Thursday, March 29, 2012

The Adzān

The Adzān
(The Call to Solāh)

By Sayyid Sābiq

In the name of Allāh, the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful;
All the praise and thanks is due to Allāh, the Lord of al-`ālameen. I testify that there is none worthy of worship except Allāh, and that Muhammad, Sallallāhu `alayhi wasallam is His Messenger.

The Adzān is a call to inform others in specific words that the time for a Solāh has begun. It is a call to the congregation, and is an expression of the Islamic practices. It is obligatory or highly preferred. Al-Qurtubi and others have said that the Adzān, although it has very few words, covers all essentials of the faith. It begins by proclaiming the greatness of Allāh, pointing to His existence and perfection. It mentions His oneness and the denial of polytheism, and it confers the messengership of Muhammad (Sallallāhu `alayhi wasallam). It calls to specific acts of obedience after testifying to Muhammad’s messengership, and it calls to a prosperity which is everlasting, pointing to the return to Allāh. Then, in a manner of emphasis, it repeats some of what was already mentioned. 

1 - The Virtues and Excellence of Adzān

Many ahādīth describe the virtues of the Adzān and the one who calls it. Such hadith include the following: 

Abu Hurairah (radiyallāhu`anhu) reported that the Allāh’s Messenger (Sallallāhu `alayhi wasallam) said: "If the people knew what was in the Adzān and the first row (of the Solāh in virtue), and that they could not get it save by drawing lots, they would draw lots. If they knew the reward for praying the noon Solāh early in its time, they would race to it. And if they knew the reward for the night and the morning Solāh in congregation, they would come to them even if they had to crawl.” (Recorded by al-Bukhari and others) 

Mu’awiyyah reported that the Allāh’s Messenger (Sallallāhu `alayhi wasallam) said, “The callers to Solāh will have the longest necks of all people on the Day of Resurrection.” (Related by Ahmad, Muslim, and Ibn Mājah) 

Al-Barra’ Ibn `Azib (radiyallāhu`anhu) reported that the Allāh’s Messenger (Sallallāhu `alayhi wasallam) said: “Allah and His angel’s solāh upon those in the first rows. And the caller to Solāh is forgiven, for as far as his voice reaches and whoever hears him will confirm what he says. He will get a reward similar to those who pray with him.” This hadith is related by Ahmad and an-Nasa`ie. Al-Munzhiri says its chain is good. 

Abu ad-Darda’ (radiyallāhu`anhu) reported that he heard the Allāh’s Messenger (Sallallāhu `alayhi wasallam) say, “If three people do not make the Adzān and establish the Solāh among themselves, Satan gains mastery over them.” (Related by Ahmad) 

Abu Hurairah (radiyallāhu`anhu) reported that the Allāh’s Messenger (Sallallāhu `alayhi wasallam) said, "The imām is a guarantor, and the caller to Solāh is one who is given the trust. O Allah, guide the imām and forgive the caller to Solāh."

`Uqbah Ibn `Aamar (radiyallāhu`anhu) said he heard the  Allāh’s Messenger (Sallallāhu `alayhi wasallam) say, “Your Lord, the Exalted, is amazed (and pleased) by one who is watching sheep in his pasture, then goes to the mountain to make Adzān and Solāh. Allah, the Exalted, says, ‘Look at my slave there who makes the Adzān and establishes the Solāh out of fear of Me. I have forgiven my slave and have allowed him to enter Paradise’.” (Recorded by Ahmad, Abu Dawud and an-Nasa’ie) 

2 - The Event Leading to Legislation of Adzān

The Adzan was made part of the Shari`ah during the first year after the Migration to Madinah. The hadith clarify what led up to its institution. 

Nafa’ related that Ibn `Umar (radiyallāhu`anhu) said: “The Muslims would gather and calculate the time of Solāh, and no one would call them. They spoke about that one day. Some said, ‘We should have a bell like the Christians.’ Others said, ‘We should have a horn like the Jews.’ `Umar (radiyallāhu`anhu) suggested: ‘Why don’t we have one person call the others to Solāh?’ The Allāh’s Messenger (Sallallāhu `alayhi wasallam) said: ‘Stand, Bilal, and make the call to Solāh.’” (Related by Ahmad and al-Bukhari) 

