The Sanctified Hour of Jumu`ah.
Sheikh Muhammed Salih Al-Munajjid
In the name of Allāh, the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful;
All the praise and Thanks is due to Allāh, the Lord of al-'ālamīn. There is none worthy of worship except Allāh, and that Muhammad, Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam, is His Messenger.
What is the ruling on interrupting the Khatib giving the Khutbah on Friday?
Firstly: Prohibition to talk during Khutbah.
1- Talking during the khutbah when the khātib is speaking on the minbar is haram and the one who does that is committing a sin, even if he speaks words of Dzikir (remembrance of Allāh) at that time.
Jumu’ah should be a time of sitting still and keeping quiet and the worshipper should be humble in body and soul and listen to the exhortation and knowledge which the general Muslim public needs to hear. It is not permissible to speak even if it is to enjoin what is good and forbid what is evil. Even though this (enjoining what is good and forbidding what is evil) is one of the most important duties of the Muslim, it is not allowed at this time (during the khutbah) and one cannot even say “Shush!” or “Listen!” The evidence (dalil) for that is as follows:
It was reported from Abu Hurairah (radiyallāhu‘anhu) that the Messenger of Allāh (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam) said:“If you say to your companion ‘Listen!’ whilst the imam is preaching on Friday, you are considered to have indulged in laghaw (idle talk).” [Narrated by al-Bukhari, 892; Muslim, 851).]
If you say to a person, “Listen!” – Which is enjoining what is good and forbidding what is evil – this is counted as laghaw (idle talk) which is forbidden at the time of Jumu‘ah.
It was reported that Abu Darda’ (radiyallāhu‘anhu) said: “The Messenger of Allāh (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam) sat on the minbar and addressed the people, and recited an ayah. Ubayy ibn Ka’ab (radiyallāhu‘anhu) was beside me and I said to him, ‘O Ubayy, when was this ayah revealed?’ He refused to answer me. I asked him again and he ignored me, and I asked him again and he still ignored me, refusing to speak to me until the Messenger of Allāh (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam) had leaved the minbar. Then Ubayy said to me, ‘All you got from your Jumu’ah was speaking idle talk (laghaw).’ When the Messenger of Allāh (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam) left, I went to him and told him what had happened. He said, ‘Ubayy spoke the truth. If you hear your imam speaking, then listen to him until he finishes.’”
[Narrated by Ibn Majah, 1111; Ahmad, 20780. Classified as sahih by al-Busairi and by Shaikh al-Albāni in Tamam Al-Minnah, p. 338).]
2- An act of mere asking about an ayat during the Jumu’ah could annul the reward of Jumu’ah, more so who speak about their business or crops or other worldly matters. Another kind of negligence on some people falls asleep during the khutbah.
3 - Even saying “Yarhamuk Allāh” (may Allāh have mercy on you) to someone who sneezes, or returning salāms during the time of Jumu’ah is not permissible.
Al-Nawawi (rahimahullāh) says in al-Majmu’: The sahih texts forbid saying “Yarhamuk Allāh” to someone who sneezes and returning salāms. [Tamam al-Minnah, p. 335].
4 - The same applies to all Adhkār (dzikir) such as istighfar (seeking forgiveness) or tasbih (saying Subhānallāh) etc. It is not permissible to say them out loud even though this is dzikir. The khutbah is a kind of dzikir or remembrance of Allāh, because Allāh says:
“O you who believe (Muslims)! When the call is proclaimed for the Salāt (prayer) on the day of Friday (Jumu’ah prayers), come to the remembrance of Allāh…” [Al-Jumu‘ah 62:9]
This includes the khutbah and the prayer; both of them are remembrance of Allāh (dzikir). Other kinds of dzikir such as tasbih etc., are Sunnah and may be done at all other times; the khutbah and listening to it, on the other hand, form an obligatory (wajib) form of dzikir which is prescribed for a short and specific time, during which focusing on the khutbah takes precedence over focusing on any other kind of good deed or worship.
5 - Similarly, the saying “Amēn” to the imām’s duā’ and sending blessings on the Prophet (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam) if he is mentioned during the khutbah, should be done silently by the members of the congregation, not out loud.
Secondly: Time frame of the prohibition talking and making dzikir.
The prohibition on talking and making dzikir applies whilst the Khatib is actually speaking on the minbar. If he is on the minbar but he is not speaking, then there is no prohibition on speaking and remembering Allāh (observing dzikir), because it says in the hadith quoted above, “…whilst the imām is preaching…”
So the prohibition on speaking is thus confined to the time when the imām is actually giving the khutbah.
Thirdly: Permissible situation to speak or move whilst the khātib.
The Occasions when it is permitted to speak or move whilst the khātib is speaking from the minbar:
1 - If a person is faced with some need which he cannot put off dealing with, such as drowsiness, the need to relieve himself, or pain which means he has to move. The evidence (dalil) for that is the hadith: “If any one of you becomes sleepy in the mosque on the day of Jumu’ah, let him move from where he is to another spot.” [Narrated by Abu Dawud, 1119; al-Tarmidzi, 526. Classified as sahih by Shaikh al-Albāni in al-Silsilah al-Sahihah, 468).]
Al-Baihaqi added the phrase “and whilst the imām is giving the khutbah”. This was also classed as sahih by al-Albāni.
2 - It is permissible to do things which are permitted even during the prayer, such as guiding a blind person so that he does not fall; or paying attention to the necessities of life in matters which may lead to death or may affect the common good – such as the worshippers asking the imām to pray for rain for them.
It was reported that Anas ibn Mālik (radiyallāhu‘anhu) said: a man entered the mosque on the day of Jumu‘ah from the direction of the courtyard whilst the Messenger of Allāh (peace and blessings of Allāh be upon him) was standing and giving the khutbah. He turned to the Messenger of Allāh (peace and blessings of Allāh be upon him) and said, “O Messenger of Allāh, our wealth (livestock) has been destroyed and our means of transportation (camels) has been cut off; pray to Allāh to help us.” So the Messenger of Allāh (peace and blessings of Allāh be upon him) raised his hands… [Narrated by al-Bukhari, 967; Muslim, 897).]
3 - It is permissible for a member of the congregation to correct the imam if he makes a mistake in an ayat, or to prompt him if necessary, whilst he is standing on the minbar. It is also permissible to refute the khātib if he says something that amounts to syirik, bid‘ah (innovation) or munkar (reprehensible error) during the khutbah, so long as that will not lead to a greater evil or fitnah happening in the mosque. If that is the case, then one should wait until after the khutbah and then speak to the imam, pointing out what is wrong. If the imam speaks words of falsehood, it is not obligatory to listen to him. It was reported that some of the Salaf used to speak when the oppressor al-Hajjaj was cursing ‘Ali (may Allāh be pleased with him) on the minbar; they said, “We were not commanded to listen to this!”
4 - It is permissible to pray Tahiyyat al-Masjid (two raka’ahs “Greeting the Mosque”); indeed, this is obligatory, even if the khatib is on the minbar giving the khutbah.
The hadith of Jabir ibn ‘Abdullāh (radiyallāhu‘anhu) who said: a man came whilst the Messenger of Allāh (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam) was addressing the people on the day of Jumu’ah. He said, “Have you prayed, O So and so?” He said, “No.” he said, “Stand up and pray two raka’ahs.” [Narrated by al-Bukhari, 888; Muslim, 875).]
If a person sees another person talking, it is not permissible to tell him to be quiet by speaking to him, as stated above, but one can indicate to him to be quiet by making a gesture, such as placing one's finger on one’s lips.
And Allāh knows best.
[Via Islam Q&A]