ala), had said: I have divided the solāt (the prayer i.e Surah al-Fâtihah) between Myself and My servant into two halves,and My servant shall have what he has asked for.

When the servant says: Al-hamdu lillâhi Rabbil-‘âlameen (Praise be to Allâh, Lord of the Worlds.)”, Allāh (Subhanahu wa ta’ala) says: My servant has praised Me.

And when he says: Ar-Rahmānir-raheem (The Merciful, the Compassionate)”, Allāh says: My servant has extolled me;

And when he says: Mâliki yawmid-deen (Master of the Day of Judgement)”, Allāh says: My servant has glorified Me, and on one occasion He said: My servant has submitted to My power;

And when he says: Iyyaka na’ budu wa iyyaka nasta een (It is You we worship and it is You we ask for help)”, Allāsays: This is between Me and My servant, and My servant shall have what he has asked for;

And when he says“Ihdinas-sirâtal-mustaqeem, Sirâtal ladzina an ‘amta alayhim Ghairil-maghdhubi ‘alayhim wa ladh-dhãlleen (Guide us to the straight path, the path of those upon whom You have bestowed favors, not of those against whom You are angry, nor of those who are astray)”, Allāh says: This is for My servant, and My servant shall have what he has asked for.

[Related by Muslim and also by Malik, at-Tirmidzi, Abu-Dawud, an-Nasa'ie and Ibn Mājah]

It is confirmed that the Prophet, (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam), recited al-Fātihah in every rak’ah of every Solāt, obligatory or superogatory. Since this is an act of worship, we can only follow what he did. And the Prophet (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam) said,“Perform Solāt as you have seen me performing Solāt.” (Recorded by al-Bukhari)

4.1 - Saying Basmillā

The scholars are agreed that the “Bismillah” (In the name of Allāh, the Compassionate, the Merciful) is a verse in Surah al-Naml, but they differ over whether or not it constitutes a verse of every surah. There are three opinions on this point: 

(i) It is a verse of al-Fātihah and of every surah of the Qur'an. Therefore, it is to be recited with al-Fātihah during those Solāt that are said aloud or quietly. The strongest support of this opinion comes from the hadith of Naeem al-Mujammir who said, “I perform Solāt behind Abu Hurairah (radiyallāhu’anhu) and he recited, ‘In the name of Allāh...’ and then he recited al-Fātihah.” At the end of the hadith, he is quoted as saying, “By the One in whose Hand is my soul, I have done what resembles how we performed Solāt with the Messenger of Allāh (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam).” 

(ii) It is a verse by itself and was revealed to demarcate different surahs. It is allowed to recite it with al-Fātihah (in fact it is preferred), but it is not Sunnah to recite it aloud. Anas bin Mālik (radiyallāhu’anhu) said, “I performed Solāt behind the Messenger of Allāh (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam) , Abu Bakar As-Siddiq, ‘Umar ibn Al-Khattab and ‘Uthman bin ‘Affan, (radiyallāhu’anhum) and they did not recite it aloud.” This hadith is related by an-Nasā’ie, Ibn Hibban and at-Tahawi with a sahih chain according to the criterion of the two Sahihs.

(iii) It is not a verse of Al-Fātihah or of any other surah. It is disliked to recite it aloud or quietly during the obligatory Solāt, but not for the superogatory Solāt. This opinion, however, is weak.

Ibn al-Qayyim (rahimallāh) has made a reconciliation on the first and second opinions by saying, “Sometimes the Prophet (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam) would recite it aloud, but most of the time he would say it quietly and not aloud.”

4.2 -One Who Cannot Recite Fatihah Properly 

Says al-Khattabi, “Basically, one's Solāt does not suffice if he does not recite Al-Fātihah. If one can recite neither Al-Fātihah nor other portions of the Qur’ān, he should recite at least seven verses of a similar meaning from the Qur’ān. If he cannot learn any part of the Qur’ān (due to some innate inability, poor memory, or because it's a foreign language), he should say the Tasbīh (Subhān Allāh - Glory be to Allāh), the Tahmid (al-Hamdu lillah - All praise is due to Allāh), and Tahlil (La ilaha illal-lah - There is no God except Allāh). It is related that “The best remembrance after the speech of Allāh is Subhān Allāh, al-Hamdu lillah, Lā ilāha illal-lāh and Allāhu Akbar.” This is supported by Rafa’ah ibn Rafa’, who narrated that the Prophet (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam), said: “If you have something from the Qur’ān, recite it. If not, then say the Tasbīh, Tahmid, Takbir and the Tahlil and then ruku’.” The hadiths is related by Abu Dawud, at-Tirmidzi, an-Nasā’ie and Al-Baihaqi. The former considers it as Hassan. 