`Abdullah Ibn (Zaid Ibn) `Abd Rabbih (radiyallāhu`anhu) reported: “When the Allāh’s Messenger (Sallallāhu `alayhi wasallam) was to order the use of a bell to call the people to Solāh, he disliked it because it resembled the Christian practice. While I was sleeping, a man came to me carrying a bell. I said to him, ‘O slave of Allah, will you sell me that bell?’ He said, ‘What would you do with it?’ I replied, ‘I would call the people to Solāh with it.’ he said, ‘Shall I not guide you to something better than that?’ I said, ‘Certainly.’ he said, “You should say:
 “Allāhu Akbar, Allāhu Akbar, Allāhu Akbar, Allāhu Akbar;
Ashhadu allā ilāha illal-lāh, Ashhadu allā ilāha illallāh; Ashhadu anna Muhammadar-Rasū lul-lāh, Ashhadu anna Muhammadar-Rasū-lul-lāh;
Hayya `alas-solāh, hayyah `alassolāh; Hayya `alal-falāh, hayya `alal-falāh;
Allāhu Akbar, Allāhu Akbar;
Lā ilāha illal-lāh”.”
Then he went a short distance away and said: “When you stand for the Solāh, say:
“Allahu Akbar, Allahu Akbar;
Ashhadu allā ilāha illal-lāh; Ashhadu anna Muhammad ar-Rasū-lul-lāh;
Hayya ‘alas-solāh, Hayya `alal-falāh; Qad qāmatis-solāh, Qad qāmatis-solāh;
Allāhu Akbar, Allāhu Akbar;
Lā ilāha illal-lāh”.”

In the morning, I went to the Allāh’s Messenger (Sallallāhu `alayhi wasallam) to tell him what I had seen. Rasūlullāh (Sallallāhu `alayhi wasallam) said, “Your dream is true, Allāh willing. Go to Bilal, tell him what you have seen, and tell him to make the call to Solāh [Adzān], for he has the best voice among you.” I went to Bilal bin Rabah (radiyallāhu`anhu) and told him what to do, and he made the call to Solāh. 

`Umar Al-Khattab (radiyallāhu`anhu) was in his house when he heard it. He came out with his cloak, saying “By the One who has raised you with the truth, I saw similar to what he saw.”
The Allāh’s Messenger (Sallallāhu `alayhi wasallam) said, “To Allah is the praise”.” 

The hadith is recorded by Ahmad, Abu Dawud, Ibn Mājah, Ibn Khuzaimah and at-Tirmidzi, who called it as hassan sahih. 

In his ‘Fathul- Bari’, Ibn Hajar al-Asqalani (rahimahullāh) held:  “Rasūlullāh (Sallallāhu `alayhi wasallam) inform `Umar: "You are preceded by the Wahyu". A narration by Ibn ad-Dawudi from Ibnu Ishaq that Jibreel came to the Rasūlullāh (Sallallāhu `alayhi wasallam) bringing the lafaz of the Adzān eight days before both `Abdullah bin Zaid and `Umar (radiyallāhu`anhum) informed Rasulullah (Sallallāhu `alayhi wasallam) about their dream.”

3 – The Three ways to pronounce the Adzān

There are three ways to make the Adzān: 

1- Make four Takbir at the beginning and say the rest of the phrases twice, without any repetition, except for the last statement of Lā illāha illa-lāh. So, the Adzān would be made up of fifteen phrases, as in the preceding hadith of ‘Abdullah. 

2- Make four Takbir and then repeat Ashhadu an lāilāha illal-lāh, twice, and Ashhadu anna Muhammad ar-Rasū-lul-lāh twice, in a low voice, then repeat them again in a louder voice. Abu Mahzhura reported that the Allāh’s Messenger (Sallallāhu `alayhi wasallam) taught him an Adzan consisting of nineteen phrases. This hadith is related by “the five.” Recorded by At-Tirmidzi; called it hassan sahih. 

3- Make two Takbir and repeat the “statements of witness: Ashhadu an lāilāha illal-lāh making the number of phrases seventeen. 

Imam Muslim recorded that Abu Mahzhurah (radiyallāhu`anhu) related that the Allāh’s Messenger (Sallallāhu `alayhi wasallam) taught him the following Adzān: Allahu Akbar, Allahu Akbar. Ashhadu alla ilaha illal-lah, Ashhadu alla ilaha illal-lah. Ashhadu anna Muhammad ar-Rasū-lul-lāh, Ashhadu anna Muhammad ar-Rasūl-lal-lah. Then repeat Ashhadu alla ilaha illal-lah (twice), Ashhadu anna Muhammad ar-Rasūl-lal-lah (twice), Hayya ‘alas-solah (twice), Hayya ‘alal-falah (twice). Allahu Akbar, Allahu Akbar. La ilaha illal-lah.” 

3.1 - At-Tathwīb: Saying “Solāh is better than sleep” in the Morning Adzān.

