Islamic Perspectives on Trials and Tribulations
By Mushfiqur Rahman
Are you a believer having faith in Allāh Subhānahu wa ta‘ala and the Hereafter? Then prepare yourself for trials and tribulations with knowledge from the Qur’an and the Sunnah, for the believer’s heart and soul will for sure be put to test to check the level of faith and trust he or she has in Allāh.
For my parents Muhammad Abdul-Khaleq and Rashida Khatun, whose faith, piety and righteousness is my inspiration, my supplication to Allāh is what He has taught me in the Qur’an:
“My Lord! Show mercy to them as they nurtured me when I was small.”
In the name of Allāh, the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful;
All the praise and Thanks is due to Allāh, the Lord of al-'ālameen. There is none worthy of worship except Allāh, and that Muhammad, Sallallāhu alayhi wa sallam, is His Messenger.
1 - Understanding the Difference between the Apparent and the Reality
An individual once asked Sayyid Mawdudi (rahimahullāh) about why many people, despite being good and pious, or apparently innocent, suffer severe tribulations in this worldly life. What wrong could a minor child or an infant, for example, commit so that he or she should have to suffer a fatal disease or even be murdered? Why do we see many good people suffering severe afflictions and calamities that they apparently do not deserve?
Mawdudi asked him to consider a beautiful, well-kept garden and its gardener. The garden has many kinds of plants, each requiring various types of resources and care. It is well kept and healthy since the gardener meticulously takes care of it. He often clears the weeds and unnecessary plants that are harmful for the good plants. He trims branches and leaves to maintain their good health. He waters his garden when needed, or withholds water when that is harmful. It is because of such good care that his garden remains beautiful and healthy.
The weeds or plants that he removes or the leaves and branches that he trims suffer much and complains. Their instincts are reactive to their own physical needs and they have little or no understanding about their surroundings, let alone the rest of the garden. They complain about their immediate needs and sufferings and do not know what is ultimately good for even themselves, much less the entire garden. Mawdudi then asked him to compare the garden with the universe and the gardener with Allāh Subhānahu wa ta‘ala.
The point was well made. The analogy, however, is simplistic, for Allāh’s knowledge and wisdom is infinite compared to the finite knowledge of a gardener, and His domain is infinitely wider and more complex than a garden. In this universe where an infinite number of laws, events, variables and factors are at work, each affecting others in complex ways, it is impossible for us to comprehend the full wisdom and purpose behind what we apparently observe.
Parables are sometimes used in the Qur’an to make a point understood. Often, when intellect fails to comprehend a matter, a simple parable can get it across.
The Qur’an mentions an interesting story about Moses (‘alaihissalām) in Surah Al-Kahf. In this story, Moses (‘alaihissalām) met a person named Khidir (‘alaihissalām) , whom Allāh had given “special knowledge”, at a place where “two rivers meet” . Moses (‘alaihissalām)sked him for permission to accompany him in his travel. Khidir replied, “You will surely not be able to bear with me. For how can you patiently bear with something you cannot encompass in your knowledge?” After Moses (‘alaihissalām)insisted that he would be patient, Khidr (‘alaihissalām) allowed him to come with him on condition that he must not question him about anything unless he himself explains it to him.
They came to a place and found a boat. Khidir (‘alaihissalām)damaged the boat by making a hole in it. Moses (‘alaihissalām)immediately objected saying, “Have you made a hole in it so as to drown the people in the boat? You have certainly done an awful thing.” Khidir (‘alaihissalām)replied, “Did I not tell you that you will not be able to patiently bear with me?” Moses (‘alaihissalām)pleaded with him, saying that he forgot the promise.
Moving on, they next came to a place where they met a boy, and Khidir (‘alaihissalām)killed him. Utterly shocked, Moses (‘alaihissalām)exclaimed, “What! Have you slain an innocent person without his having slain anyone? Surely you have done a horrible thing.” Khidir(‘alaihissalām)replied, “Did I not tell you that you will not be able to patiently bear with me?” Moses (‘alaihissalām) pleaded again, saying that if he ever questioned him again about anything, then he would be fully justified in discarding him.
Moving further on, they came to a town where they found a wall that was broken and falling apart. Khidir (‘alaihissalām)repaired the wall to prevent it from disintegrating. Unable to hold his curiosity, Moses (‘alaihissalām)told Khidir (‘alaihissalām)that if he wished, he could have gotten a payment for it. Perhaps he was hoping that Khidr would explain the matter to him without him asking a question.
That final comment made Khidir (‘alaihissalām)discard Moses(‘alaihissalām). “This brings me and you to parting of ways”, he said. “Now I shall explain to you the true meaning of things about which you could not remain patient.” About the boat, he explained, it belonged to some poor people who earned their livelihood from the river. Nearby, there was an oppressive king who was seizing all boats by force. He damaged the boat so that the king will ignore it. About the boy, his parents were righteous whereas this boy was growing up to be a violent man who would have oppressed them. It was hoped that Allāh would now provide them with a righteous son. Lastly, about the wall, there was some buried treasure in there for two orphan boys left behind by their righteous father. By fixing the wall and preventing it from falling apart and thus exposing the treasure, he gained time for the boys to grow up and recover their property.
Before leaving, Khidir (‘alaihissalām)made his final comment that none of these was done by his own wish, meaning that he was simply executing Allāh’s commands.
There is much debate and analysis by Islamic scholars about whether Khidir (‘alaihissalām)was a man or a prophet. Sayyid Mawdudi provides an excellent analysis on this subject and argues that Khidir (‘alaihissalām)was most likely an angel. For, it is strictly unlawful for a human being – much less a prophet whose task is to teach people laws and order - to kill an innocent person or damage one’s property. Only after one commits a crime and it is proven in a court of law, can he be subject to punishment by the proper authority. On the other hand, angels are taking people’s lives and causing destructions every moment as they execute Allāh’s orders . While no man can see the angels and observe their activities, Allāh privileged Moses (‘alaihissalām)to witness the wisdom behind these events so that he can develop an unshakable belief in the works of Allāh and His wisdom and realize that what we see on the surface does not always represent the reality.
Sayyid Mawdudi (rahimahullāh) writes:
The narration of Moses’ (‘alaihissalām) story here is meant to draw both the unbelievers’ and the believers’ attention to an important fact. Those who are concerned with the external aspects of things are liable to draw false conclusions from their observations. This happens because man is not aware of the wisdom underlying the events that take place under Allāh’s dispensation. One frequently witnesses that the wrong-doers prosper whereas the innocent suffer hardships; those who disobey Allāh and commit transgression live in great affluence whereas those who obey Allāh face adversities, and that the wicked enjoy the pleasures of worldly life whereas the virtuous live in misery. Such spectacles are quite common.
Not knowing why such things happen, doubts arise in people’s minds, leading them, on occasion, to have totally false perception of things. Those who consciously disbelieve and are immersed in the perpetration of injustice and oppression are led to conclude that they live in a disordered and chaotic world, a world which has either no sovereign, or if there is any, one who must have become senseless or unjust. Hence, they conclude that people may go about doing what they please, without fearing that they will be called to account. On the other hand, those who believe in Allāh are heart-broken by what they see around them. It also often happens that when such believers are faced with sever tests; their faith is shaken to the core.
