The Solātul Eidyn
In the name of Allāh, the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful;
All the praise and Thanks is due to Allāh, the Lord of al-‘ālameen. I testify that there is none worthy of worship except Allāh, and that Muhammad, Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wasallam is His Messenger.
1 -The Celebration of ‘Eidyn
The Celebration of “Eid-ul-Fitr” and “Eidul Adha” are the two annual festivals recognized by the Shāri'ah for the Muslims. The Solah of the two 'Eids was prescribed in the first year after the Hijrah (migration) to Madinah. It is a sunnah mu’akkadah as the Prophet (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wasallam) always performed these prayers and he ordered the men and women to go out to attend them.
The “Eid-ul-Fitr” is a happy day designed as a sign of gratefulness on the accomplishment of Ramadhān, and as an immediate reward by Allāh for those who spent the month of Ramadhān in fasting and performing other forms of 'Ibadah. It is a celebration where the Muslims remind themselves that they should rely only on the accomplishments of performing meritorious acts of pleasing the Almighty Allāh, their Creator. The “Eidul-Adha” is a day of sacrifice designed as a sign of an obedience to Allāh commemmorating Prophet Ibrahim's ('alaihissalam) sacrifice.
It was narrated that when Rasūlullāh (SalAllāhu ‘alayhi wasallam) emigrated from Makkah Mukarramah to Madinah Munawwarah, he learnt of the two days of festivity which the people had inherited from the time of Jahiliyyah (the pre-Islamic era). These two days of festivals were the days of sport and amusement associated with evil and immoral customs. Rasūlullāh (SalAllāhu ‘alayhi wasallam) then announced to the Muslims: “Allāh Ta’ala has most certainly substituted these two days for you with two better ones, Eidul Fitr and Eidul Adha.” This is related by An-Nasa'ie and Ibn Hibban with a sahih chain.
Ibn Hajar Al-‘Asqalani (rahimahullah) says: "Both these days have been reserved as days of festivity and celebration; such festivity and celebration that would be within the limits prescribed for joy by the Syari‘ah. It is for this reason that the ‘Ulama state that, expressing one’s delight and joy on these days is not only meritorious but in fact forms part of the salient features of Islam." [Fathul Barī p.950]
1.1 - The Zakatul-Fitrah of Eidul-Fitr
As for the “Eidul-Fitr”, contrast from "Eidul-Adha" the Syari’ah has specifically that firstly, it is mandatory on the Muslims to start their day by paying Zakatul-Fitrah or Sadaqatul-Fitr to the poor of their society, so that they, too, may enjoy the day along with others, and may not be worried for earning their livelihood at least on that day of happiness. The Sadaqat-ul-Fitr or Zakat Fitrah is to be paid before the performing of Solatul Eid-ul-Fitr.
It is an obligation on every Muslim who possesses enough food exceeding his or his family's basic needs for the duration of the day or night of 'Eid. Any Muslim who meets this condition has to pay Zakat-ul-Fitrah on behalf of everyone he is obliged to spend on, such as his wife, children and parents.
Abdullah Ibn ‘Umar (radiyallāhu`anhu) said: “The Prophet (Sallallāhu `alayhi wasallam) enjoined the payment of one Sā' (2,480 grams) of dates or one Saa' of barley as Zakatul-Fitrah on every Muslim, free or slave, male or female young or old. He also ordered that it should be paid before people go to Solatul 'Eidul Fitr.” This is narrated by Al-Bukhari.
Zakatul-Fitrah should be paid out of the common food in the country and it should be given to the needy and the poor. It is better if it is given out on 'Eid day but it also permissible to give it on the first day of Ramadhan.
As regards giving the value of the Zakatul-Fitrah instead of food, Imam Mālik, Ash-Shāfi’e and Ahmad (rahimahumullāh) are of the view that it should be given as food, not as money. However, Imam Abu Hanifah (rahimahumullāh) is of the view that if its value (money) is given instead of food then that is sufficient.
As for Zakat-ul-Fitrah for couples living apart, the wife is among the persons whom the husband has to provide for, so he has to pay Zakatul-Fitrah on her. This is the opinion of Imams Shafi’e, Ahmad and Malik. Spending on the wife is obligatory if the marriage is consummated. Just signing the contract without consummating the marriage does not obligate the husband to provide for her or pay Zakatul-Fitrah on her. Therefore, if the husband has consummated the marriage, or consummation of marriage was arranged and made easy for him but he failed to consummate it, then he is obliged to provide for her and pay Zakatul-Fitrah on her.
However, if he has not consummated the marriage or it was not made easy for him, or she refused, then he is not obliged to provide for her, or pay Zakatul-Fitrah on her. In any case, if he pays Zakatul-Fitrah on she with her permission, then that suffices her, even if he is not obliged to pay for her. Anyway, Zakatul-Fitrah is not a great expenditure; it is only 2.5 kilograms of rice, wheat or the like or the equivalent value of money.
After paying the “Sadaqatul-Fitr”, the Muslims are required to offer the Solah Eidul-Fitr collectively at an open place. In this way, they are supposed to present themselves before their Creator and offer two raka'ats of this special type of Solah, which makes them receive blessings from Allāh and start their celebration by these divine blessings.
The Solātul ‘Eid-Fitr that prescribed in the first year after the migration is a Sunnah Mu’akkadah. The Prophet (Sallallāhu `alayhi wasallam) always performed these solāt and he (Sallallāhu `alayhi wasallam) ordered the men and women to go out to attend them. After the Solātul ul-Fitr they are also supposed to rejoice the day in a responsible manner, without violating the limits prescribed for them and never indulging in the acts prohibited by Allāh.