It is part of the shari`ah that the caller to Solāh say, “As-salātu khairun min an-naūm (Solāh is better than sleep) in the morning Adzān. Abu Mahzhurah (radiyallāhu`anhu) asked the Allāh’s Messenger (Sallallāhu `alayhi wasallam) to teach him the Adzān and he told him, “If it is the morning Adzān, say: ‘As-solātu khairun min an-naum, As-solātu khariun min annaum. Allahu Akbar, Allahu Akbar. Lā illāha illal-lāh’.” (Related by Ahmad and Abu Dawud) It is to be said only in the morning Adzan. 

3.2 - What is to be said During the Adzan?

`Umar Ibn Al-Khattab (radiyallāhu‘anhu) narrated that the Rasūllullāh (Sallallāhu `alayhi wasallam) said:

“If the Mu`azzin says, ‘Allāhu Akbar, Allāhu Akbar (Allāh is most great, Allāh is most great),’ and one of you says, ‘Allāhu Akbar, Allāhu Akbar (Allāh is most great, Allāh is most great)’; Then he says, ‘Ashhadu an lā ilāha ill-Allāh (I bear witness that there is no god except Allāh),’ and you say, ‘Ashhadu an lā ilāha ill-Allāh (I bear witness that there is no god except Allāh)’; Then he says, ‘Ashhadu anna Muhammadan Rasulullāh (I bear witness that Muhammad is the Messenger of Allāh),’ and you say, ‘Ashhadu anna Muhammadar Rasū-lul-lāh (I bear witness that Muhammad is the Messenger of Allāh)’; Then he says, ‘Hayya `alal-solāh (Come to prayer),’ and you say, ‘Lā hawla wa lā quwwata illa Billāh (There is no power and no strength except with Allāh)’; Then he says,‘Hayya `alal-falāh (Come to prosperity),’ and you say, ‘Lā hawla wa lā quwwata illa Billāh (There is no power and no strength except with Allāh)’;  Then he says, ‘Allāhu Akbar, Allāhu Akbar (Allāh is most great, Allāh is most great),’ and you say, ‘Allāhu Akbar, Allāhu Akbar (Allāh is most great, Allāh is most great)’; Then he says, ‘Lā ilāha illallāh (There is no god but Allāh),’ and one of you says, ‘Lā ilāha illallāh (There is no god but Allāh),’- from the heart; he will enter Paradise.”  (Related by Muslim)

It is preferred that whoever is listening to the Adzān repeat it with the Mu`azzin, except for the two “Hayya `alas-solāh, hayya `alal-falah” phrases, after which he should say: “Lā hawla wa lā quwatah illa billāh (There is no power or might save Allah)”.

In a narration by Jabir Ibn Sumrah (radiyallāhu`anhu) (radiallāhu‘anhu) that the Messenger of Allāh (Sallallāhu `alayhi wasallam) said: “
Whoever says (after) hearing the Adzān: ‘Allāhumma Rabba hādzihid-da’watit-tāmmah wal-solātil-qā imah, āti Muhammadan il wasīlata wal-fadīlah, wab `athhu maqāman mahmūdan illadzi wa `ad-tah (O Allah, Lord of this complete call and of the established Solāhs, grant Muhammad the place of wasilah, the most virtuous place and raise him to a praiseworthy position that you have promised him.)’ will have my intercession made permissible for him on the Day of Judgement’.” (Related by al-Bukhari)

Sa'd bin Abu Waqqas (radiyallahu’anhu) reported: The Prophet (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wasallam) said, "He who says after the Adzan: 'Ash-hadu an la ilaha illallah Wah-dahu la sharika Lah; wa ash-hadu anna Muhammadan 'abduhu wa Rasūluh, radhitu Billahi Rabban, wa bi Muhammadin Rasulañ, wa bil Islami Deena [I testify that there is no true god except Allah Alone; He has no partners and that Muhammad (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wasallam) is His slave and Messenger; I am content with Allah as my Rabb, with Muhammad as my Messenger and with Islam as my Deen],' his sins will be forgiven."[Muslim].