It was in order to enable Moses(‘alaihissalām) to comprehend the wisdom underlying those events which generally baffle one understands that Allāh slightly lifts the curtain from the reality which governs the working of the world. In this way, Moses (‘alaihissalām)was able to appreciate that appearances are quite different from the reality. 
These two stories above – one a parable and the other a real story – brings out a fact that is central to understanding the Islamic perspectives on trials and tribulations, and that is: trials and tribulations is not an end on itself. It is a temporal event and a part of a process beyond which lies the reality of something good and desirable. Unlike Moses (‘alaihissalām)for whom the curtain was briefly lifted, a believer cannot see that reality immediately with his mortal eyes, but his faith and knowledge makes him fully confident of that reality.
With that understanding borne in mind, we will now discuss some of the aspects of trials and tribulations from an Islamic perspective.
2 - Allāh is in Full Control of the Universe and Fully Aware of All Events
Nothing happens in this world except through the leave of Allāh. Therefore, a person who has been suffering from distress should know that Allāh is fully aware of all that has happened or been happening to him. It is not a chaotic world where pain and suffering happens at random, nor is it a lawless universe without a ruler and watcher where the strong – be that a person or a nation – can do whatever it wishes to the weak without a consequence. The believer should know that Allāh is aware of every little details of everything that happens, so much so that not even a leaf falls from a tree without Allāh being aware of it:
“He knoweth whatever there is on the earth and in the sea. Not a leaf doth fall but with His knowledge: there is not a grain in the darkness (or depths) of the earth nor anything fresh or dry (green or withered) but is (inscribed) in a Record Clear (to those who can read).” (Al-An‘am, 6:59)
“No misfortune can happen on earth or in your souls but is recorded in a decree before We bring it into existence: that is truly easy for Allāh: in order that ye may not despair over matters that pass you by …” (Al-Hadid, 57:22-23)
Therefore, the believer should take relief and comfort from the fact that Allāh is fully and intimately aware of his situations. Any harm or injustice that he has been subjected to by anyone, will not go without a consequence. Or if he is suffering from distress and difficulties, then his suffering is constantly being watched by One who is the Most Kind, the Most Merciful.
3 - Goodness is from Allāh, Evil is from Ourselves
A believer must have firm conviction that any good that happens to us comes from Allāh and any calamity that befalls us is the result of our own making:
“Whatever misfortune happens to you is because of the things your hands have wrought and for many (of them) He grants forgiveness.” (Ash-Shura, 42:30)
“No affliction great or small afflicts a man but for a sin, but there are more which Allāh forgives.” (At-Tirmidzi)
This does not mean that one will suffer, in the form of calamities in this world, the consequences of every sin or mistake he commits. As the Prophet (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wasallam) said, Allāh forgives much more sins than the ones from which one suffers or will suffer in the Hereafter. But the important point to understand is that Allāh does not cause injustice to anyone by putting him or her to undue suffering.
Our own experience and observations often point to this fact. When an individual’s sits down and reflects upon his difficulties and makes an objective analysis of the events and actions leading to his situations, he will almost always identify some things he did that he should not have done or he did not that he should have done, which led to that situation. For example, for parents who suffer from their rebellious and disobedient teenaged child, it will be found, almost without exception, that they did not arrange his proper Islamic education and a good environment, and did not give it an enough priority to engage them with his upbringing. Indifference or inaction can be as serious as committing a sin or making a bad decision, which can lead to grave consequences. If a man, for another example, lives in an oppressive land where he suffers and cannot practice Islam, then he should be proactive and migrate from that place. Staying passive and continuing to suffer there will be considered acts of injustice that he commits against his own self, which can even lead him to Hell.
Allāh says about such persons:
“When angels take the souls of those who die in sin against their souls they say: “In what (plight) were ye?” They reply: “Weak and oppressed were we in the earth.” They say: “Was not the earth of Allāh spacious enough for you to move yourselves away (from evil)?” Such men will find their abode in Hell - what an evil refuge!” (Al-Nisā’, 4:97)
Now, a god-fearing and righteous believer who has been afflicted with a terrible calamity or injustice may wonder: “What have I done for which I have to suffer as such?” This is a question that probably comes to the minds of many believers afflicted with suffering and distress.
First and foremost, let us be reminded about the fundamental lesson learned from the story of Moses (‘alaihissalām)above, which is: there is a reality behind the apparent which can be far different, if not the opposite, from what we observe on the surface. How many times, in our human condition, have we suffered an obstacle or calamity which turned out to be a blessing days, months, or years later? Perhaps we then find ourselves a bit ashamed in front of Allāh for not being patient and thus loosing the opportunity of earning Allāh’s good pleasure. Indeed, that is the test from Allāh, which some fail, some pass, and a few come out with superb success.
Secondly, even when a righteous believer finds no apparent reason for his calamity, self-scrutiny and objective analysis can point out some mistakes or some incorrect decisions made in the past leading to the situation. If, for example, a righteous and pious person with a very high moral character and conduct marries a person without looking for proper Islamic character and conduct in him or her, and subsequently suffers from a bad marriage and from the actions of that unrighteous spouse, than who else should be blamed other than that pious individual himself or herself? Life is a trust from Allāh which must be utilized to the fullest possible use by every believer and cannot be wasted. Therefore, a righteous believer must be patient until he or she finds a righteous person to marry. Allāh says in the Qur’an:
“Corrupt women are for corrupt men, and corrupt men for corrupt women; good women are for good men, and good men for good women.” (Al-Nur, 24:26)
4 - It is the Righteous Believers Who are Tested with Calamities
Though calamities may hit a believer as a surprise, the reality is that by virtue of being a believer one is supposed to suffer. If a believer understands the Islamic philosophy that this life is a testing ground, then he should realize that this philosophy will be implemented for him in practice while he lives in this testing ground, and not after he dies. Tests are not just limited to see whether one performs the rituals or not. His belief and commitments to Allāh, and his focus in the Hereafter will be fully and thoroughly tested with calamities and afflictions to gauge the depth of his faith in his heart. Achieving Paradise will not be easy. It will come only with unshakable faith and trust in Allāh. Allāh says:
“Ye shall certainly be tried and tested in your possessions and in your personal selves.” (Āli- ‘Imran, 3:186)
“Do men think that they will be left alone on saying “We believe” and that they will not be tested?” (Al-Ankabut, 29:2)
“Be sure We shall test you with something of fear and hunger, some loss in goods or lives or the fruits (of your toil); but give glad tidings to those who patiently persevere.” (Al-Baqārah, 2:155)
Ah! To how many believers these verses come out as relief and solace! How many hearts of believers, with wild storms and waves in there, have calm down when remembering these verses! Day in and day out, these verses have brought the believers to tranquility and provided them with strength. Their souls then speak out: “Yea, we are tested because we are righteous believers.”
To have that feeling of being a righteous believer is very comforting indeed. Do our eyes not always witness the fact that it is the righteous people who always suffer with pain, loss, and calamities one after another while the unrighteous always seem to prosper?
5 - Trials are a Sign of Love by Allāh
One individual once told another one who was going through tribulations that Allāh was displeased with him, and hence his difficulties. This man lacked wisdom, for his comment was offensive to the person who was already distressed. More importantly, his understanding was incorrect from an Islamic perspective. The one who received the comment was a gentleman and also knowledgeable in Islam. Thus, it was not surprising that he decided to digest his remark and refrained from giving a response.
There are people who do maintain that incorrect understanding. Whenever they see a believer who is suffering from some calamity or disease, they think that this is a reflection of Allāh’s wrath on him.