As for Eidul-Adha it is a Sunnah to observe Qurban after the Solah.
1.1. 'Eidul-Adha is the Symbol of Obedience to Allāh
‘Eidul-Adha is preceded by the glorious day of 'Arafah and is one of the important days of Hajj. The main theme and messages of Hajj are willfully submission and obedience in complete peace to Allāh Almighty. In the remarkable stories of Prophet Ibrahim, Prophet Isma'il, and Hajar, (`alaihissalam) we witness extraordinary examples of obedience and submission to Allāh Almighty, which is the core meaning of Islam. In fact, submission is the very meaning of the word "Islam". Thus the meaning and essence of Islam are manifested in Hajj, which reminds us of our mission and purpose in life.
'Eid Al-Adha is a symbol of obedience to Allāh Almighty. It commemorate the acts of obedience and submission performed by Prophet Ibrahim (‘alaihissalam) and his family when he was commanded to take Hajar and their son Isma'il (‘alaihissalam) to an uninhabited, barren, distant land and leave them there alone. He submitted and obeyed. When Hajar realized what was happening, she cried out, "Ibrahim! Are you going to leave us in this valley where no people live?" She repeated the question yet she received no answer, so she asked him,
"Did Allāh orders you to do this?" He replied, "Yes." So she said, "Then Allāh will not let us perish." Thus she submitted.
When his son Isma'il ('alaihissalam) became older, Ibrahim ('alaihissalam) had a dream that Allāh Almighty commanded him to sacrifice him. He duly submitted it as Allāh’s command and informed his son and his son obediently accepted it. But Allāh replace it with a lamb to performed a sacrifice. The family of Ibrahim was a family of obedience and submission. They were tested and tried again and again, but the result was always submission and obedience; “I hear I obey”. This is the syi’ar (testimony, message) of the Hajj and Eidil Adha.
Both the 'Eid Al-Adha and 'Eid Al-Fitr come after performing a pillar of Islam and an act of obedience. Hence 'Eid Al-Adha and 'Eid Al-Fitr are annual reminders that this life is a test and we must be obedient if we wish to be successful. Once a year, Muslims of every ethnic group, social status, and culture are reminded and given the message: Surrender to Allāh, submit to Allāh. Are we hearing this message?
Just as Prophet Ibrahim ('alaihissalam) was tested throughout his life to see if he would submit or not, we will also be tested to see whether we submit or refuse ourselves to Allāh's commands! Know that toils, struggles, and hardships will accompany our quest to obedience. If we obey, we will be in the company of the likes of Prophet Ibrahim ('alaihissalam) and his family in Paradise, as Allāh says:
“All who obey Allāh Almighty and the messenger shall dwell in the company of those whom Allāh Almighty has favored with His Grace: the prophets, the sincere lovers of Truth, the martyrs, and the Righteous who do good. Ah! What a beautiful companionship!”
'Eid contains many wonderful messages among which is that 'Eid is an external expression of the testimony of faith "Muhammad is the Messenger of Allāh," which means to follow Muhammad in his commandments, abstain from all that he has forbidden, believe in all that he has informed us of, and worship Allāh with only that which he has prescribed.
“Say: Obey Allāh Almighty and obey the Messenger, but if you turn away, he is only responsible for the duty placed on him and you for that placed on you. If you obey Him, you shall be on the right guidance. The Messenger's duty is only to convey [the message] in a clear way.”
Consequently if you truly desire Paradise, all that is required of you is obedience because the Prophet (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wasallam) has guaranteed Paradise for whoever that follows him: “All of my nation will enter Paradise except those who refuse." His Companions said, "Who would refuse?" He answered, "Whoever obeys me enters Paradise and whoever disobeys me has refused.”
Likewise, Allāh warns us throughout the Qur'an of the consequences of choosing to disobey Him. For example Allāh says:
“And whosoever disobeys Allāh and His Messenger, and transgresses His limits, He will cast him into the Fire, to abide therein; and he shall have a disgraceful torment.”
And among the messages of 'Eid is that all Muslims are one people and one brotherhood; we gather together for the prayer and shares the blessings of the `Eid. During these days we must try extra hard to strengthen our brotherhood and mend our differences upon the truth.
We Muslims should take action now toward improving our obedience and submission to Allāh, for time is limited. Remember the ones who prayed with us in the last 'Eid Prayer and ones who have now passed away. We will certainly join them one day. Do not therefore be tricked by the life of this world in which happiness does not last. Death spoils the people's pleasure. Therefore, consider this world a place of work toward the hereafter. As Allāh says concerning the pursuit of Paradise:
“And whoever desires the Hereafter and strives for it as he ought to strive and he is a believer; (as for) these, their striving shall surely be accepted.”
And Allāh says:
“And worship your Lord until there comes to you the certainty.”
Allāh states that our obedience and submission must be constant and continuous. So hasten to do good deeds before you regret your negligence and failure to act. No one could delay their death until the time they choose to submit and obey Allāh. Ibrahim ('alaihissalam) submitted, Isma'il ('alaihissalam) submitted, Hajar submitted, and now we must submit. What are we waiting for? This is the message of Hajj; this is the message of 'Eid. We have heard the message. It's time to submit.
2 - There is specific Sunnah of the Prophet (Sallallāhu `alayhi wasallam) for observing The Day of Eid.