This Hadith mentions another prayer which should be recited beside the already mentioned Du'a-al-Wasilah

An-Nawawi (rahimallāh) says: “Our companions hold that it is preferable for the listener to repeat after the caller (to Solāh), except when he comes to the two preceding phrases, for this shows that he approves of what the caller is saying. Those two statements are calls to the Solāh, and it is only proper for the muazzin to say them. It is preferable for the listener to say something, such as Lā hawla wa lā qawata illa billāh. It is confirmed in the two Sahihs from Abu Musa Al-Ash`ari (radiyallāhu`anhu) that the Allāh’s Messenger (Sallallāhu `alayhi wasallam) said, ‘Lāhawla wa lā quwata illā billāh is a treasure from the treasures of Paradise.’ Our companions say that to repeat the call to Solāh is preferred for everyone who hears the call, whether clean or unclean, in a state of post-sexual uncleanliness or menstruating, and so on, as it is a remembrance and all of those people who can should make it. Those who cannot do so are the ones who are praying, who are relieving themselves, or are having sexual intercourse. If one is reciting the Qur`an, or making remembrance of Allāh (dzikir) or studying and so on, he should stop what he is doing and repeat after the caller to Solāh. He may then return to what he was doing, if he wishes, or he can pray a voluntary or obligatory Solāh.” 

Imām Ash-Shāfi`ie (rahimallāh) says: “One should not repeat after the call to Solāh, but when he finishes he should repeat what he has said.” 

In ‘al-Mughni’, it says: “If one enters the mosque and hears the Adzān, it is best that he wait until the caller finishes it before he begins to repeat it. This way he will catch both good deeds. If he does not repeat after the call but starts praying, there is no problem. This is what Ahmad says on the subject.”

 The Muslim should pray for the Allāh’s Messenger (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam), after the call is over in any of the manners that have been related, and ask Allah to give him the place of wasilah. 

`Abdullah Ibn `Amr (radiyallāhu`anhu) related that the Allāh’s Messenger (Sallallāhu `alayhi wa sallam), said, “If you hear the call to Solāh, repeat after it. Then supplicate for me, for whoever makes one supplication for me, Allāh makes ten for him. Then ask Allāh to grant me the place of wasilah. It is a place in Paradise reserved for a slave from among the slaves of Allah. I hope to be him, and whoever asks Allah to grant me the place of wasilah, my intercession becomes permissible for him.” (Related by Muslim.)

4 - The Supplication after the Adzān

And one should also make individual supplications, after the Adzān, as that is the among most mustajabb time that duā’ will most likely be accepted. 

Anas bin Mālik (radiyallāhu`anhu) reported that the Allāh’s Messenger (Sallallāhu `alayhi wasallam) said, “A supplication made between the Adzān and the Iqāmah is not rejected.” It is related by Abu Dawud, an-Nasa`ie, and at-Tirmidzi, who called it as hassan sahih, and added “They asked, ‘What should we say, O Messenger of Allah?’ Rasūlullāh He Messenger (Sallallāhu `alayhi wasallam) responded, ‘Ask Allah for forgiveness and well-being in this world and the Hereafter.” `Abdullah Ibn `Amr (radiyallāhu`anhu) related that a man said, “O Messenger of Allah, the Muadzzin get more virtues than us.” Allāh’s Messenger (Sallallāhu `alayhi wasallam) said, “Say what they say and when they finish, ask and it shall be given.” (Related by Abu Dawud with a sahih chain) 

On the same subject, reported Umm Salamah (radiyallāhu’anha), “The Allāh’s Messenger (Sallallāhu `alayhi wasallam) taught me to say (after) the sunset call to Solāh, ‘O Allāh, this is the beginning of Your night and the end of Your day. I have supplicated to You, so forgive me.” 

5 -There is a Solat between every Adzan and Iqamah

'Abdullah bin Mughaffal (radiyallahu’anhu) reported: The Messenger of Allah (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wasallam) said, "There is a Solat between every Adzan and Iqamah; there is a Solat between every Adzan and Iqamah." (While saying the same for the) third time (he (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wasallam) added), "It is for him who desires (to perform it)."[Al-Bukhari and Muslim].

The two Adzan here means Adzan and Iqamah, as has been elucidated by Imam An-Nawawi. That is, offering of two Rak'ah between Adzan and Iqamah is Mustahabb (desirable). It comes in the category of Ghair Ratiba or Ghair Mu'akkadah Nawafil. These Nawafil can be performed after the Adzan of every Solat before the congregation stands for the obligatory Solat.

6 - The Iqāmah

There are three ways to perform the Iqamah: 

1- Saying the First Takbir four times and everything else twice, with the exception of the last statement of Lā ilāha illal-lāh.

Abu Mahzhura (radiyallāhu`anhu) said that the Allāh’s Messenger (Sallallāhu `alayhi wasallam) taught him the Iqamah consisting of seventeen phrases: Allāhu Akbar (4 times), ‘Ashhadu an lā ilāha ill-Allāh (twice), ashhadu anna Muhammad ar-Rasū-lul-lah (twice), Hayya `alas-solāh (twice), Hayya `alal-falah (twice), Qad qāmatis-solāh (twice), Allahu Akbar, Allahu Akbar. Lā ilāha illal-lāh. This is related by “the five.” At-Tirmidzi grades it as hassan.