They should remember about the Companions of the Prophet (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam) who were severely persecuted or even killed after becoming Muslim, an event that wipes out all past sins. Even the prophets of Allāh, the best of all people who ever walked on the face of the earth, were persecuted by their community without exception. Was Joseph (‘alaihissalām) not thrown into a well, sold as a slave, and then thrown back into a prison? Did Job (‘alaihissalām) not face severest of trials one after another, and was eventually left out by all except his wife? In fact, the Qur’an tells us that many prophets were brutally killed by the unbelievers.
These examples should establish the fact that trials and tribulations are not a sign of Allāh’s displeasure on someone. Quite the contrary, it is rather a sign of Allāh’s love on someone. The Prophet (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam) said:
“When Allāh who is Great and Glorious loves people He afflicts them [with trials].” (At-Tirmidzi)
“Anyone for whom Allāh intends good, He makes him suffer from some affliction.” (Al-Bukhari)
“When Allāh intends good for His slave, He punishes him in this world, but when He intends an evil for His slave, He does not hasten to take him to task but calls him to account on the Day of Resurrection.” (At-Tirmidzi)
The punishment in the Hereafter is much severe – in fact unimaginable from our worldly perspective – than any affliction one can face in this world. Therefore, when Allāh loves someone and intends for him or her to go to Paradise, He wipes out his sins and mistakes and rewards him highly by putting him to afflictions in this world.
6 - Allāh Never Gives a Trial That is Too Great to Bear
“Human beings are created weak” (Al-Nisā’, 4:28). When a sudden calamity or distress befalls us, we easily become overwhelmed and often cry out, “O Allāh! This is too much for me to bear!”
It never is. The believers should know it for fact that Allāh never puts any burden on a soul that is beyond its ability to bear. Perhaps because we often lose sight of this fact that Allāh mentions this in several places in the Qur’an:
“On no soul doth Allāh place a burden greater than it can bear.” (Al-Baqārah, 2:286)
“On no soul do We place a burden greater than it can bear: before Us is a record which clearly shows the truth: they will never be wronged.” (Al-Mu’minun, 23:62)
“No burden do We place on any soul but that which it can bear.” (Al-Anam, 6:152)
“And those who believe and do good – We do not impose upon any of them a burden beyond his capacity.” (Al-A’raf, 7:42)
This fundamental truth is actually obvious to a believer who reflects. For, if the point is to test one’s level of faith and commitment to Allāh, then it would be an injustice to put a burden on a soul that it will surely fail, and Allāh never commits injustice against anyone:
“… nor is thy Lord ever unjust (in the least) to His servants.” (Fussilat, 41:46)
“Verily Allāh will not deal unjustly with man in aught: it is man that wrongs his own soul.” (Yūnus, 10:44)
Therefore, no matter how difficult one’s situation is or how sever his sufferings, he should have absolutely no doubt in his mind he has the ability to deal with the trial. Allāh is Just, and every affliction that He tests his faithful servant with, there is always two viable outcomes for him: passing the test with success and thus earning Allāh’s good pleasure, or failing it.
7 - The Stronger the Faith, the Harder the Test, and the Greater the Reward
A believer afflicted with a severe calamity should take comfort from the fact that those who have strong faith are given the harder trials. This is established by the Prophet (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wasallam). When asked about who suffers the greatest afflictions, he replied:
“The prophets, then those who come next to them, then those who come next to them. A man is afflicted in keeping his religion. If he is firm in his religion his trial is severe, but if there is weakness in his religion it is made light for him, and it continues like that till he walks on the earth having no sin.” (At-Tirmidzi)
Why is it, one may ask, that people who are faithful and righteous should have to suffer?
To get an answer, we should ask ourselves: is there any achievement without an effort or any fruit without labor? The obvious pattern that we see in our human experience is that those who work hard and go through the process of struggle are rewarded with success in this materialistic world. The greatest reward of everything that one can imagine is Paradise. In fact, the bliss and happiness in Paradise is so great that one cannot even imagine it (As-Sajdah, 32:17). How can then one expect that he will achieve this greatest success without him being thoroughly tested to see if he qualifies for it?
One should not think that following the rituals, such as making salāt five times a day is enough tests for him. The external rituals that we do and the laws of the shari’ah that we observe returns immediate benefit to us as they bring peace and happiness to our families and provide us with a healthy social and moral society in which to live and prosper. Thus, one should not expect that observing Allāh’s commandments and reaping these benefits in turn is the only tests. The real test is the test of the heart where faith lives, and that is tested with affliction and hardship to check if the faith and trust in Allāh is firm and well-rooted or is it weak and superficial:
“Do men think that they will be left alone on saying “We believe” and that they will not be tested? We did test those before them and Allāh will certainly know those who are true from those who are false.” (Al-Ankabut, 29:2-3)
Each believer, therefore, must expect to be tested. The stronger his faith, the harder will be the test, and the greater his reward will be if he remains patient having unshakable faith and trust in Allāh. The Prophet (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wasallam) said:
“The magnitude of the reward goes along with the magnitude of the affliction.” (At-Tirmidzi)
And the believers will continue to go through trials and tribulations in their life until their sins are wiped and they die and meet Allāh free from all sins:
“The believing man or woman continues to have affliction in person, property and children so that they may finally meet Allāh, free from sin.” (At-Tirmidzi)
That is so because Allāh, in His Mercy and Generosity, not only rewards one when he is patient through his trials, but also sheds his sins for the pains and sufferings that he or she goes through. No matter how small the trial or how insignificant the discomfort, Allāh will reward him for that and eliminate some sins. Said the Prophet (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wasallam):
“No calamity befalls a Muslim but that Allāh expiates some of his sins because of it, even though it was the prick he receives from a thorn.” (Al-Bukhari)
The question one should ask himself is: “What is my reflex when I do get a prick of a thorn, or stumble on the street and hurt my toe, or my computer suddenly crashes making me lose some work? Does some uncomely word slips through the mouth to release anger and frustration, or do I stay in control and remain calm, patient, and thankful to Allāh?”
8 - Believers Must Always Be Prepared to Face Trials
The above discussions should make it clear that believers will be tried with calamities, afflictions, and distress and these trials will continue to occur during their lifetime until they meet their Lord.
That being the reality, a believer should remain mentally prepared to face any calamity or affliction, although he or she should never seek one. If he is not mentally prepared to face any difficulties in life and then suddenly is afflicted with one, then he may not be able to deal with it properly as he should. It is, therefore, wise that a believer solidify himself with knowledge from the Qur’an and the Sunnah regarding how to deal with trials and tribulations and then be prepared to face difficulties of life, but without seeking or hoping for any trial. This will help him remain calm and patient and pass the test when it comes, insha Allāh.
9 - Below, we discuss some of the common forms of trials and tribulations:
9.1 - Sickness
All living creatures will die to pass the inheritance of this world to the next generations, and with the exception of a few cases, death will come through one sickness or another. This is a reality that all have to accept. No matter how virtuous one is, he is not exempted from sickens and disease. We know the examples of many Prophets who suffered from sickness, such as Prophet Job (‘alaihissalām) who suffered from severe skin disorder for years. Prophet Muhammad (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam) himself suffered from sickness. 'Aishah (radiyallāhu‘anha), one of his wives, said: “I never saw anybody suffering so much from sickness as Allāh's Apostle.” 