2.1 - The Night Preceding ‘Eidul-Fitr
It had been the practice of the Prophet, (Sallallāhu `alayhi wasallam), that he would not sleep in the night preceding the Day of Eid-ul-Fitr. The night has been named in a Hadith as the Night of Reward (Lailatul Jaiza). Allāh Almighty bestows his rewards on those who have spent the month of Ramadhan abiding by the dictates of Syari'ah, and all their prayers in this night are accepted. Therefore, it is desirable to perform nawafil solah in this night. The Prophet, (Sallallāhu `alayhi wasallam), is reported to have said: “Whoever stands up (in worship) in the nights preceding the two Eids expecting rewards from his Lord, his heart will not die when the other hearts will die.” (Ibn Majah)
To benefit from this opportunity, one should perform as much worship in the night as he can, and should pray for all his needs and desires.
2.2 - Solāh At An Open Ground.
The Prophet (Sallallāhu `alayhi wasallam) used to offer the Solātul ‘Eid in the Open place (Musalla). There is no report of his offering the Solah Eid in his masjid.
Solatul 'Eid can be performed in the mosque but it is preferred to perform in a place outside the city as long as there is no excuse or reason to do otherwise (e.g., rain and so on) as the Prophet (Sallallāhu `alayhi wasallam) would pray the two 'Eids in the outskirts of Medinah and he never prayed it in his mosque, except once and because it was raining.
Abu Hurairah (radiyallāhu`anhu) reported that it was raining on the day of 'Eid, so the Prophet (Sallallāhu `alayhi wasallam) led them in Solatul 'Eid in the mosque. This is related by Abu Dawud, Ibn Majah, and al-Hakim, and its chain contains an unknown narrator. Al-Hafiz says in at-Talkhis: “Its chain is weak,” and Azh-Zhahabi asserts: “This hadith is rejected.”
Al-Shāfi’ie (rahimahullāh) said in his “Al-Umm”: “It was narrated that the Messenger of Allāh (Sallallāhu `alayhi wasallam) used to go out on the two Eids to the open-place in Madinah, as did those (caliphs) who came after him, unless there was an excuse such as rain etc. The people of other lands did likewise, apart from the people of Makkah.”
2.3 - Grooming For the ‘Eids
It is preferable to make the ghusul, perfume oneself and don one's best attire on the occasions of the two 'Eids. Sa’id Ibn Jubayr (radhiyallāhu`anhu) said, "Three things are Sunnah on Eid: to walk (to the place of prayer), to take a bath, and to eat before coming out (if it's Eid al-Fitr)." It was narrated that the Messenger of Allāh (Sallallāhu `alayhi wasallam) used to do ghusul for both Eids. Ibn al-Qayyim (rahimahullāh) said: Ibn ‘Umar (radhiyallāhu`anhu), who was very keen to follow the Sunnah that he used to do ghusul before going out on the day of Eid.
Rasūlullāh (Sallallāhu `alayhi wasallam) had a suit (hullah) which he would wear for Eid and Jumu’ah (Friday prayer). A suit (hullah) is a two -piece suit of the same kind of fabric.
Ja'far Ibn Muhammad relates from his father on the authority of his grandfather who reported: “The Prophet (Sallallāhu `alayhi wasallam) would wear a Yemeni cloak on every 'Eid.” This is related by Ash-Shaf'ie and al-Baghawi (rahimahullāh).
Al-Hassan as-Sibt (radhiyallāhu`anhu) says: “The Messenger of Allāh (Sallallāhu `alayhi wasallam) ordered us to wear the best clothes we could find for the two 'Eids and to apply the best perfume we could find and to sacrifice the best animal we could find [on Eidul Adha].” This is related by al-Hakim and in its chain is Ishaq Ibn Barzakh whom Al-‘Azdi declares to be weak while Ibn Hibban says he is trustworthy.
Ibn Al-Qayyim (rahimahullāh) writes: “The Prophet (Sallallāhu `alayhi wasallam) used to wear his most beautiful clothes for them and he had a special cloak that he would wear on the two 'Eids and Jumu'ah.”
2.4 - To Have Breakfast Before Going Out.
One is to eat before going to the solah for ‘Eidul Fitr, (the end of Ramadhān) but not do so on the occasion of the ‘Eid ul adha (commemmorating Prophet Ibrahim's sacrifice). For 'Eidul Fitr, it is a sunnah to eat an odd number of dates before going to pray Solātul ‘Eid while for ‘Eidul Adha the eating should be delayed until one returns from the ‘Eid Prayers and then he may eat of his sacrifice if he has sacrificed an animal.
Anas bin Malik (radhiyallāhu`anhu) said: “The Messenger of Allāh (Sallallāhu `alayhi wasallam) did not go out on the morning of Eidul-Fitr until he had eaten some dates, and he would eat an odd number.” This is related by Ahmad and Al-Bukhari.
Buraidah(radiyAllāhu’anhu) reports: "The Prophet (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wasallam) would not go out on the day of breaking the fast (‘Eidul Fitr) until he had eaten and on the Day Of Sacrifice (‘Eidul Adha) he would not eat until he had returned [from solah]." This is related by at-Tirmidzi and Ibn Majah, and also by Ahmad who added: "And he would eat from his sacrifice."
In Al-Muwatta' it is recorded from Sa’id Ibn Al-Musayyab that the people were ordered to eat before they go out on the day of breaking the fast.
Ibn Qudamah (rahimahullāh) said: We do not know of any differing opinion concerning the fact that it is mustahabb to eat early on the day of Eidul-Fitr.