2- To say the beginning and ending takbir, and the phrase qad qāmatus-salah twice. Everything else is to be said once, making eleven phrases. 

This is based on the preceding hadith of `Abdullah Ibn Zaid (radiyallāhu`anhu): “When you stand for the Solāh, say: “Allahu Akbar, Allahu Akbar. ‘Ashhadu an lā ilāha ill-Allāh, Ashhadu anna Muhammad ar-Rasū-lul-lah. Hayya `alas-solāh, Hayya `alal-falah. Qad qāmatis-solah, Qad qāmatis-solāh. Allāhu Akbar, Allāhu Akbar. Lā illāha illal-lāh”.” 

3- The same as in the preceding, but “Qad qāmatis-solah” is said only once, making a total of ten phrases. Imam Malik (rahimallāh) chose this way, because he found the people of Madinah performing it thus. But says Ibn al-Qayyim (rahimallāh), “It is not proven that the Messenger of Allah ever said ‘Qad qāmatus-solah’ only once.” Ibn `Abdul-Barr is of the view, “In every case, it is said twice.” 

6.1 - Supplication during the Iqamah

It is preferred that one who hears the Iqamah repeat the words, except when Qad qāmatus-solāh is said, he should say, “Allah establishes it and makes it everlasting.” Some of the companions reported that when Bilal bin Rabab (radiyallāhu`anhu) said this phrase, the Allāh’s Messenger (Sallallāhu `alayhi wasallam) would say “Allah establishes it and makes it everlasting.” 

7 - Conditions to Be Met By the Caller to Solāh

It is preferred that he meets the following conditions: 

1 - It is a must that he makes the Adzān for Allāh’s sake and not for wages. `Uthman Ibn Abu al-`Aas (radiyallāhu`anhu) asked the Allāh’s Messenger (Sallallāhu `alayhi wasallam), to appoint him as the imam of his people. He replied, “You are their imam. Be careful about the weak amongst them, and appoint a caller to Solāh who does not accept wages for his Adzan.”

This hadith is related by Abu Dawud, An-Nasa`ie, Ibn Mājah and At-Tirmidzi, with a slightly different wording, who called it hasan. He also said that the scholars agree with this, and that they hate to see the caller receive wages for the Adzān. 

2 - He should be clean from major or minor impurities. Al-Muhajir Ibn Qanfazh (radiyallāhu`anhu) reported that the Allāh’s Messenger (Sallallāhu `alayhi wasallam) said to him, “Nothing prevented me from returning (your salutations) except that I dislike mentioning the name of Allāh when I am not clean.” This report has come from Ahmad, Abu Dawud, An-Nasa`ie, Ibn Mājah and Ibn Khuzaimah. The latter grades it sahih. 

According to the Shafiyyah, making the call while one is not in a state of cleanliness is permissible although disliked. According to Ahmad, the Hanafiyyah and others, it is permissible and is not disliked. 

3 - He should be standing and facing the Qiblah (the direction of the Ka`abah). Ibn al-Munzhir, said, “There is agreement that it is Sunnah for the caller to be standing, for then he can be heard far away. It is also Sunnah that he faces the qiblah while making the Adzān. If he turns away from the qiblah, his Adzan will be sound, but the act will be disliked. 

4 - He should turn with his head, neck and chest to the right upon saying “Hayya `alas-solāh” and to the left upon saying Hayya `alal falah.”.An-Nawawi says, “It is the most authentic form.” 

Abu Juhaifah (radiyallāhu`anhu)reported, “Bilal made the Adzān, and I saw the movement of his mouth from this side to that side upon saying “Hayya `alas-solāh” and “Hayya `alal-falah.” (Related by Ahmad, Al-Bukhari and Muslim.) 

According to Al-Baihaqi, this turning is not documented through sound chains. In al-Mughni, it states from Ahmad that the caller should not turn to the left or to the right unless he is at the top of a minaret, so that the people on both sides can hear him. 

5 - He should insert his index fingers into his ears. Talking of his practice, Bilal said, “ put my index fingers into my ears and made the Adzān.” (Related by Abu Dawud and Ibn Hibban.) 

At-Tirmidzi (rahimallāh) says, “The scholars prefer the callers to put their index fingers into their ears while making the Adzān.” 