For a believer, suffering from sickness is not just a reality but also a philosophy that comes with blessings. He knows that Allāh in His mercy will expiate some of his sins if he remains patient through it. The Prophet (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wasallam) said:
“No Muslim is afflicted with harm because of sickness or some other inconvenience, but that Allāh will remove his sins for him as a tree sheds its leaves.” (Al-Bukhari)
When afflicted with illness and pain, the believer should remind himself, like Prophet Job (‘alaihissalām) did, of all the years when Allāh blessed him with good health. He should remain patient and ask Allāh for his Mercy, and that can earn him Paradise. One day, a woman who was suffering from epilepsy came to the Prophet (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wasallam) and asked him to make supplication for her. The Prophet (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wasallam) replied, “Do you wish that you may endure it and be rewarded with Paradise, or do you wish that I shall make supplication to Allāh to cure you?” She said, “I shall endure it.” This woman later became known as one from the people of Paradise. 
In a Hadith Qudsi, Allāh Subhānahu wa Ta‘ala says:
“When I affect my slave in his two dear things (i.e., his eyes), and he endures patiently, I shall compensate him for that with Paradise.” (Al-Bukhari)
When one suffers through a serious disease which brings prolonged physical pain and discomfort or even the prospect of death , only he (or she) can feel the full extent of the pain and distress. No one else can possibly come close to appreciating what he goes through physically and mentally. Yet, let him be reminded that it is perhaps through this sickness and suffering that Allāh intends to bless him with Paradise. There cannot be any reward or success greater than that. So let his or her heart continue to beat with dzikir (remembrance) of Allāh through this suffering, and his face become radiant with His love. Let the visitors who come to see him be blazed with his unshakable faith and spirit. Let him teach others, even through his sickness, faith and trust in Allāh!
Aminah Assilmi, a convert to Islam, mentioned about a person who died of cancer. He was only 20 years old, and yet she was dazzled by this young man’s faith and love of Allāh in the midst of suffering. She wrote:
Shortly before he died, he told me that Allāh was truly Merciful. This man was in unbelievable anguish and was radiating with Allāh’s love. He said: “Allāh intends that I should enter heaven with a clean book.” His death experience gave me something to think about. He taught me of Allāh’s love and mercy. 
9.2 - Death of Beloved Ones
If one suffers death of someone whom he dearly loved, then he should remember that our children, spouses, parents, friends, and other family members are but trusts from Allāh. A wife is a trust to her husband while her husband is a trust to her. A child is a trust to his or her parents while the parents are a trust to the child. As these trusts provide us with comfort and support, Allāh tests us to see how we deal with them and how we take care of these trusts. He reserves the right to take back these trusts, and He does so when the term He sets for a trust expires. The Prophet (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wasallam) consoled his daughter when her baby was sick as saying:
“Whatever Allāh takes away or gives, belongs to Him, and everything has a fixed term (in this world).” (Al-Bukhari and Muslim)
Therefore, one should not show despair or displeasure at Allāh but remain calm and patient even at the death of his or her dearest one.
Imām Muslim narrates a hadith about a female Companion of the Prophet (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wasallam) that is a paramount example of patience and faith. To reproduce the hadith briefly, her name was Umm Sulaim (radiyallāhu‘anha). One of her sons was very sick while her husband, Abu Talhah (radiyallāhu‘anhu), was away in business. The son eventually died, and she told her family members not to tell this to her husband when he returns until she breaks this to him herself. When Abu Talhah (radiyallāhu‘anhu)returned, she presented the supper before him and he ate. She then beautified herself in the best way like she never did before.
After they had intercourse and Abu Talhah (radiyallāhu‘anhu)was satisfied, she told him, “O Abu Talhah! If some people borrow something from another family who then ask for that to be returned, should they refuse to give it back?”
He replied, “No”.
“Then”, she said, “Hope reward for your son”.
Abu Talhah (radiyallāhu‘anhu)immediately understood that their son was dead.
In the morning, he went to the Prophet (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wasallam) and told him the matter. The Prophet (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam) said, “May Allāh bless the night you spent together.” It turned out that Umm Sulaim conceived that night. When the child was born, the Prophet (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wasallam) blessed him and named him “Abdullah”. Al-Bukhari’s version of the hadith says that Abdullah had nine sons, each of whom memorized the entire Qur’an.
When a mother suffers the death of her child, there is no one in this world who can come close to feeling her grief and sorrow. And yet, this otherwise unknown Companion of the Prophet remained patient with Allāh as she correctly understood the philosophy of life and death.
The reward for such patience with Allāh at the death of a beloved one is Paradise. Allāh says in a Hadith Qudsi:
“I have no reward other than paradise for a believing slave of mine who remains patient for My sake when I take away his beloved one from among the inhabitants of the world.”  (Al-Bukhari)
9.3 - Loss of Wealth and Property
In many places in the Qur’an, Allāh uses the phrase “out of what we have given” when He asks the believers to spend in the way of Allāh, such as:
“Those who rehearse the Book of Allāh, establish regular Prayer and spend (in Charity) out of what We have provided for them secretly and openly hope for a Commerce that will never fail.” (Al-Fatir, 35:29)
“Those … who spend out of what We bestow on them for Sustenance.” (Ash-Shura, 42:38)
“They spend (in charity) out of the sustenance which We have bestowed on them.” (As-Sajdah, 32:16)
As Allāh asks the believers to pay zakat and charity, He reminds them that all the wealth and property that they have actually belongs to Allāh anyway. All righteous believers are cognizant of this simple and obvious truth. For even if we set aside the fact that everything in this universe are created by and therefore belongs to Allāh, there is no wealth or property that one can claim that it is the result of his own exclusive effort. In this context, we wrote:
If one thinks that his wealth and fortune is a result of his own labor and talent, then that reflects a serious lack of understanding and insight on his or her part. While there is no denial that one should put efforts towards achieving his goal as Islam requires and as the Prophet (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam) himself did, but to think that utilization of one’s talent and exerting his labor alone earned him his wealth is to deny both facts as well as to betray common sense observation. There are many around us who with grater talents and more efforts fail to “succeed” in life and reach “financial security”. And there are those who within moments lose their vast fortunes, or suddenly become rich, due to market fluctuation, calamity, unforeseen business deals, or otherwise. And finally, there are always these basic questions to ask: Who is the One Who provided him with his talents and abilities? Who has provided him with that particular set of resources that he successfully utilized and which others were not provided with? Who controls the events that occur in our day to day life and Who provided those particular chances and deals that contributed to his fortune? Wise people know the answers to these questions and, consequently, humble themselves and thank Allāh for His favor. 
About such people who think that it is because of their talent or enterprise that they had become wealthy, Allāh says:
“… When We bestow a favor upon him as from Ourselves he says, “This has been given to me because of a certain knowledge (I have)!” Nay, this is but a trial. But most of them understand not.” (Az-Zumar, 39:49)
Righteous believers, therefore, are always conscious about this true ownership of wealth and property that is at their disposal. Therefore, when a calamity befalls that result in the loss of that property or wealth, they do not break down but remind themselves with this: “This property and wealth belonged to Allāh and He has taken it back”. 