The reason for eating before the solāt is so that no one will think that it is essential to fast until the prayer has been offered.
And it was said that this was in order to hasten to obey the command of Allāh, Who enjoined breaking the fast after He enjoined fasting.
If no dates are available, he should have something else for breakfast, even if it is only water, so that he can fulfil the Sunnah in principle, which is to have something for breakfast before the Solah Eid ul-Fitr.
2.5 -To Vary the Route on the Day of ‘Eid by Going by One Route and Come Back By Another.
Ibn ‘Umar (radhiyallāhu`anhu) said: The Messenger of Allāh (Sallallāhu `alayhi wasallam) used to go out to the Eid (prayer) walking and come back walking. This was recorded by Ibn Mājah (1295); Classified as sahih by al-Albāni.
‘Ali Ibn Abi Talib (radhiyallāhu`anhu) said: “It is Sunnah to go out to the Solatul ‘Eid walking.” This is recorded by Al-Tirmidzi; Classified as hasan by al-Albāni. Al-Tirmidzi said: Most of the scholars followed this hadith and said that it is mustahabb for a man to go out to the Eid (prayer) walking. It is mustahabb for him not to ride unless he has an excuse.
Jabir Ibn ‘Abdullah (radhiyallāhu`anhu) said: “On the day of Eid, the Prophet (Sallallāhu `alayhi wasallam) would vary his route.” This is recorded by Al-Bukhari.
The Solatul 'Eid is valid for men, women, children, travellers, residents, people in congregation, and people praying individually. It is also valid if performed in a house, mosque, or a distant place designated for the salah, and so on.
In Sahih al-Bukhari we find in the chapter entitled: “If one misses Solatul ‘Eid he may pray two rak’at and the same is the case for the women or people in their houses or in the countryside. This is based on the Prophet's (Sallallāhu `alayhi wasallam) words: ‘O Muslims, this is our festival.’” Anas Ibn Malik (radiyallāhu`anhu) ordered his protégé Ibn Abi 'Utbah, [who lived] in a remote area, to gather his family and children and to pray [the 'Eid prayer] like the people in the city and with Takbirat similar to theirs. ‘Ikrimah said: “The people of the country should gather for the 'Eid and pray two rak'at as the imam does.” 'Ata says: “If you miss the 'Eid [solah], pray two raka’at.”
2.8- Women and Children Going Out To Attend Solātul ‘Eidayn
The Syari'ah requires women and children to go out and attend the Solatul 'Eid. This includes married, single, young, old, or menstruating women.
Umm 'Atiyah (radiyallāhu`anha) reported: “We were ordered to go out with the single and menstruating women to the two ‘Eids in order to witness the good and the supplications of the Muslims. The menstruating women would be separate from the others.” This is related by al-Bukhari and Muslim.
Ibn ‘Abbas (radiyallāhu`anhu) said: “The Prophet (Sallallāhu `alayhi wasallam) would take his wives and daughters to the two 'Eids.” This is related by Ibn-Majah and Al-Baihaqi.
Ibn ‘Abbas (radiyallāhu`anhu) further reports: “I went out with the Prophet (Sallallāhu `alayhi wasallam) on The Day Of Breaking The Fast or the Day of The Sacrifice, and he prayed and gave a khutbah, and then he went to the women and admonished them, reminded them of Allāh, and ordered them to give charity.” This is related by al-Bukhari.
2.9 - Takbir In The Low Voice While Going To The Solat ‘Eidayn.
The Takbir recited by the followers of the Shafie School is as follows:
ALLĀH U AKBAR,
ALLĀH U AKBAR,
ALLĀH U AKBAR,
LA ILAHAILLA HU WALLĀH U AKBAR,
ALLĀH U AKBAR WA LILLAHIL HAMD
Muslims is strongly required to repeat the Takbīr on the way to the Congregation and Solatul ‘Eid and while waiting for the arrival of the imam at the Masjid.
The Imam or the leader of the Takbirat will continue to say:
ALLĀH U AKBAR KABIRA,
WASUBHANALA HIWABUKRATAU WAASILA
LA ILAHAILLA HUWALA NA’BUDU ‘IYYA HUMUKHLISI NALAHUDDIN
LA ILAHAILLA HUWAHDAH
WAA`AZZAJUNDAHU WAHAZAMAL AHZA BAWAHDAH
LA ILAHAILLA HU WALLĀH U AKBAR
ALLĀHU AKBAR WA LILLAHIL HAMD.
2.10 - The Time of Solatul ‘Eidyn.
The time for Solatul ‘Eid begins from the time the sun is three meters above the horizon until the sun reaches its meridian.
Ahmad Ibn Hassan Al-Bana recorded that Jundub said: “The Prophet (Sallallāhu `alayhi wasallam) performed the Solatul ‘Eidul Fitr while the sun was [approximately] six meters above the horizon and the 'Eid of the Sacrifice while the sun was three meters above the horizon.”
Ash-Shawkani (rahimahullāh) says: "That is the best of what has been related concerning the specific time of Solatul 'Eidayn and the hadith shows that it is preferred to hasten in praying Solatul Eidul Adha and to delay the Solatul Eidul Fitr."
Ibn Qudamah (rahimahullāh) says: "It is a Sunnah to pray Salatul Eidul Adha early in order to allow more time for the people to perform the sacrifice, and the Salatul Eidul Fitr is to be delayed in order to give people time to pay Zakat Al-Fitr. I know of no difference of opinion on this point."
Thus the Solatul Eidayn Can Be Performed Any Time between the Ishraq and Zawal.