5 - Ar-Ruku’ with toma’ninah (Calmness till you feel at ease) in each rak’ah; making the back level and the head parallel with it. 

There is a consensus on the obligatory nature of the ruku'. Says Allāh, “O you, who believe, bow down and prostrate yourselves...” The position of ruku' is established by bending over, putting one's hands on one's knees, and remaining in that position until he attains“calmness.” In another hadith the Prophet (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam) said: “Then ruku’ until you attain calmness while you are observing ruku’.” Abu Qatādah (radiyallāhu’anhu) related that the Prophet,(Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam), said, “The worst people are the thieves who steal part of the Solāt." He was asked how this was done, and he replied, “He does not complete his ruku’ and sujud,” or he said, “He does not straighten his back during his ruku’ and sujud.”  It is an authentic; the report is related by Ahmad, at-Tabarāni, Ibn Khuzaimah and al-Hākim, who consider its chain as sahih. 

Abu Mas’ud al-Badri (radiyallāhu’anhu) reported that the Prophet (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam) said: “The Solāt of one who does not straighten his back in his ruku’ and sujud is not accomplished.” This hadith is related by "the five,'' and Ibn Khuzaimah, Ibn Hibban, at-Tabarāni and al-Baihaqi, who consider its chain as sahih, while at-Tirmidzi grades it as hassan sahih. 

The companions act according to the principle that a person is to make his back straight during his ruku’ and sujud. Hudzaifah (radiyallāhu’anhu) saw someone who did not straighten his back during his ruku’ and sujud, and told him, “You have not performed solāt. And if you were to die, you would not die in the way of Allāh and His Messenger.” (Related by al-Bukhari) 

6 - I'tidal: Standing Straight after the Ruku’ with toma’ninah (Calmness till you feel at ease)

This is based on the description by Abu Humaid (radiyallāhu’anhu) of the Prophet's Solāt: “He would raise his head from his ruku’, and then stand straight until all of his backbones returned to their places.”(Related by al-Bukhari and Muslim) 

‘Aishah (radiyallāhu’anha) related that when the Prophet (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam) raised his head from ruku’; he would not sujud until his back was straight. (Related by al-Bukhari and Muslim) 

Abu Hurayrah (radiyallāhu’anhu) reported that the Prophet (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam) said: “Allāh does not look at the Solāt of a person who does not straighten his back between his ruku’ and his sujud.” (Related by Ahmad. al-Munzhiri considers its chain as good.) 

7 - The Two Sujud in every rak’ah with toma’ninah (Calmness till you feels at ease)

Al-Bukhari recorded a narration from Abu Hurairah (radiyall
āhu’anhu): Once the Prophet (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam) entered the masjid (Masjid An-Nabawi), a man came in, offered the Solāt and greeted the Prophet (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wasallam).
The Prophet (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wasallam) returned his greeting and said to him, “Go back and Solāt again for you have not performed Solāt.” The man offered the Solāt again, came back and greeted the Prophet (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam) . Rasūlullāh (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam) said to him thrice, “Go back and Solāt again for you have not performed Solāt.” The man said, “By Him Who has sent you with the truth! I do not know a better way of observing Solāt. Kindly teach me how to Solāt.”

The Prophet (Sallall
āhu ‘alayhi wa sallam) said: "When you stand for the Solāt, say Takbīr (Allāhu Akbar) and then recite from the Qur’ān (Al-Fātihāh and Surah) what you know; and then Ruku’ with calmness till you feel at ease (toma’ninah), then rise from Sujud till you stand straight (I’tidal). Then Sujud (prostrate) calmly till you feel at ease (toma’ninah) and then raise (your head) and sit with Calmness till you feel at ease (toma’ninah)  and then Sujud  (prostrate) with calmness till you feel at ease (toma’ninah) in prostration;  and do the same in the whole of your Solāt." [Recorded by Al-Bukhari (759)]

The First Sajdah (prostration), sitting afterwards, the Second Sajdah (prostration) and calmness during all of these acts are obligatory (wajib) in every rak’ah of every obligatory or superogatory Solāt

To attain the “calmness (toma’ninah)” comes from sitting in the position until the bones are set and still. Some scholars say that, at a minimum, this would take as long as it takes to say one Subhān Allāh. 