9.4 - Suffering Wrong and Injustice
For a believer who has been a victim of wrong or injustice by others, the greatest comfort is that a day will come when he will receive full justice from Allāh. No matter how insignificant or how grievous the harm is, the offending parties will be called to account for their actions. No matter to whom an injustice was done, and no matter how long ago that aggression was committed, the matter will be kept on records until it is addressed. Even if everyone forgets the incident, Allāh will not. For example, the infants who were buried alive during Jahiliyyah (Age of Darkness before Islam) will not be forgotten. Allāh will ask them about what their crime was for which they were buried alive:
“When the female (infant) buried alive is questioned: for what crime she was killed; when the Scrolls are laid open; when the World on High is unveiled: when the Blazing Fire is kindled to fierce heat; and when the Garden is brought near; (Then) shall each soul know what it has put forward.” (Al-Takwir, 81:8-14)
In Islam, injustice is not necessarily limited to physical and material harm. Violating a person’s honor and dignity is also an act of injustice. Therefore, a Muslim should not speak ill of another person or make any negative comment about any individual in his absence regardless of whether that person has done something wrong or not. This is called ghibah, which Islam forbids except only in a few cases. A person who has done any injustice against another, be that even a negative comment made about him in his absence, will have to pay back to the victim in the Hereafter out of his own good deeds (unless the victim forgives him before he dies). If he runs out of his good deeds and still owes him, then he must take over equivalent amount of bad deeds from the victim. The Prophet (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam) said:
“He who has done a wrong affecting his brother’s honor or anything else, must ask his forgiveness for it today before the time (i.e., the Day of Judgment) when he will have neither a dinar nor a dirham. If he has done some good deeds, a portion equal to his wrong doings will be subtracted from them; but if he has no good deeds, he will be burdened with the evil deeds of the one he had wronged in the same proportion.” (Bukhari)
This is so far as compensating the victim is concerned. He will still be liable to face punishment from Allāh for committing the act of injustice and thus violating Allāh’s commandments, unless both Allāh and the victim forgive him. The believer, therefore, should be patient having full assurance that Allāh watches everything and will deliver justice:
“We have made some of you as a trial for others: will ye have patience? For Allāh is One Who sees (all things).” (Al-Furqan 25:20)
“Truly the reward of the Hereafter will be greater if they only realize (this)! (They are) those who persevere in patience and put their trust on their Lord.” (Al-Nahl, 16:41-42)
That is the ultimate comfort that a believer can have who has been wronged or oppressed by others. For there is a Judge higher than all other judges and an Authority above all other authorities. Unlike the judges in this world, this Judge never makes a mistake. For He is intimately aware of all things that occur and renders justice based on actual facts, and not on the presentation and performance of lawyers.
This discussion points out a theme that is at the core of Islam, namely justice. In fact, Islam is considered to be synonymous with justice (‘adl). The purpose of the Shari‘ah (Divine Law) is justice and welfare of the people. In this religion, injustice, no matter how small, is completely forbidden. Allāh says in a Hadith Qudsi:
“O My servants, I have forbidden injustice for Myself and have made it forbidden amongst you, so do not commit acts of injustice against one another.”
9.5 - Learning from the Example of Prophet Job
Those afflicted with calamities and distress should remember the story of Prophet Job (Qur’an calls him Ayyub, ‘alayhis sallam). Ah! What a heart-melting story of pain and suffering, of patience and forbearance, of faith and gratitude, and ultimately of reward and success! Ibn Kathir,(rahimahullah), a ninth century scholar, mentioned this story in detail in his Qasasul-Anbia’ (“Stories of the Prophets”). We reproduce the story  below with some abridgment since no discussion on trials and tribulations can be considered completed without drawing lessons from this servant of Allāh, who was truly a paragon of patience and faith. 
Prophet Job (‘alayhissalam) was a very wealthy man having many animals, lands, slaves, and children. He was a very patient man and was never arrogant or selfish. He worshipped Allāh and was always humble and grateful to him. From his riches, he would help the poor and the needy with food and clothes. He would buy slaves and set them free. When he helped people, he made them feel as if they are favoring him by accepting his gifts. Such a noble person was he that one day the angels were discussing about him and praising him as a model servant of Allāh.
Satan overheard their comments and became annoyed. He tried to seduce him with evil thoughts and distract him from prayers and worshipping Allāh. But Job (‘alayhissalam)was firm in his faith and did not let the whispers of Satan tempt him.
Failing in his attempts to seduce Job (‘alayhissalam), Satan complained to Allāh about Job (‘alayhissalam) saying that although he was continuously glorifying Allāh, he was not doing so out of his sincerity but to satisfy Allāh so that his wealth should not be taken away. It was all a show, all out of greed. “If You remove his wealth then You will find that his tongue will no longer mention Your name and his praying will stop.”
Allāh told Satan that Job (‘alayhissalam) was one of His most sincere devotees, and to prove this to him, Allāh allowed him to do whatever he and his helpers wished with Job's wealth. Happy with this authority, Satan gathered his helpers and set about destroying Job's cattle, servants, and farms until he was left with no possessions. He then appeared before Job in the guise of a wise old man and said to him:
“All your wealth is lost. Some people say that it is because you gave too much charity and that you are wasting your time with your continuous prayers to Allāh. Others say that Allāh has bought this upon you in order to please your enemies. If Allāh had the capacity to prevent harm, then He would have protected your wealth.”
True to his belief, Job (‘alayhissalam) replied:
“What Allāh has taken away from me belongs to Him. I was only its trustee for a while. He gives to whom He wills and withholds from whom He wills.”
With these words, Job (‘alayhissalam) went to prostration out of his humbleness and gratitude to Allāh Subhānahu wa Ta‘ala.
Seeing this, Satan was frustrated. He again complained to Allāh:
“I have stripped Job of all his possessions, but he still remains grateful to You. However, he is only hiding his disappointments, for he places great store by his many children. The real test of a parent is through his children. You will then see how Job will reject You.”
Allāh granted Satan authority, but warned him that it would not reduce Job's faith in his Lord nor his patience.
Satan gathered his helpers and shook the foundation of the house in which Job's (‘alayhissalam)children were living and sent the building crashing, killing all of them. Then he went to Job (‘alayhissalam) disguised as a man who had come to sympathize with him. In a comforting tone he said to Job:
“The circumstances under which your children died were sad. Surely, your Lord is not rewarding you properly for all your prayers.”
Job (‘alayhissalam), firm in his faith, replied:
“Allāh sometimes gives and sometimes takes. He is sometimes pleased and sometimes displeased with our deeds. Whether a thing is beneficial or harmful to me, I will remain firm in my belief and remain thankful to my Creator.”
He (‘alayhissalam) then prostrated again to his Lord.
At this Satan was extremely vexed. He again called on Allāh:
“O my Lord, Job's wealth is gone, his children are dead, but he is still healthy in body, and as long as he enjoys good health he will continue to worship You in the hope of regaining his wealth and producing more children. Grant me authority over his body so that I may weaken it. He will surely neglect worshipping You and thus become disobedient.”
Allāh wanted to teach Satan a lesson that Job (‘alayhissalam) was a devoted servant of Him, and so He granted Satan his third request but placed a condition:
“I give you authority over his body but not over his soul, intellect, or heart, for in these places reside the knowledge of Me and My religion.”
Armed with this new authority, Satan began to take revenge on Job's body and filled it with disease until it was reduced to mere skin and bone, making him suffer severe pain. But through all the suffering Job (‘alayhissalam) remained strong in his faith, patiently bearing all the hardships without complaining. He did not despair, nor did he turn to others for help but remained hopeful of Allāh's Mercy. Even close relatives and friends deserted him. Only his kind loving wife stayed with him who remained his sole companion and comforter through many years of his suffering.