2.11 - No Adzān or Iqāmah is called
When the Prophet (Sallallāhu `alayhi wasallam) reached the prayer-place, Rasulullah (Sallallāhu `alayhi wasallam)would begin the prayer with no Adzān or Iqāmah, and without saying “Al-Solātu Jami’ah (prayer is about to begin).” The Sunnah is not to do any of these things.
Ibn al-Qayyim (rahimahullāh) writes: “When the Messenger of Allāh (Sallallāhu `alayhi wasallam) went to The Musalla (Place of Prayer), he would perform the solah without any Adzan or Iqamah and without saying 'As-Salatu Jami'ah' (Prayer in Congregation). The sunnah is not to do any of that.”
Ibn 'Abbas and Jabir (radiyallāhu`anhum) both report that there was no adzan on the day of the breaking of the fast or on the day of sacrifice. This is related by al-Bukhari and Muslim. Muslim records that 'Ata said: “Jabir informed me that there is no adzan for the Solah Eid-ul-Fitr ('Eid of Breaking the Fast), neither when the imam arrives nor afterward. And there is no iqamah or call of any kind.”
Sa'ad Ibn Abi-Waqqas (radiyallāhu`anhu) reports: “The Prophet (Sallallāhu `alayhi wasallam) prayed salatul 'Eid without any Adzan or Iqamah. He would deliver two khutbahs standing and would separate them by sitting between them.” This is related by Al-Bazzar.
2.12 - No Nawafil Prayer Before and After
And the Prophet (Sallallāhu `alayhi wa sallam) did not offer any solah nawafil in the prayer-place before or after the Solat Eid. It is not established that there is any Sunnah prayer before or after the 'Eid prayer. The Prophet (Sallallāhu `alayhi wasallam) never performed any such prayer; neither did his companions upon arrival at the Musalla (Prayer Place).
Ibn ‘Abbas (radiyallāhu`anhu) reports: “The Messenger of Allāh (Sallallāhu `alayhi wasallam) went out to the site of the 'Eid prayer and prayed two rak'at [i.e., the 'Eid prayer] without praying anything before or after it.” This is related by the group. It is reported that Ibn ‘Umar (radiyallāhu`anhu) did the same and he stated that this was the practice of the Prophet (Sallallāhu `alayhi wa sallam).
Al-Bukhari records that Ibn ‘Abbas (radiyallāhu`anhu) disliked that one should perform a prayer before Solatul 'Eid. Concerning voluntary prayers at such a time, Ibn Hajar (rahimahullāh) has stated in Fathul-Bari that there is no evidence to show that it is not allowed, unless it is at the times in which it is disliked to pray on any day.
12 - The Solat
The solat consist of Two Rak’at followed by The Khutbah.
12.1- The Prophet (Sallallāhu `alayhi wasallam) made seven Takbirat in the first rak'ah and five in the second
The 'Eid prayer consists of Two Rak'at during which it is sunnah to pronounce the takbir seven times, after the Opening Takbir and before the Qur'anic recital in the first rak'ah. During the second raka'ah, one makes takbir five times after the takbir which is customarily made for standing after the prostration. One is to raise one's hands during each pronouncement of the Takbir. This is based on a report transmitted from 'Umar and his son Abdullah (radiyallāhu`anhum).
The Shafi’ie School it would be mustahahab to recite the Tasbih between the Takbīr: “Subhānallāh wal hamdulillah wa lā illā haillallāh wallāhuakbar Glory be to Allāh, and All praise is due to Allāh, and There is none worthy of worship but Allāh, and Allāh is the Greatest).”
'Amr Ibn Shu'aib reported from his father on the authority of his grandfather: “The Prophet (Sallallāhu `alayhi wasallam) would make twelve takbirat during the 'Eid prayer, seven in the first rak'ah and five in the second. He did not pray before or after the 'Eid.” This is related by Ahmad and Ibn Majah. Ahmad says: “I follow it.”
Abu Dawud and Ad-Daraqutni recorded that the Prophet (Sallallāhu `alayhi wasallam) said: “The Takbirat during the ['Eid Of Breaking The Fast are seven in the first rak'ah and five in the second, and the Qur'anic recital comes after them in both the rak'at.” This is the strongest opinion and it is the opinion of the majority of the people of knowledge from among the companions, the successors, and the imams. Ibn Abdul-Barr commenting on the number of Takbirat says: “It has been related through many good chains that the Prophet (Sallallāhu `alayhi wasallam) made seven takbirat in the first raka'ah and five in the second. Such has been related from 'Abdullah Ibn 'Amr, Ibn 'Umar, Jabir, 'Aishah. Abu Waqid and 'Amer Ibn 'Auf Al-Mazni(radiyAllāhu’anhum) . Nothing that has been related from him, either through a stronger or weaker chain, differs from that, and it was the first to be practiced.”
As to the pause between Takbirat, it is said that the Prophet (Sallallāhu `alayhi wasallam) would be silent for a short period of time between the Takbirat, and nothing has been related from him concerning exactly what he said during that pause; however, At-Tabarani and Al-Baihaqi related, with a strong chain, that Ibn Mas'ud (radiyallāhu`anhu) would praise and extol Allāh, the Exalted, and make prayers upon the Prophet (Sallallāhu `alayhi wasallam) during such intervals. The same has been recorded from Huzhaifah and Abu Musa (radiyallāhu`anhum). Pronouncing the Takbirat is a Sunnah even though the solah is not invalidated if one neglects them, either intentionally or out of forgetfulness.