The bodily parts that touch the ground during Sujud arethe face, hands, knees and feet. Ibn `Abbas (radiyallāhu’anhu) said: “The Prophet (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam) ordered us to prostrate on seven bodily parts and not to fold back the hair or clothing: the forehead, the hands, the knees and the feet.” In another wording, the Prophet (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam) said, “I have been ordered to prostrate on seven bodily parts: the forehead and he pointed to his nose, the hands, the knees and the ends of the feet.” (Related by Al-Bukhari and Muslim) In another narration, he said, “I have been ordered to observe sujud on seven bodily parts and not to fold back the hair or clothing: the forehead, the nose, the hands, the knees and the feet.” (Related by Muslim and an-Nasa`ie)

Abu Humaid (radiyallāhu’anhu) reported: “When the Prophet (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam) sujud, he placed his nose and forehead on the ground.” This hadith is related by Abu Dawud and At-Tirmidzi who said, “The scholars act according to this: a person prostrates on his nose and forehead.” According to some scholars, if one prostrates on just the forehead without the nose touching the ground, it will still be sufficient. Others say that it would not be sufficient until his nose touches the ground.

The most perfect form is placing the seven parts of the body firmly on the ground, and the least of which is placing a part of each of these on the ground but Makrūto press them firmly on the ground 

8 - Sitting  between the two Sujud with toma’ninah (Calmness till you feels at ease).  

Sitting on the left foot and holding the right foot upright with the toes pointing towards the Qiblah. 

 9 - The Sitting for Final Tashahhud with toma'ninah . 

Abu Humaid (radiyallāhu’anhu) described the Solāt of the Allāh`s Messenger (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam), he said, “When he sat after two rak’at, he would sit upon his left leg and keep his right foot upright. When he sat for the last rak’ah, he would pull over his left foot and put his right foot upright (over the left foot) and sit upon his entire posterior.” (Related by al-Bukhari.)

The Sitting for First Tashahhud is in Muftarishan like Sitting Between The Two Sajud.

10 - Recital of the Final Tashahhud 

The Prophet's practice illustrates that when the Final Sitting of the Solāt has been made, one must recite the Tashahhud at that time. In one hadith, he said, “When you raise your head from the last sujud and sit for the Tashahhud, you have completed your Solāt.”

Says Ibn Qudamah (rahimallāh), “It has been related that ‘Abdullah Ibn ‘Abbas (radiyallāhu’anhu) said: ‘We used to say, before the Tashahhud was made obligatory upon us, ‘Peace be upon Allāh before His slaves, peace be upon Gabriel, peace be upon Mikhail.’ The Prophet (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam) , said, ‘Do not say, ‘Peace be upon Allāh,’ but say, ‘Salutations to Allāh.’ This proves that the Tashahhud was made obligatory, although before it was not.” 

The most authentic report concerning the Tashahhud is Ibn Mas’ud’s, who said, "When we would sit with the Prophet (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam) in the Solāt, we would say, ‘Peace be upon Allāh before His slaves, peace be upon so and so.’ The Prophet (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam) said: ‘Do not say peace be upon Allāh, for Allāh is peace. When one of you sits, he should say salutations be to Allāh, and the prayers, and the good deeds, peace be upon us and upon Allāh's sincere slaves (if you say that, it applies to all of Allāh's sincere slaves in the heavens and the earth). I bear witness that there is no god except Allāh. I bear witness that Muhammad is His slave and Messenger.' Then you may choose whatever supplication you desire’.” (Related by “the group”) 

Imām Muslim (rahimallāh) said: “The people are in agreement over the Tashahhud of Ibn Mas’ud, and the companions do not differ over it.” At-Tirmidzi, al-Khattabi, Ibn ‘Abdul-Barr and Ibn al-Munzhir all agree that Ibn Mas`ud's hadith is the most authentic one on this topic. 