6 - He should raise his voice for the call, even if he is alone in the desert. `Abdullah Ibn `Abdurahman related from his father that Abu Sa`id al-Khudri (radiyallāhu`anhu) said to him, “I see that you love the sheep and the desert. If you are with your sheep or in the desert, then raise your voice while making the call to Solāh, for any jinn, human or thing within hearing distance of your voice will be a witness for you on the Day of Resurrection...I heard the Allāh’s Messenger (Sallallāhu `alayhi wasallam) say that.” (Related by Ahmad, Al-Bukhari, An-Nasā`ie and Ibn Mājah.)
7 - He should pause between each phrase during the Adzān and be quick in making the iqamah. Many narrations have reported that this act is preferred. 

8 - He should not speak during the Iqāmah. Some scholars dislike that he should even speak during the Adzān, although Al-Hasan, `Ata and Qatadah permit it. Abu Dawud says, “I asked Ahmad, ‘May a man speak during his Adzān?’ He said, ‘Yes.’ ‘May he speak during the iqamah?’ He said, ‘No,’ and that is because it is preferred that he make it quickly.” 

8 - The Adzān Before and at the Beginning of the time of Solāh

The Adzān is to be made exactly at the beginning of the Solāh time, except for the morning Solāh, when it may be said before dawn (provided that the people are able to distinguish between the early Adzān and that of the proper time). `Abdullah Ibn `Umar (radiyallāhu`anhu)  related that the  Allāh’s Messenger (Sallallāhu `alayhi wasallam) said, “Bilal makes the Adzān during the night, so eat and drink until you hear the Adzān of Ibn Umm Maktum.” (Related by al-Bukhari and Muslim.) The wisdom behind allowing the morning Adzān a little earlier is made clear in a hadith recorded by Ahmad and others from Ibn Mas`ud (radiyallāhu`anhu): “None of you should let Bilal’s Adzān prevent you from the pre-dawn meal, as he is making the Adzān for those who are praying to stop and for those who are sleeping to get up.” But Bilal made his Adzān in exactly the same way as the regular Adzān. At-Tahawi and an-Nasa’ie relate that the time difference between Bilal’s Adzān and that of Ibn Umm Maktum was the time it took for one to come down from the minaret and for the others to get up to it. 

Enough time should be left between the Adzān and iqāmah for people to prepare themselves for Solāh and get to the mosque. The hadith that state the time difference are weak. Al-Bukhari has a section entitled ‘How Much Time Is There Between the Adzān and Iqāmah?’ But no specific length of time has been confirmed therein. Ibn Batal said, “There is no time limit set, except that of the time beginning and the people gathering for the Solāh.” Jabir Ibn Sumrah (radiyallāhu`anhu) said, “The callers to Solāh of the Allāh’s Messenger (Sallallāhu `alayhi wasallam) would make the Adzān and then leave some time, making the iqamah only when they saw the  Allāh’s Messenger (Sallallāhu `alayhi wasallam) coming (to the place of Solāh). (Related by Ahmad, Muslim, Abu Dawud, and at-Tirmidzi.) 

9 - Whoever Makes the Adzān May Make the Iqāmah

This is so because the caller to Solāh takes precedence in making the iqamah. Says Ash-Shāfi`ie, “If a man made the Adzān, he should follow it up with the iqamah.” Of this, At-Tirmidzi says, “Most of the scholars agree with this opinion.” 

10 - When One Should Stand For the Solāh

Imām Mālik states in al-Muwatta, “I have not heard anything concerning the specific time to stand for Solāh. I have seen some people lagging and others being quick.” Ibn al-Munzhir recorded that Anas (radiyallāhu`anhu) would stand when Qad qāmtus-solāh was said. 

11 - Leaving the Mosque after the Adzān (And Before the Solāh)

It is not allowed to leave the call unanswered or to leave the mosque after it has been made, unless there is some excuse or one has the intention to return for the Solāh. Abu Hurairah (radiyallāhu`anhu) related that the Allāh’s Messenger (Sallallāhu `alayhi wasallam) told them, “If one of you is in the mosque and the call is made, he should not leave the mosque until he prays.” (Related by Ahmad with a sahih chain.) It is also related that Abu Hurairah (radiyallāhu`anhu) said about a man who left the mosque after the call had been made, “That man has disobeyed Abu al-Qasim (the Allāh’s Messenger Sallallāhu `alayhi wasallam).” This is related by Muslim and others. Mu`adz at-Jahni related that the Allāh’s Messenger (Sallallāhu `alayhi wasallam) said, “It is the utmost apathy and sign of disbelief and hypocrisy that one who hears the call of Allāh to salvation does not respond.” (Related by Ahmad and at-Tabarāni.) 