Ibn Qudamah (rahimahullāh) says: “I know of no difference of opinion on that point.” Ash-Shawkani (rahimahullāh) states that the strongest opinion is that if one does not perform the Takbirat out of forgetfulness, he is not to perform the Prostrations of Forgetfulness.
At-Tirmidzi narrated from the hadīth of Kathīr ibn ‘Abdullah ibn ‘Amr ibn ‘Awf, from his father, from his grandfather, that the Messenger of Allāh (Sallallāhu `alayhi wa sallam) recited Takbīr in the Solah Eid , seven times in the first rak’ah before reciting Qur’an and five times in the second rak’ah before reciting Qur’an. Al-Tirmidzi said: I asked Muhammad – i.e., al-Bukhari – about this hadīth and he said: There is nothing more soundly than this concerning this topic. And I say likewise.
12.2 - The Recitation in the Solatul 'Eidayn
When Rasulullah (Sallallāhu `alayhi wasallam) had completed the takbīrs, The Prophet (Sallallāhu `alayhi wa sallam) would start to recite. He would recite al-Fātihah then recite Qaf. Wal-Qur’ān il-majīd (Sūrah Qāf, 50) in the first raka’ah and Aqtarabat il-sā’ah wa anshaqqa al-qamar (Sūrah al-Qamar, 54) in the other. Sometimes he recited Sabbih isma rabbika al-A’la (Sūrah al-A’lā, 87) and Hal atāka hadith al-ghāshiyah (Sūrah al-Ghāshiyah, 88). Both were narrated in sahīh reports, but no other surahs are mentioned in sahīh reports. When he had finished reciting he would say takbir and Ruku’ (Bow).
3.3 -The Khutbah
When the Prophet (Sallallāhu `alayhi wasallam) had finished the solah, Rasulullah (Sallallāhu `alayhi wasallam) would move away and stand facing the people, with the people sitting in their rows, and he would address them, preaching and exhorting, with commands and prohibitions. If he wanted to dispatch anyone on a mission he would do so, and if he wanted to enjoin anything he would do that.
There was no minbar on which he would stand, and the minbar of Madinah was not brought out. Rather he would address them standing on the ground. Jabir bin Abdullah (radiyallāhu`anhu) said: “I attended the Solah Eid with the Messenger of Allāh (Sallallāhu `alayhi wasallam). He started with the solah before the khutbah, with no adzan and no iqāmah, and then he stood, leaning on Bilal, and enjoined us to fear and obey Allāh. He preached to the people and reminded them, and then he went over to the women and preached to them and reminded them.” This recorded by Al-Bukhari and the group.
Abu Sa’eed al-Khudri (radiyallāhu`anhu) said: “The Prophet (Sallallāhu `alayhi wasallam) used to go out on The Day of al-Fitr and al-Adha to the prayer place. Rasulullah (Sallallāhu `alayhi wasallam) would start with the Solah, then he would go and stand facing the people, with the people sitting in their rows (delivering his khutbahs) …” This is narrated by Muslim.
The Prophet (Sallallāhu `alayhi wasallam) started all his khutbahs with praise of Allāh. It is not narrated even in one hadīth that he started the khutbah of the Eid with takbīr. Ibn Sa’ad al-Qaraz radhiyallāhu`anhu), themuazzin of the Prophet (Sallallāhu `alayhi wasallam) said: “The Prophet (Sallallāhu `alayhi wasallam) used to say the takbīr between the two sermons and he used to say takbīr a great deal throughout the khutbah of Eid.” This was narrated by Mājah in his Sunan (1287) the hadith was classified as da’ief by al-Albāni in Da’ief Ibn Mājah. Although the hadīth is da’ief, it does not indicate that the Prophet (Sallallāhu `alayhi wasallam) used to begin his khutbah with takbīr.
It says in “Tamaam al-Mannah”: Although it does not indicate that it is prescribed to begin the Eid khutbah with takbīr, its isnād is da’ief and includes one man who is da’īef (weak) and another who is majhul (unknown), so it is not permissible to quote it as evidence that it is Sunnah to say takbīr during the khutbah.
Ibn Al-Qayyim (rahimahullāh) said: People differed as to how the khutbah on Eid and on the occasion of prayers for rain (Solah al-Istisqa’) should begin. It was said that they should begin with takbeer and it was said that the khutbah of istisqa’ should begin with prayers for forgiveness, and it was said that they should begin with praise. Ibn Taymiyah (rahimahullāh) said: this is the correct view. The Prophet (Sallallāhu `alayhi wasallam) used to begin all his khutbahs with praise of Allāh.
The Prophet (Sallallāhu `alayhi wasallam) granted a concession allowing those who attended the Eid prayers either to sit and listen to the khutbah, or to leave.
‘Abdullah Ibn Al-Sa’ib (radiyallāhu`anhu) said: I attended Solah Eid with the Messenger of Allāh (Sallallāhu `alayhi wasallam), and when he had finished the prayer he said: “We are going to deliver the khutbah, so whoever wants to sit and listen to the khutbah, let him do so, and whoever wants to leave, let him go.” This is recorded by Abu Dawūd; Classified as sahīh by al-Albāni.