Ibn ‘Abbas (radiyallāhu’anhum) narrated: “The Messenger of Allāh (sallallāhu ‘alayhi wasallam) used to teach us the Tashahhud the way he taught us [surahs of] the Qur’an; he used to say: “At-Tahiyyātul mubaraka tus-salawātut-tayyibātu lillāh, As-Salāmu ‘alayka ayyuhan-Nabiyyu wa Rahmatullāhi wa barakātuh, As-salāmu  ‘alayna wa ‘alā ‘ibād-illāh is-sāliheen. Ash-hadu an lāilāha ill-Allāh wa ash-hadu anna Muhammadar  Rasūlullāh [in one narration: ‘abduhu wa Rasūluh] (All compliments, blessed words, prayers, pure words are due to Allāh. Peace be on you, O Prophet, and also the mercy of Allāh and His blessings. Peace be on us and on the righteous slaves of Allāh. I bear witness that none has the right to be worshipped except Allāh, and [I bear witness] that Muhammad is the Messenger of Allāh (in one narration: ... is His slave and Messenger.)” [Muslim, Abu ‘Awānah, Shāfi’ie, Abu Dawud and Nasā’ie]

Imām Ash-Shāfi’ie (rahimallāh) said: “Different hadith have been related about the tashahhud, but that one is the best in my opinion, for it is the most complete”

Al-Hafiz Ibn Har Al-‘Asqalani (rahimallāh) states: “Ash-Shafi’ie was asked about this choice and the tashahhud of Ibn ‘Abbas, and he replied, ‘I have found it to be the most encompassing. I have heard it from Ibn 'Abbas(radiyallāhu’anhu)  (through) authentic (chains). To me, it is more complete...’” 

There is another form of the Tashahhud that Mālik chose. In al-Muwatta, it is stated that ‘Abdurrahman ibn ‘Abdul-Qari heard ‘Umar ibn al-Khattab (radiyallāhu’anhu) teaching the people, from the pulpit, this tashahhud: “At-Tahiyyatulillah azzakiyatullillah,wattayibatulillāh, was-salawātulillah, As-salāmu ‘alayka ayyuhan-Nabiyyu wa Rahmat-Allāhi wa barakātuh. As-salāmu ‘alayna wa ‘alā ‘ibād-illāh is-sāliheen. Ash-hadu an lā ilāha ill-Allāh, Wa ash hadu anna Muhammadan ‘abduhu wa Rasūluh (Salutations to Allāh, purifications to Allāh, the good deeds and prayers be to Allāh. Peace be upon you, O Prophet, and the mercy of Allāh and His blessings. Peace be upon us and Allāh's sincere slaves. I testify that there is no god but Allāh, and I testify that Muhammad is His slave and messenger.” It was also recorded by Al-Bayhaqi with sahīh chains. This Tashahhud is almost similar Ibn ‘Abbas(radiyallāhu’anhum). 

Commenting on the stature of such hadith, Imām An-Nawawi (rahimallāh) says, “Those hadith concerning the tashahhud are all sahih. Hadith scholars are agreed that the strongest of them is the hadith of Ibn Mas`ud, and then the hadith of Ibn ‘Abbas (radiyallāhu’anhu). Ash-Shāf'i`ie (rahimahullāh) said that any tashahhud one uses will suffice, for the scholars agree that every one of them is permissible.” 

11 - Salawāt upon the Prophet (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa ssallam) in the Final Tashahhud

The Hanbali, Māliki and Syāfi’ie Schools of Jurisprudence views that it is Sunnah to recite Salawāt upon The Allāh’s Messenger (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam) in the First  Tashahhud but the Hanbali and Shafi'ie Schools held it as wajib (obligatory) in the Final Tashhahud. If one omits it by mistake it is required to perform the Prostration of Forgetfulness (Sujud Al-Sahwi).