In desperation, Satan went to Job's wife in the form of a man, and asked, “Where is your husband?”
She pointed to an almost lifeless form crumpled on the bed and said: “There he is, suspended between life and death.”
Satan reminded her of the days when Job (‘alayhissalam) had good health, wealth and children. Suddenly, the painful memory of years of hardship overcame her, and she burst into tears. She said to Job(‘alayhissalam):
“How long are you going to bear this torture from our Lord? Are we to remain without wealth, children or friends forever? Why don't you call upon Allāh to remove this suffering?”
Job (‘alayhissalam) sighed, and in a soft voice replied, “Satan must have whispered to you and made you dissatisfied. Tell me, how long did I enjoy good health and riches?”
She replied, “For eighty years.”
Then Job (‘alayhissalam) asked, “How long am I suffering like this?”
She said, “For seven years.”
Then Job (‘alayhissalam) told her, “In that case I am ashamed to call on my Lord to remove the hardship, for I have not suffered longer than the years of good health and plenty. It seems that your faith has weakened and you are dissatisfied with the fate of Allāh. If I ever regain health, I swear I will punish you with a hundred strokes! From this day onward, I forbid myself to eat or drink anything from your hand. Leave me alone and let my Lord do with me as He pleases.”
Crying bitterly and with a heavy heart, she had no choice but to leave him and seek shelter elsewhere. In his helpless state, Job (‘alayhissalam) turned to Allāh, not to complain but to seek His mercy:
“Verily, distress has seized me, and You are the Most Merciful of all those who show Mercy.” (Al-Anbiyā’, 21:83)
What a man of patience, faith, and self-respect! Even in this miserable condition, he did not ask Allāh to remove his affliction but merely stated that He is the Most Merciful of all who have mercy!
Can there be any trial more difficult and painful then what Job (‘alayhissalam) went through one after another? He lost all his wealth and property, all of his children were killed when the roof collapsed, his friends and people left him, and he suffered from a sever skin disorder for years. Yet, he did not complained to Allāh nor was he dissatisfied with Him throughout these extremely difficult trials. The result of his patience and faith in Allāh was this: he came out of all these trials with superb success. He asked for Allāh’s Mercy, and rushing down it came:
“So We answered his call, and We removed the distress that was on him, and We restored his family to him (that he had lost) and the like thereof along with them - as a mercy from Ourselves and a Reminder for all who worship Us.” (Al-Anbiyā’, 21:84)
Allāh praised him in the Qur’an, saying:
“Truly We found him full of patience and constancy, how excellent in Our service! Ever did he turn (to Us)!” (Sad, 38:44)
And He rewarded him with more than what he had:
“And We gave him (back) his people and doubled their number as a Grace from Ourselves and a thing for commemoration for all who have understanding.” (Sad, 38:43)
The verse above significantly ends with “for all who have understanding.” Indeed, for people of understanding, there are lessons to be learned from the example of Job (‘alayhissalam), a mortal human being who left behind immortal lessons for patience, forbearance, and faith in Allāh that will continue to inspire believers’ generations after generations.
10 - Some Practical Guidelines in Dealing with Trials
The above discussions will hopefully help one understand the Islamic philosophy behind trials and tribulations and prepare his or her heart for tests. Below, we describe some practical guidelines, drawn from the Qur’an and the Sunnah, about dealing with trials.
10.1 - Seek Refuge from Trials
One should not solicit trials from Allāh. No matter how pious one might be, he or she should not be proud of having unshakable faith but always remain humble and ask Allāh to guide him and to keep him on the right path. Indeed, if it was not for the mercy and guidance of Allāh, he could not have remained a believer and a practicing Muslim. Therefore, he should often ask for forgiveness from Allāh for sins and mistakes committed so that He does not take him to task for those mistakes. In the Qur’an, Allāh teaches the believers to make the following supplication:
“Our Lord! Take us not to task if we forget or commit mistakes. Our Lord! Lay not on us a burden such as You laid on those gone before us. Our Lord! Lay not on us burdens which we do not have the power to bear. And overlook our faults, and forgive us, and have mercy upon us.” (Al-Baqārah, 2:286)
The Prophet (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wasallam), the most pious and faithful of all believers, frequently used to make the following supplication:
“O Allāh, I seek refuge in Thee from the punishment of the grave; I seek refuge in Thee from the trial of the Antichrist; I seek refuge in Thee from the trial of life and the trial of death; O Allāh, I seek refuge in Thee from sin and debt.” (Muslim)
Giving sadaqah (charity) often can prevent calamity for a believer. The Prophet (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam) said:
“Give the sadaqah without delay, for it stands in the way of calamity.” (At-Tirmidzi)
10.2 - Be Ready For Trials
While a believer should seek refuge in Allāh from trials, he should, at the same time, be always ready for trials. His supplications for forgiveness might save him from some trials, but there will still be trials that he will face for sure. Therefore, a believer should always be mentally prepared for afflictions and calamities so that he can pass the tests with success. See above for detailed discussions on this topic.
10.3 - Always Have Focus on the Hereafter
If one is afflicted with a calamity, he should remember that our life is short and our ultimate destination is the Hereafter. Therefore, he should remain patient, ask Allāh for help, and remember that he will be meeting Him soon:
“Who say when afflicted with calamity: “To Allāh we belong and to Him is our return.” They are those on whom (descend) blessings from Allāh and Mercy and they are the ones that receive guidance.” (Al-Baqārah, 2:156-157)
The Prophet (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wasallam) said:
“If any Muslim who suffers some calamity says that which Allāh has commanded him: “‘We belong to Allāh and to Him shall we return’: O Allāh, reward me for my affliction and give me something better in exchange for it”, Allāh will give him something better than it in exchange.” (Muslim)
The Prophet (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wasallam) once grabbed Abdullah ibn ‘Umar (radiyallāhu‘anhum) by his shoulders and said:
“Be in the world as if you were a stranger or a wayfarer.” (Al-Bukhari)
When a believer always keeps the Hereafter in focus, he remains calm and in control at whatever calamity he faces. For him, dunya (this world) is not the end of everything, and thus he does not breakdown but stays calm and deals with all crisis with faith and trust in Allāh.
10.4 - Be Patient at the First Stroke
The mettle of a person is proven when he remains calm and in control even at a sudden and unforeseen calamity or difficulty. The Prophet (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wasallam) said:
“Patience is only at the first (stroke) of grief.” (l-Bukhari and Muslim)
10.5 - When Calamity Befalls, Remember That It Is a Test.
Any affliction that a believer suffers is a test from Allāh. If he does not recognize the test, then he may feel despair and thus fail the test. The believer should particularly keep in mind the following verses from the Qur’an that reminds that every single believer will be tested:
“We shall try you until We test those among you who strive their utmost and persevere in patience; and we shall try your reported (mettle).” (Muhammad, 47:31)
“Ye shall certainly be tried and tested in your possessions and in your personal selves.” (Āli- ‘Imran, 3:186)
“Do men think that they will be left alone on saying “We believe” and that they will not be tested?” (Al-Ankabut, 29:2)
10.6 - Ask Allāh Subhānahu wa Ta‘ala For Forgiveness
When calamity strikes a believer, he should take all steps necessary to remedy the situation. Having faith and trust in Allāh never means inaction or complacency with difficulties. This has been made quite clear in both the Qur’an and the examples of the Prophet (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam).