It is commendable to visit relatives and friends seeking forgiveness to rekindle good relationship and congratulate one another on The Days of 'Eid that have been reported from the Sahabah (radhiyallāhu`anhu). It is also considered a good Islamic practice to exchange gifts. The true spirit of Eid is reflected in generosity including to the poor and the needy. The Prophet (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wasallam) said, "Exchange gifts in order to foster love." (Al-Bukhari in his book Al-Adab Al-Mufrad)
Jabir Ibn Nafayr (radiyallāhu`anhu) reported: “When the companions of the Prophet (Sallallāhu `alayhi wasallam) met each other on the day of 'Eid, they would say to each other, ‘Taqabbalallāhu minnā wa minkum (May Allāh accept it from us and you).’” Ibn Hajar (rahimahullah) said in his Fathul Barī that its chain is hasan.
Imam Abu Bakar Al-Ājurrī (rahimahullah) whose practice was to only record and mention the selected and preferred practices of the Sahabah (radhiyallāhu anhum). Al-Ājurrī (rahimahullah) states regarding these greetings, “This was the (continuous) practice of the Sahabah (radiyAllāhu anhum) as well as that of the ‘Ulama.” [Al Insaf v.2 p.441; kaza Fi Juzin Fit-Tahniati Fil A’yadi Wa Ghayriha libni Hajar] The Fuqaha (Jurists) mention, “This (type of greeting) is a commendable and praiseworthy practice since it is supported by many incidents of the Sahabah (radyiAllāhu anhum) and Tabi’een.” [Hashiyatut Tahtawi p.530]
It is a Sunnah to pronounce the Takbirat on 'Eid days. Allāh says “You should complete the prescribed period and that you should glorify Allāh [i.e., say takbirat] for having guided you and that you may give thanks.” (Surah Al-Baqarah, 2: 185).
The view of the scholars varies on the subject of Takbirat of the Eid. Some scholars hold that the time for the Takbirat during the Eidul Fitr is from the time one goes to the Solatul ‘Eid Fitr until the Khutbah begins. There are authentic reports from Abdullah Ibn 'Umar (radiyallāhu`anhu) and other companions that they did so. Al-Hakim says: ‘This sunnah has been practiced by Ahlil Hadith, Malik, Ahmad, Ishaq, and Abu Thaur.’ Some say that the Takbirat are from the sighting of the moon is seen, until the person goes to the musalla and the imam arrives. There are views by scholars that the Takbirat may do for three days beginning the sighting of the new moon of Shawwal, this view of the Shafie School of Jurisprudence.
The Takbirat can be made in many different forms. The most authentic form is that which has been recorded with a sahih chain a narration from ‘Umar (radiyallāhu`anhu) and Ibn Mas’ud (radiyallāhu`anhu) the following Takbirat is related: “Allāhu Akbar. Allāhu Akbar. Lā ilāha illallāhu wallāhu Akbar. Allāhu Akbar wa lillahil-hamd (Allāh is the greatest, Allāh is the greatest. There is no God but Allāh and Allāh is the greatest, Allāh is the greatest and all praise belongs to Allāh)”.
The Takbir are to be recited loudly and in unison by everyone attending Solātul ‘Eid and everyone on their way there. This show of power enforces the feeling of unity and solidarity and declares the joy of Eid to all.
The Meanings of the Expressions.
Allāhu Akbar: This statement is said by Muslims numerous times. During the call for Solat, during Solat, when they are happy and wish to express their approval of what they hear, when they slaughter an animal, and when they want to praise a speaker.
It means "Allāh is the Greatest." Muslims praise Allāh in every aspect of life, and as such, they say "Allāhu Akbar" as they proceed to Solatul Eid.
Lā ilāha illa llāh: This expression is the most important one in Islam. It is the declaration of faith that every person has to announce to be considered a Muslim. It is part of the first pillar of Islam.
It means "There is no god worthy of worship except Allāh." The second part of this declaration is to say"Muhammadun Rasul Allāh," which means "Muhammad is the Messenger of Allāh."
Al-hamdu lillāh: This is an expression from the Qur’an that Muslims recite and say many times per day. Other than being recited daily during Solah, a Muslim recites this expression in every activity of his daily life.
It means "All Praise Be To Allāh" and is said as an expression of thanks and gratitude to Allāh. A Muslim (a person who chooses to submit peacefully to the Creator) invokes the praises of Allāh when he finishes any work, thanking Allāh for His favors. A Muslim is grateful to Allāh for all His blessings. It is a statement of thanks, appreciation, and gratitude from the Creature to his Creator.
Subhān Allāh: This is an expression that Muslims use to express wonder, exclamation, or surprise; it is also an expression of respect for Allāh.
It means: "Allāh is Exalted. Glory be to Allāh. Far removed is He from anything imperfect associated with Him and from anything unsuitably ascribed to Him."
Allāhumma salli `ala Muhammad: This is an expression that Muslims use whenever the name of Prophet Muhammad is mentioned or written. It means "May the blessings and the peace of Allāh be upon Muhammad." In the Qur’an, Allāh has ordered Muslims to say such an expression. This reflects the Muslim's love and affection towards the Last Prophet, who carried the burden of conveying the last divine message to mankind.
Allāhu Akbaru Kabīra: This expression is simply an emphasis on the greatness of the Creator. It means that God is Greatest than everything that exists and the term "kabīra" is a superlative form of the same meaning.
Al hamdu lillahi kathīra: This is also an expression of emphasis on the gratitude of the Muslims towards their Creator. It's meaning is: "high gratefulness and thankfulness is to be to Allāh, the Creator."
It is strongly recommended to repeat in a loud voice Allāhu Akbar, Allāhu Akbar, Lā ilāha illallāhu wallāhu Akbar, Allāh Akbar wa lillā hil-hamd after every congregational prayer on the days and nights of Eid as well as two days later.