Commenting upon this, At-Tirmidzi (rahimallāh) says, “It has been related from more than one of the companions that one who hears the call and does not respond will have no Solāh. Some said that this is the maximum imposition, which shows that there is no excuse for one who does not attend the congregational Solāh without a valid reason.” 

12 - The Adzān and Iqāmah for Those Who Missed the Proper Time of Solāh

One who sleeps through the time of a Solāh or who forgets a Solāh may make Adzān and iqamah when he desires to pray. In a story recorded by Abu Dawud, when the Allāh’s Messenger (Sallallāhu `alayhi wasallam) and his companions slept through the time of the Morning Solāh, he ordered Bilal to make the Adzān and Iqamah for the Solāh. If one has missed many Solāhs, it is preferred to make one Adzān at the beginning followed by an iqamah for each Solāh. Al-‘Athram says, “I heard Abu ‘Abdullah (Ahmad) being asked what a man who had missed a Solāh should do about the Adzān. He mentioned the hadith of Hushaim from Abu Az-Zubair...that the idol-worshippers kept the Allāh’s Messenger (Sallallāhu `alayhi wasallam) busy during four of his Solāhs during the Battle of the Clans. When part of the night had passed, he ordered Bilal to make the Adzān and the Iqamah and they prayed the afternoon, sunset and night Solāhs in succession, each time followed by the Iqamah. 

13 - The Adzān and Iqāmah for Women

Ibn `Umar (radiyallāhu`anhu) said, “There is no Adzān or iqamah for women.” (Related by Al-Baihaqi with a sahih chain.) This was the opinion of Anas, Al-Hassan, Ibn Sireen, An-Nakha’ie, Al-Thauri, Malik, Abu Thaur and the people of “juristic reasoning.” Ash-Shāfi`ie, Ishaq and Ahmad said if they make the Iqāmah and Adzān, there is no problem. It is related from ‘Aishah that she would make the Adzān and iqamah and lead the women in Solāh, standing in the middle of the row. (Related by Al-Baihaqi.) 

14 - Entering The Mosque After The Solāh Is Finished

The author of Al-Mughni states, “If one enters the mosque after the Solāh is finished, he may make the Adzān and iqāmah. Ahmad’s practice, based on what Al-`Athram and Sa`id Ibn Mansur recorded from Anas, was to ask a person to make the Adzān and iqāmah, after which he would pray with (some people) in congregation. If a person wishes, he may pray without making the Adzān and iqāmah. `Urwa said:, “If you reach a mosque wherein the people have already prayed, you may base your Solāh on their Adzān and iqamah, as theirs are sufficient for those who come after them.” This was the opinion of Al-Hassan, Ash-Sha’bi and An-Nakha`ie. Al-Hassan, however, said: “I prefer that he makes the Iqāmah. If he makes the Adzān, he should do so in a low voice and not aloud, for some people may consider it out of place.” 

15 - The Time between the Iqāmah and the Solāh
It is permitted to talk between the iqamah and the Solāh. One need not repeat the iqāmah, even if the interval is long. Anas Ibn Mālik (radiyallāhu`anhu) reported: “The iqāmah was made while the Messenger of Allah was talking to a man in the corner of the mosque. He did not come to the Solāh until the people had fallen asleep.” (Related by Al-Bukhari) One time, the Allāh’s Messenger (Sallallāhu `alayhi wa sallam), remembered that he was in post-sex impurity after the iqamah had been made, so he went to make ghusl and came back to lead the Solāh without (a new) Iqāmah. 

16 - The Iqāmah of One Who Is Not the Designated Caller

If someone other than the appointed caller wants to make the Adzān, he must obtain the latter’s permission. If the appointed or regular caller is late and they fear that they will miss the time of the Adzān, another person may make the call. 

17 - Extraneous Additions to the Adzān

The Adzān is a form of worship. Muslims are not allowed to add or subtract anything from it. There is an authentic hadith which states, “Whoever introduces something to this affair of ours will have it rejected.” We will discuss some of these acts here: 

The caller saying, “I bear witness that our leader (Muhammad) is the Messenger of Allāh.” Ibn Hajar (rahimallāh), is of the opinion that the word ‘leader’ may not be added, although it is permissible on other occasions. 