From a spiritual perspective, the very first thing that the believer should do is turn to Allāh for forgiveness. One of the most beautiful and effective supplications that he can make is the supplication made by Prophet Jonah (called Yunus, (‘alayhissalam) in the Qur’an). When the people of Nineveh rejected the message of Jonah (‘alayhissalam) to worship Allāh alone, Jonah left the city out of despair, expecting that Allāh’s punishment on them was imminent. That was a mistake, for a Prophet can never forsake his mission and leave without the consent of Allāh. This was only a mistake in judgment, and not a rebellious action. Nevertheless, for a Prophet or a man of piety, even a minor mistake comes out to be significant in contrast to the faith and piety that Allāh has blessed him or her with. Jonah (‘alayhissalam) was soon consumed by a whale. It was a dark night, and he was in the dark stomach in the dark bottom of the sea. Stricken with this calamity, Jonah (‘alayhissalam) realized his mistake and immediately turned to Allāh for forgiveness. He made a supplication that was simple and short. Nevertheless, its words carry so much significance that this small supplication is considered to be the “Mother of all supplications”. From the darkest chamber of the whale’s stomach, he cried out to Allāh:
“Lā illāha illa anta Subhānaka inni, Kuntu minadz dza limīn (There is no god but You, Glory to You; verily I was one of the wrongdoers.)” (Al-Anbiyā’, 21:87)
This short supplication has three important components. First, Jonah (‘alayhissalam) recognized that there is no other authority or power worthy of worship except Allāh. Besides Him, he can turn to no one for help – no king, no judge, and no personal attorney. If there is anyone who is capable of forgiveness and help, that is only Allāh, the Supreme Authority of the entire universe. Second, he declared that Allāh is above all blames and shortcomings. Allāh is not to be blamed for his situations, for He never commits a wrong against anyone. He is above and beyond all faults and shortcomings. Lastly, he admitted that he has committed a mistake. This admittance and recognition of one’s own fault is perhaps the most important element in seeking forgiveness. For Jonah (‘alayhissalam), this admission did not merely come out from his lips but also from the bottom of his heart. This short supplication was so heavy in weight that Allāh turned to him in forgiveness and delivered him from these three layers of darkness. 
Sincere admittance of mistakes and repentance, thus, is a necessary condition for supplications to be heard. Allāh is indeed the Most Merciful and He is quick to forgive His slaves.
10.7 - Ask for Help With Patience and Solāt
After faith and trust in Allāh, the most import quality that a believer needs during calamity and affliction is patience. Patience is such a virtue that it is frequently mentioned both in the Qur’an and the hadith. Indeed, the Prophet (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wasallam) said that it is the best gift that one can receive from Allāh:
“No one is granted a gift better and more comprehensive than patience.” (Al-Bukhari and Muslim)
In many places in the Qur’an, Allāh asks the believer to seek His help with patience and salat, such as:
“O ye who believe! Seek help with patient perseverance and prayer: for Allāh is with those who patiently persevere.” (Al-Baqārah, 2:153)
“Seek (Allāh's) help with patient perseverance and prayer.” (Al-Baqārah, 2:45)
One of the best times to offer solāt is late night before the time for fajr starts. Called the Solat Tahajjud, there are many excellences for this prayer. The believer should try to make as much Solat Tahajjud as possible and ask Allāh for help and forgiveness, as this is one the best times to make prayers and supplications:
“And for part of the night also praise Him, and at the retreat of the stars!” (Al-Tur, 52:49)
“And during part of the night (also) celebrate His praises and (so likewise) after the postures of adoration.” (Qaf, 50:40)
“And part of the night prostrate thyself to Him; and glorify Him a long night through.” (Al-Insan, 76:26)
When people and all other creatures around are deep in sleep, it is only the believer who keeps awake and is immersed in worshipping Allāh. In that still silence of the dead of the night; it is, as if, only two are engaged in a private conversation: one who begs for help and mercy, and the Other Who listens to his prayers.
10. 8 - Avoid the Two Pitfalls
Truly man was created very impatient: fretful when evil touches him, and niggardly when good reaches him. (Al-Ma’ārij, 70:19-21)
There are two categories of people that a righteous believer should not slip into.
The first kinds are those who desperately seek Allāh’s help and forgiveness when in calamity or peril. Then when Allāh delivers them from their calamity, they forget Allāh and go back to their usual life of indifference to Allāh and the Hereafter. About these people, Allāh says:
“When trouble touches a man he cries unto Us (in all postures) lying down on his side or sitting or standing. But when We have solved his trouble he passes on his way as if he had never cried to Us for a trouble that touched him! Thus do the deeds of transgressors seem fair in their eyes!” (Yūnus, 10:12)
The second kinds are those who worship Allāh and follow his commandments so long as they enjoy a comfortable or trouble-free life. Then when calamities strike them, they break down and become indifferent to Allāh and his commandments out of anger and frustration. It is, as if, they deserve a comfortable life in return for their worshipping of Allāh. About them, says Allāh:
“Among men is he who worships Allāh, while remaining on the borderline; if any good befalls him, he is satisfied; but if a trial afflicts him, he utterly turns away. He will incur loss both of this world and the Hereafter. That indeed is a clear loss.” (Al-Anbiyā’, 21:11)
Falling into one these two categories is an utter failure. A true believer is one who always worships Allāh– whether in calamity or in good fortune. When in calamity, he remains patient and pleased with Allāh, and when something good happens to him, he thanks Allāh. Thus he always earns rewards and Allāh’s good pleasure while he lives in this world. The Prophet (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wasallam) said:
“How wonderful is the case of a believer! There is good for him in everything, and this is not the case with anyone except a believer. If prosperity attends him, he expresses gratitude to Allāh and that is good for him; and if adversity befalls him, he endures it patiently and that is better for him.” (Muslim)
10.9 - Keep in Mind the Eventual Success
“Verily with every difficulty, there is relief.” (Al-Inshirah, 94:6)
It is a source of great comfort for a believer to know that his or her afflictions will one day come to an end and there will be relief for him. Therefore, he should keep this eventuality in mind and go through his trial with patience, forbearance, and faith in Allāh. There will be a day – whether in this world or the Next – when he will come out victorious and successful for passing the test. For a believer in affliction, that is the ultimate success that awaits him. Says Allāh:
“Verily, the Hereafter will be better for thee than the present.” (Al-Duha, 93:4)
10.10 - Show Kindness to Those Who are Afflicted
If someone is afflicted with a calamity, other believers should often visit or call him or her and inquire about his (or her) welfare. One should never demoralize an afflicted believer by saying that Allāh is displeased with him or that he has committed some sin for which he is being punished. Instead, believers should tell him good words that will uplift his spirit. They should tell him about the fact that Allāh tests those whom He loves, and that it is the righteous believers who suffer the most in this life so that they can get Paradise in the Hereafter. The believers should sympathize with him and offer their help. The Prophet (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wasallam), out of his sympathy for the afflicted, said:
“If you were to sell fruits to your brother and these are stricken with calamity, it is not permissible for you to get anything from him.” (Muslim)
10.11 - Remember Past Trials and Benefit From Them
A wise person always takes lessons from hardships and afflictions and tries to improve his or her situation. A believer who has come out of an affliction should be self-critical and objectively analyze the possible causes for his affliction, and make corrections accordingly. For example, if he has been involved in a serious road accident while driving and Allāh spared his life, then he should be more careful in driving, follow all traffic laws, and drive defensively. Or if he became seriously sick due to unhealthy eating habits and he recovered, then he should control his diet and do regulars exercise to stay fit and healthy. Most important improvements of all are amending one’s character and conduct and turning to Allāh in obedience.