Recreation, amusements, and singing, if they stay within the moral bounds, are permissible on The Days of 'Eid.
Anas bin Malik (radiyallāhu`anhu) reported: “When the Prophet (Sallallāhu `alayhi wasallam) came to Medinah they had two days of sport and amusement. The Prophet (Sallallāhu `alayhi wasallam) said: “Allāh, the Exalted, has exchanged these days for two days better than them: the day of breaking the fast and the day of sacrifice.” This is related by an-Nasa'ie and Ibn Hibban with a sahih chain.
‘Aishah (radiyallāhu`anha)says: “The Abyssinians were performing in the mosque on the day of 'Eid. I looked over the Prophet's (Sallallāhu `alayhi wasallam) shoulders and he lowered them a little so I could see them until I was satisfied and left.” This is related by Ahmad, al-Bukhari, and Muslim.
Ahmad, Al-Bukhari, and Muslim also record that she said: “Abu Bakar (radiyallāhu`anhu) entered upon us on the day of 'Eid and there were some slave girls who were recounting [in song the battle of] Bu'ath in which many of the brave of the tribes of Aus and Khazraj were killed. Abu Bakar said: 'Slaves of Allāh, you play the pipes of the Satan!' He said it three times. The Prophet (Sallallāhu `alayhi wasallam) said to him: 'O Abu Bakar, every people have a festival and this is our festival.”'
In al-Bukhari's version, 'Aishah (radiyallāhu`anha) said: “The Messenger of Allāh (Sallallāhu `alayhi wasallam), entered the house and I had two girls who were singing about the battle of Bu'ath. The Prophet (Sallallāhu `alayhi wasallam) lied down on the bed and turned his face to the other direction. Abu Bakar As-Siddiq (radiyallāhu`anhu) entered and spoke harshly to me, 'Musical instruments of the Satan in the presence of the Messenger of Allāh!' The Messenger of Allāh (Sallallāhu `alayhi wasallam) turned his face to him and said: 'Leave them.' When Abu Bakar (radiyallāhu`anhu) became inattentive I signaled to the girls to leave. It was the day of 'Eid and the Africans were performing with their shields and spears. Either I asked him or the Prophet (Sallallāhu `alayhi wasallam) asked if I would like to watch them [I don't recall now]. I replied in the affirmative. At this the Prophet (Sallallāhu `alayhi wasallam) made me stand behind him and my cheek was against his. He was saying: 'Carry on, O tribe of Arfadah,' until I tired. The Prophet (Sallallāhu `alayhi wasallam) asked: 'Is that enough for you?' I replied: “yes,” so he said: 'Leave [then].'”
Ibn Hajar Al-Asqalani (rahimahullāh) writes in Fathul-Bari, “Ibn as-Siraj related from Abu az-Zinad on the authority of 'Urwah from 'Aishah (radiyallāhu`anhu) that the Prophet (Sallallāhu `alayhi wasallam) said that day: 'Let the Jews of Medinah know that our religion is wide [and has room for relaxation] and I have been sent with an easy and straight forward religion.”
Nubaishah narrated that the Prophet (Sallallāhu `alayhi wasallam) said: “The days of Tashriq (i.e., the days in which the 'Eid is celebrated) are days of eating and drinking [non alcoholic drinks] and of remembering Allāh, the Exalted.”This is recorded by Ahmad and Muslim.
Ibn 'Abbas (radiyAllāhu’anhu) reports that the Prophet (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wasallam) said: "No good deeds done on other days are superior to those done on these days [meaning the ten days of Dzhul-Hijjah]." The companions asked: "O Messenger of Allāh, not even jihad in the way of Allāh?" He (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wasallam) said: "Not even jihad, save for the man who puts his life and wealth in danger [for Allāh's sake] and returns with neither of them." This is related by the group save Muslim and an-Nasa'ie.
Ahmad and At-Tabarani record from Ibn 'Umar (radiyAllāhu’anhu) that the Messenger of Allāh (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wasallam) said: "There is no day more honorable in Allāh's sight and no acts more beloved therein to Allāh than those in these ten days. So say Tahlil ["There is no God but Allāh"], Takbir [Allāh is the greatest] and Tahmid ["All praise is due to Allāh"] a lot [on those days]."
Ibn 'Abbas (radiyAllāhu’anhu) says about the 'ayah, "Remember Allāh during the well known days," that it refers to the first ten days of Dzul-Hijjah. This is related by al-Bukhari. Sa'id ibn Jubair would push himself very hard [to do good deeds] during these ten days.
Al-Awza'ie (rahimahullah) says: "It has reached me that a deed on one of the ten days is similar to fighting in the way of Allāh, fasting during its days and guarding during its nights, except for him who becomes a martyr." As to its source, he adds: "A man from the tribe of Bani Makhzum related that to me from the Prophet(Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wasallam)."
Abu Hurairah (radiyAllāhu’anhu) relates that the Prophet(Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wasallam) said: "There are no days more loved to Allāh for you to worship Him therein than the ten days of Dzhul-Hijjah. Fasting any day during it is equivalent to fasting one year and to offer Solātul Tahajjud (late-night prayer) during one of its nights is like performing the late night prayer on the night of power. [i.e., Lailatul Qadr]." This is related by At-Tirmidzi, Ibn Majah, and Al-Baihaqi.
Allāh the Exalted Alone Know most.
[Adapted from Islam Q&A (49020) and 'Eid Prayers (Solatul 'Eidayn) by Sayyid Sābiq]