One of the way evidence from the Hadith that it was reported from Nu’aim bin ‘Abdullāh that Muhammad bin ‘Abdullāh bin Zaid and ‘Abdullah bin Zaid (radiyallāhu’anhum), who had the dream about Adzān informed that Abu Mas’ud Al-Ansari (radiyallāhu’anhu), who narrated: “The Messenger of Allāh (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wasallam) visit us in a gathering of Sa’ad ibn ‘Ubadah (radiyallāhu’anhu). Bashir bin Sa’ad (radiyallāhu’anhu) asked him: “Allāh has commanded us to send bless [salah] upon you [re al-Ahzab 33:56], O Messenger of Allāh! So how should we do it?” The Messenger of Allāh (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam) kept silent. We were much perturbed over his silence and we wished he [Bashir] did not ask him the question. The Messenger of Allāh (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wasallam) said,

"[For salah on me] Say: “Allāhumma Salli ‘ala Muhammadiñ wa ‘ala āli Muhammad, Kama sallayta ‘ala  āli Ibrāhīm, Wabarik ‘ala Muhammadinñ wa ‘ala āli Muhammd, Kamabarakta ‘ala āli Ibrāhīm, Fil ‘ālameen; Innaka Hamīdum Majīd (O Allāh! Send Prayers on Muhammad, and on the family of Muhammad, as you Sent Prayers on Ibrāhīm; And Send Blessings on Muhammad, and on the family of Muhammad, as you Sent Blessings on the family of Ibrāhīm, among nations; For You are the Most Praiseworthy, the Most Glorious); 

and the method of greeting (i.e Salām in Tashahhud: “As-Salāmu ‘alayka ayyuhan -Nabiyyu wa Rahmatullāhi wa barakātuh - Peace be on you, O Prophet, and also the mercy of Allāh and His blessings”.) is as you know it” 

[Muslim (803), Abu Dawud (976 and 980): sahih]. The last phrase of this hadith clearly indicates the linkage of Salawāt and the Tashahhud.

The hadith indicated clarification of Rasūlullāh (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam) to the Sahabah on the cammand of Allah (re: al-Ahzab, 33: 56) as how  to say a proper Salawāt his and reiteration on the Salām as said in the Tashahhud which also implies its corelation.

It is a command which implies that it is obligatory (wajib), and that the basic principle concerning an obligation it is a must (fard). If it is not done, then the solāt is invalid and if it is omitted by mistake the Prostration of Forgetfulness (Sujud Al-Sahwi) is required.

It was reported that Rasūlullāh (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam) used to send Salawāt on himself in the First Tashahhud as well as the other[Abu 'Awānah in his Sahīh (2/324) and Nasā'ie] . It was recorded that the version of Salawāt that Rasūlullāh (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam)  would use himself is as follows: 

 “Allāhumma salli 'ala Muhammad, wa ‘ala ahli bait, wa ‘ala azwajihi wa dzurriyyatihi, Kama sallayta ‘ala Ibrāhīm; Innaka Hamīdum Majīd;Wa bārik ‘ala Muhammad, wa ‘ala ahli bait, wa ‘ala azwajihi wa dzurriyyatihi, Kama bārakta ‘ala Ibrāhīm; Innaka Hamīdum-Majīd (O Allāh! Send prayers on Muhammad , and on his household, and on his wives and progeny, as you sent prayers on the family of Ibrahim; You are indeed Worthy of Praise, Full of Glory; And send blessings on Muhammad  and his household, and his wives and progeny, as you sent blessings on the family of Ibrahim; You are indeed Worthy of Praise, Full of Glory).

[ Ahmad and Tahawi with a sahīh sanād]

In another hadith narrated from Fizhalah Ibn ‘Ubaid (radiyallāhu’anhu), who said:

“The Allāh’s Messenger (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam) heard a man supplicating (after Tashahhud) in his Solāt and he did not recite the Salawāt on the Allāh’s Messenger (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam). The Allāh’s Messenger (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam) said, ‘He has hastened’. Then Rasūlullāh (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam) called him and said: ‘When one of you prays (refers supplication after Tashahhud), begin with the praise and lauding of Allāh. Then make prayers (salawāt) upon the Allāh’s Messenger (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam), and supplicate whatever you wish of Allāh.”

[Recorded by At-Tirmidzi (who said it is sahih), Ahmad and Abu Dawud]

In this hadith the Prophet (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam) corrected the companion because he was hasten in saying the supplication after saying Tahiyyat (First Tashahhud) in his Solāt without reciting the Salawāt (Second Tashahhud). The Prophet (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam) specified the way if one wished to supplicate in the Tashahhud that it begin with Tahiyyat, Salawāt and then Supplication of whatever one wish of Allāh. Some scholars views the context of the hadith is the Final Tashahhud, it did not at all specify the exclusion of another, so the Salawāt on Rasūlullāh (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam) is inclusive the First Tashahhud.