There is also spiritual benefit in remembering the past trials as that will make the believer always remain conscious of the fact that life is short with its entire vicissitudes and he will soon return to Allāh. The Prophet (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wasallam) said that remembering past trials can even earn him reward:
“If any Muslim man or woman suffers a calamity and keeps it in his memory, even if it happened a long time ago, saying each time it is remembered, 'We belong to Allāh and to Him do we return,' Allāh, who is Blessed and Exalted will give a fresh reward each time it is said, equivalent to the reward when it happened.” (Ahmad)
11 - Epilogue: Life is a Testing Ground
Islam is submission to the will of Allāh. For one who submits, a mere declaration or display of belief will not be taken for success, but his or her heart and soul will for sure be put to test.
Allāh will test him to see whether he follows His commandments or his own desires; whether he lives a righteous and godly life or lives according to what his nafs (self) dictates; whether the faith he displays is firmly rooted in his heart or is it merely on the surface and thus is knocked off at a slight wind; whether he will continue to have faith and love of Allāh when in calamity as he does when in comfort; whether he will continue to remember and worship him if given bounties and comforts of life as he does when he lives a modest life. Allāh will test him to see if his faith, trust, and love of Him is unconditional or is it conditioned with good health and comfortable life free from stress and anxiety.
For a righteous Muslim, this life is a testing ground where he will continue to be tested until he meets Allāh. For him, tests will be done right here on earth while he lives, and not after he dies. He knows that as soon as death arrives and he steps into the Next World, his tests are over. There, he only receives the results of his tests, and then enjoys (or suffers) the fruits of his deeds that he committed during a short span of time called Life.
And, Allāh Almighty Knows best.
 This name comes from the hadith – the Qur’an does not mention his name.
 He was actually inspired by Allāh to go to that place in order to meet him and learn some special “wisdom” from him. (Maryam, 18: 66)
 For complete analysis, see Sayyid Abul A'la Mawdudi, Towards Understanding the Qur’an, Vol. V, pp. 122-127, The Islamic Foundation, Leicester, 1995.
 ibid., pp. 116-117.
 One Sufi was once traveling with some of his followers when his horse stumbled, making him fall and hurt his toe. He immediately said, “Alhamdulillah!” His followers asked him in wonder, “You just got hurt and you said ‘alhamdulillah’?” He replied, “It was in my fate that this will happen to me. Now that it has come and gone, I offered my thanks to Allāh.”
 See the full text of this hadith in Bukhari and Muslim.
 No matter how serious the disease is or how it is labeled (“terminal disease”), a believer should never lose hope for recovery. The Prophet (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wasallam) said that Allāh Subhānahu wa Ta‘ala did not create any disease for which He did not provide a cure (Abu Dawūd). Regardless of what the doctors’ verdict is, the believer and his or her relatives should never allow their hearts to assume that this sickness will take him to death. In fact, believing as such will be sinful. The believer must take all medical options that are possible for him to take and continue with hope and mercy of Allāh until his last breath.
 Mushfiqur Rahman, A Girl on a Mission: Profile of Aminah Assilmi, www.welcome-back.org/profile/aminah1.shtml.
 Being patient and pleased with Allāh does not mean that one is not supposed to feel sorrow at the death of his or her beloved ones. Such feelings are what make us human. The Prophet (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wasallam) was holding his infant son Ibrahim when he was dying. As he breathed his last, tears started to flow from the Prophet’s eyes. Abdurrahman Ibn Auf (radiyallāhu‘anhu), who was with him, exclaimed, “O Allāh’s Messenger ! Even you are weeping!” The Prophet (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wasallam) replied:
“O Ibn 'Auf! This is mercy.” Then he wept more and said, “The eyes are shedding tears and the heart is grieved, and we will not say except what pleases our Lord. O Ibrahim! Indeed we are grieved by your separation.” (Al-Bukhari)
 Mushfiqur Rahman, Zakat Calculation, The Islamic Foundation, Leicester, 2003, p. 21.
 Subconsciously, we lay claim to perpetual ownership of all that is in our possession. One thinks: “This house is mine”, or “That bank balance is mine – I will use it for my needs.” Although everyone knows that he can die anytime, he is in denial of the possibility of his separation from his wealth anytime soon. The reality is that his house and wealth will remain, but their ownership will be transferred to someone else. Thus, only that much of one’s wealth can be considered as his which he has already used up or donated out. In a very profound hadith, the Prophet (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wasallam) said:
The son of Adam claims: “My wealth, my wealth.” O son of Adam! Is there anything that is yours except what you have consumed, what you have utilized, what you have worn and it were worn out, or what you given as charity and sent it forward? (Muslim)
 Such as when a person is seeking justice in front of a judge and thus have to inform the judge about the aggressions committed by the offender. One might ask, why should making a negative comment about a person be prohibited even if he has committed that act? One who has such questions should be asked: what is the benefit in doing so or what purpose is served by backbiting? If one has done something wrong and he would like that to be corrected, then he should go and talk to that person in private. Speaking ill of him behind his back does no good other than harming the delicate balance of relationship between individuals. In the eyes of Allāh, this is such a heinous act that He compares this with eating the flesh of one’s dead brother (Al-Hujurat, 49:12). Like a dead person who cannot defend himself even when bites of fleshes are taken out from his body, likewise a person who is absent cannot defend himself against the allegation made against him.
 Forgiving offenders, especially those who repent and feel sorry for their actions, is commendable and earns one much rewards from Allāh Subhānahu wa Ta‘ala .
 Ibn Kathir, Stories of the Prophets, Trans. Sheikh Muhammad Mustafa Gemeiah, Islamic Book, Inc., New York, 1997, pp. 170-177.
 In sharp contrast to the Qur’an, the Bible portrays Job (‘alayhis sallam) as one who is angry and frustrated at God for his conditions. He blames God for inflicting suffering on him, argues with Him, and gives vents to his frustrations with Him. He curses the day he was born and wishes that he better died after birth. He demands God to explain why he, a righteous person, was subjected to this kind of treatment. (See Book of Job, verses Āli- ‘Imran, 3:1, Āli- ‘Imran, 3:11, Āli- ‘Imran, 3:23, Al-Anam, 6:4, Al-Anam, 6:9, Al-Anam, 6:11, Yūnus, 10:1-22)
One will wonder: is this the kind of character that a Prophet of God should have? Prophets are the best people who walked on earth and their character and conduct is a model for the humanity to follow. Through their example of patience and forbearance, they teach people faith and trust in God. Unfortunately, Job (‘alayhis sallam) is only one of many Prophets whom the Bible ascribed things that are inconceivable even for a righteous person, much less a prophet. Sayyid Mawdudi attributed this to the moral degeneration of the Israelites themselves, who ascribed things to their Prophets in order to justify their own conducts.
 Ibn Kathir (rahimallah) narrates that Jonah (‘alayhis sallam) was continuously repeating this supplication so much so that other marine creatures heard him, gathered around the whale and started glorifying Allāh as well. See Stories of the Prophets, p. 187.