Shaikh Isma`il Al-`Ajluni records in ‘Kashfal-Khafa’, “Wiping the eyes with the index fingers and then kissing them after hearing the caller say ‘I bear witness that Muhammad is the messenger of Allah,’ and with the listener saying, ‘I bear witness that Muhammad is His slave and messenger. I am pleased with Allah as Lord, with Islam as religion, and with Muhammad as the Prophet,” is based on Ad-Dailami’s report from Abu Bakar that when he heard the caller say, “I bear witness that Muhammad is the Messenger of Allah,” he would say the same, kiss the inside of his index fingers and wipe his eyes. The Allāh’s Messenger (Sallallāhu `alayhi wasallam) then said, “Whoever does what my friend (Abu Bakar) did, then my intercession will be permissible for him.”

In ‘Al-Maqasid’ it says, “This is not true. And what Abu Bakar Ar-Raddad Al-Yamani Al-Mutasawaf recorded in ‘Mujibat ar-Rahmah wa Aza’im al-Maghfirah’ is not true. Its chain is of unknown narrators and, moreover, the chain is broken.” 

There is another report of equally dubious import from Al-Khidrs and mentioned in the preceding book: “Whoever says, upon hearing the caller say, ‘I bear witness that Muhammad is the Messenger of Allah,’ ‘Welcome O my love and the coolness of my eyes, Muhammad Ibn ‘Abdullah, (Sallallāhu `alayhi wasallam).’ and then kisses his index fingers and wipes his eye with them, he will never go blind; nor will he never be afflicted with an eye infection.” 

None of these practices can be attributed to the Allāh’s Messenger (Sallallāhu `alayhi wasallam) or his companions. 

18- Melody the Adzān

To “melody” the Adzān or to state it in improper Arabic by adding a letter or lengthening the sound of a vowel, and so on, is disliked. If it changes or obscures the meaning of what is said, it becomes forbidden. 

Yahya Al-Baka’ reported, “I saw Ibn ‘Umar say to a man, ‘I am mad at you for the sake of Allah.’ Then he said to his companions, ‘He sings in making his Adzān, and he takes wages for it’.” 

19- Dzikir and Adzān

Making dzikir, supplications, and practices of a similar nature before the morning Adzān are innovations to the Sunnah. In al-Iqna and its commentary, a book of Hanbali fiqh, it is stated, “What some callers do before the morning Adzān (i.e. dzikir, chanting, loud supplications and so on) are not part of the Sunnah. No scholar has said that it is preferred to do such acts. In fact, they are hateful innovations introduced after the time of the Allāh’s Messenger (Sallallāhu `alayhi wasallam) and his companions. No one is to order such acts, and no one is to blame one who avoids such acts. If one has left money for such acts, it is not permissible to use it for those acts, as they contradict the Sunnah. 

In ‘Talbis Iblis’ by Ibn Al-Jawzi (rahimallāh), it states, “I have seen people staying up a part of the night on the minaret admonishing the people, making dzikir and reciting the Qur’an in a loud voice. They keep people from sleeping and disturb those who are making late-night Solāhs. These are rejected and evil actions.” Ibn Hajar Al-Asqalani (rahimallāh) says in Fathul-Bari, “What is done in the way of dzikir before the morning Adzān, the Friday Solāhs and the Solāhs for the Allāh’s Messenger (Sallallāhu `alayhi wasallam) is derived neither from the Adzān nor from the Islamic law.” 

20- To Say aloud “Peace and Blessings upon the Messenger” After the Adzān

This is a hated innovation. Ibn Hajar (rahimallāh) says in ‘Al-Fatawa Al-Kubra’, “Our Shaikhs and others have given a legal verdict about the Solāh and salutations for the Allāh’s Messenger (Sallallāhu `alayhi wasallam) after the Adzān and how the Muezzin does it. Their verdict is that (the Solāh for the Prophet) has its root in the Sunnah, but the manner in which they perform it is an innovation.” 

Muhammad `Abduh (rahimallāh) was asked about saying the Solāhs and salutation for the Allāh’s Messenger (Sallallāhu `alayhi wasallam) subsequent to the Adzān and he said, “The Adzān, as mentioned in ‘al-Khaniyyah’, is only for the prescribed Solāhs. It consists of fifteen phrasesthe last being Lā ilāha illal-lāh. Whatever is mentioned before or after it is an innovation. It has been introduced for rhythm, and nothing else. There is hardly a scholar who has allowed it, nor does it make any sense to say that it is a good innovation, for every innovation in matters of worship is evil. Whoever claims that it is not for melody is lying.”

And Allāh Almighty Knows best.

Excerpted from Fiqh-us-Sunnah, Volume 1:“Adzān, the Call to Solāh” By Sayyid Sābiq

All About The Solah

4. Al-Wudhu’ ; 5. Tayammum;
29.   Solāh al-Jumu`ah; 30. The Sanctified Hour of Jumu’ah.

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