Ash-Shawkani (rahimallāh) in his “Al-Muntaqi” says, “This is a proof for those who say that the Salawāt upon the Allāh’s Messenger (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam) are not obligatory (wajib), because Rasūlullāh (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam) did not order the one who did not do it to repeat his Solāt. This is supported by his statement to a hadith recorded by Muslim from ‘Abdullah Ibn Mas’ud (radiyallāhu’anhu), who reported that the Allāh’s Messenger (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam), taught him the Tashahhud and then said“Then choose whatever you wish to ask (of Allāh).” In this hadith Ibn Mas’ud (radiyallāhu’anhu) indicates after mentioning only the Tashahhud, Rasūlullāh (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam) then said, ‘Then chooses whatever you wish to ask (of Allāh)’. In his comments on this hadith, Ash-Shawkani (rahimallāh) observes: “In my opinion, there is no confirmed proof that it (the Salawāt upon the Allāh’s Messenger (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam) is obligatory.”

11.1 - The Virtues of Salawāt

The Salawāt reflects the honour, love, faith, attachment to our Prophet (Sallallāhu 'alayhi wa sallam) which signifies to be the deep faith in Allāh. None is considered a true believer until one loves him more than one parents and all others. The Salawāt indicates the honour, love, belief, attachment to him as our Prophet (Sallallāhu 'alayhi wa sallam) which signifies to be the deep faith in Allāh.  

Anas Ibn Mālik (radiyallāhu'anhu) narrated the Prophet (Sallallāhu 'alayhi wa sallam) said: “No one of you truly believes until I am dearer to him than his father, his son, his own self and all the people.” [Narrated by Al-Bukhāri, 15; Muslim, 44].

The Prophet (Sallallāhu 'alayhi wa sallam) also said: “Whenever someone seeks Allāh’s blessings for me, Allāh returns the soul to my body until I reply to his salutation." [Reported by Abu Dawud]

Imām Ahmad related that Abu Talhah Al-Ansārī (radiyallāhu’anhu) said: The Messenger of Allāh (Sallallāhu’alayhi wasallam) arose one morning in a very pleasant mood with signs of good tidings apparent on his face. They said, “O Messenger of Allāh, we see that you look happy.” Rasūlullāh (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam) said: “The angel came to me and told me, ‘O Muhammad, would it not please you if your Lord, may He be glorified, said: ‘No member of your Ummah sends Solāh (Salawāt) upon you but I send Solāh upon him tenfold, and no member of your Ummah sends greetings of Salām upon you but I send greetings of Salām upon him tenfold’.’” I said, “Of course.’” [This was also recorded by An-Nasā'ie Ibn Abi Shaybah, ‘Abd bin Hamīd and At-Tirmidzi; Cited with slightly different wording in Imām Abu Sulayman al-Jazuli's Dala'il Al-Khayrat (The Index of Good Things)]

‘Abdullāh bin Mas’ud (radiyallāhu’anhu) narrated that the Messenger of Allāh (Sallallāhu’alayhi wasallam) said: "Those who are most deserving of my intercession on the Day of Judgment are those who used to increasingly seek Allāh’s Blessing (salawāt) for me.” [This is recorded by Ahmad, Al-Bukhari, At-Tirmidzi and Ibn Hibbān said hasan]

Anas Ibn Mālik (radiyallāhu’anhu) reported that the Messenger of Allāh (Sallallāhu’alayhi wasallam) said: “There are three under the shade of Allāh on a day when there is no shade except His; the one who relieved a distress from someone from my nation; the one who invigorate my Sunnah and the one who invoked blessings on me (Salawāt) the most”. [This is recorded in the Mustadrak and the Musnad of al-Firdaus; Al-Hāfiz As-Suyūtī also recorded it in his Burūj Al-Hilāl.]

And the Prophet (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam) likened those who do not salawāt upon him when his name is mentioned as a miser: "The miser  (wretched; niggardly, mistaken) is the one who hears my name mentioned and does not seek blessings for me.” [Reported by At-Tirmidzi]

12 - The Taslim: First Salām (As-Salāmu ‘alaykum warahmatullāh - Peace Be Upon You and the Mercy of Allāh) at the end of Solāt 

Saying the Salām at the end of the Solāt is obligatory. ‘Ali Ibn Abi Talib (radiyallāhu’anhu) related that the Prophet (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam) said, The key to Solāt is purity. One enters into its inviolable state by the takbir and leaves it by the Salām.” 
As to its authenticity, the report is related by Imām Ahmad, Imām Shāfi’ie, Abu Dawud, Ibn Mājah and at-Tirmidzi who said, “That is the most authentic report on this topic and the best.” 

‘Amr ibn Sa’ad (radiyallāhu `anhu) related that his father said, “I saw the Prophet (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam) making the Salām on his right side and on his left side until I could see the whiteness of his cheeks.” (Related by Ahmad, Muslim, an-Nasa'ie and Ibn Mājah) 

Reported Wa’il ibn Hajar (radiyallāhu `anhu), “I performed Solāt with the Messenger of Allāh (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam) . He would make the Salām on his right side by saying, “Peace be upon you and the mercy of Allāh.” In ‘Bulugh al-Maram’, Ibn Hajar (rahimallāh) says that Abu Dawud related it with a sahih chain. 

It is obligatory to say one Salām, and it is preferred to say two. Ibn al-Munzhir (rahimallāh) comments that all scholars agree that making only one Salām is permissible. 

Ibn Qudāmah (rahimallāh) writes in ‘Al-Mughni’: “There is no clear text from Imām Ahmad that states that two Salāms are obligatory. He only said, “Two salāms are the most authentic act from the Messenger of Allāh (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam) .” It is permissible to say that this is the regulation, although it is not obligatory, and others have the same opinion. This is also pointed out in another of his statements where he said: “Two Salāms are more loved by me. But ‘Aishah, Salamah Ibn Al-Aku’ and Sahl ibn Sa’ad (radiyallāhu’anhum) narrated that the Prophet (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam) made only one salām.” We can have reconciliation of these differences by stating that it is Sunnah to say two Salāms, but it is obligatory to say one. This is the consensus that Ibn al-Munzhir mentioned, and we have no option to reject that. Imām Nawawi (rahimallāh) said: “It is the opinion of Ash-Shāfi’ie and most of the early and later scholars that it is Sunnah to say two Salāms.” 

Imām Mālik (rahimallāh) and a group of scholars say that only one Salām is Sunnah. They adduce this from a weak hadith that cannot be used as a proof. If something of this nature had been confirmed from the Prophet (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam) , the act was probably done just to show that it is permissible to say only one Salām. Scholars are agreed that only one Salām is obligatory. If one makes only one Salām, he should turn to his right for the first one and to the left for the second one. He should turn until his cheeks can be seen from behind. That is the most authentic form and it is said, “If one says the two Salāms to the right or to the left while facing forward, or the first one on the left and the second one on the right, then his Solāt would still be valid and he would have fulfilled the act of the two Salāms. But, he would have lost the virtue of how they are to be performed.”

13 - Performing the posture with toma’ninah (Calmness till you feels at ease)

14 - Tartib

 Doing the pillars in the order. If a person deliberately observe Sujud before Ruku’, for example, the Solāt is invalidated; if he does that by mistake, he has to go back and observe the Ruku’, and then sujud.

And Allāh Almighty Knows best.

[There some differences about the content of Pillars of the Solāt except its approach like: Niyyah, Toma’ninah, Salawāt in Final Tashahhud is a Mustahabbah Sunnah in Hanbali, Taslim (Shāfi'ie consider the first Salām is the pillar and the Solāt is concluded)]

[Excerpted from "Fiqh-As-Sunnah, Volume 1: Obligatory acts of the Solāt by Sayyid Sābiq Fiqh" via http://ymsite.com/home/; A Comprehensive Prayer Formula by Zaharuddin Abd Rahman; Islam Q&A (65847)]

All About The Solāt

4. Al-Wudhu’ ; 5. Tayammum;
29.   Solāt al-Jumu’ah; 30. The Sanctified Hour of Jumu’ah.

No comments: