Tuesday, February 26, 2008

Al-Wudhu’ (Ablution)


Al-Wudhū’ (Ablution)

In the name of Allāh, the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful;
All the praise and thanks is due to Allāh, the Lord of al-‘ālamīn. I testify that there is none worthy of worship except Allāh, and that Muhammad, Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wasallam is His Messenger.

Jabir ibn Abdullah (radiyallāhu`anhu) narrated that Allāh's Messenger (Sallallāhu `alayhi wasallam) said:
 “The key to Paradise is Solāh and the key to Solāh is cleanliness (wudhū’).” 

(Recorded by al-Tirmidzi)

A desert Arab came to Allāh's Apostle (Sallallāhu `alayhi wasallam) and asked him about ablution. He (Sallallāhu `alayhi wasallam) demonstrated (washing each part of his body) thrice, and then said: That is (the method) of the ablution. And he who does more than this has done wrong, transgressed the limit and has oppressed (himself). (Recorded by al-Tirmidzi (417), An-Nasā'ie, Ibn Majāh, and Abu Dāwud transmitted something to the same effect.)

1 - The Order to Purify The Body

Human (The slave of `Uthman ibn `Affan) narrated, I saw `Uthman ibn `Affan (radiyallāhu`anhu) asking for a tumbler of water (and when it was brought) he poured water over his hands and washed them thrice and then put his right hand in the water container and rinsed his mouth, washed his nose by putting water in it and then blowing it out. Then he washed his face and forearms up to the elbows thrice, passed his wet hands over his head and washed his feet up to the ankles thrice. Then he (radiyallāhu`anhu)  said, "Allāh's Apostle (Sallallāhu `alayhi wasallam)  said 'If anyone Performs ablution like that of mine and offers a two-raka`at solāh during which he does not think of anything else (not related to the present solāh) then his past sins will be forgiven.' “After performing the ablution `Uthman (radiyallāhu`anhu) said, "I am going to tell you a Hadith which I would not have told you, had I not been compelled by a certain Verse (the sub narrator `Urwah said: This verse is: 'Verily, those who conceal the clear signs and the guidance which we have sent down...)' (Al-Baqarah, 2:159). I heard the Prophet (Sallallāhu `alayhi wasallam) saying, 'If a man performs ablution perfectly and then offers the compulsory congregational solāh, Allāh will forgive his sins committed between that (solāh) and the (next) solah till he offers it.’ (Recorded by Al-Bukhari (161))

Allah Says:

“O you who believe! When you intend to offer As-Solāh, wash your faces and your hands (forearms) up to the elbows, rub (by passing wet hands over) your heads, and (wash) your feet up to ankles. If you are in a state of Janabah (i.e. had a sexual discharge), purify yourself (bathe your whole body). But if you are ill or on a journey or any of you come from answering the call of nature, or you have been in contact with women (i.e. sexual intercourse) and you find no water, then perform Tayammum with clean earth and rub therewith your faces and hands. Allāh does not want to place you in difficulty, but He wants to purify you, and to complete His Favour on you that you may be thankful.”

(Al-Mā'idah, 5:6)

“...And Allāh loves those who make themselves clean and pure (i.e. who clean their private parts with dust [i.e. to be considered as soap) and water from urine and stools, after answering the call of nature].”

 (At-Tawbah, 9:108)

“They ask you concerning menstruation. Say: that is an Adha (a harmful thing for a husband to have a sexual intercourse with his wife while she is having her menses), therefore keep away from women during menses and go not unto them till they have purified (from menses and have taken a bath). And when they have purified themselves, then go in unto them as Allāh has ordained for you (go in unto them in any manner as long as it is in their vagina). Truly, Allāh loves those who turn unto Him in repentance and loves those who purify themselves (by taking a bath and cleaning and washing thoroughly their private parts, bodies, for their prayers, etc.).”

 (Al-Baqarah, 2:222)

“O you who believe (in Allāh's Oneness and in His Messenger (Muhammad Sallallāhu `alayhi wa sallam)! Verily, the Mushrikūn (polytheists, pagans, idolaters, disbelievers in the Oneness of Allāh and in the Message of Muhammad (Sallallāhu `alayhi wasallam) are Najasun (impure). So let them not come near Al-Masjid-al-Haram (at Makkah) after this year, and if you fear poverty, Allāh will enrich you if He will, out of His Bounty. Surely, Allāh is All-Knowing, All-Wise. “

(At-Tawbah, 9:28)

2 - How To Perform Wudhu’?

2.1 -  Say "Bismillah" (in the Name of Allāh)

2.2 - Wash hands 3 times

Use left hand to wash right hand, up to and including the wrist, 3 times. Then, use right hand to wash left hand, up to and including the wrist, 3 times.

2.3 - Rinse water in mouth 3 times

2.4 - Cup right hand with water and put in mouth, then spit it out, 3 times.

2.5 - Snuff water in nose 3 times

2.6 - Wash face 3 times

2.7 - Wash forearms 3 times

Wipe right forearm with left hand, all the way up to and including the elbow, 3 times.

Wipe left forearm with right hand, all the way up to and including the elbow, 3 times.

2.8 - Wipe water over head (hair) once

It has been recorded that the Prophet (Sallallāhu `alayhi wasallam) used to wipe his head three different ways:

Wiping all of his head. `Abdullah ibn Zaid (radiyallāhu`anhu) reported that the Prophet (Sallallāhu `alayhi wasallam)   wiped his entire head with his hands. Rasulullah (Sallallāhu `alayhi wasallam)   started with the front of his head, then moved to the back, and then returned his hands to the front.

2.9 - Wiping Over the Turban Only.

'Amru ibn Umayyah (radiyallāhu`anhu) said, "I saw the Messenger of Allāh (Sallallāhu `alayhi wasallam) wipe over his turban and shoes." (Recorded Ahmad, al-Bukhari and Ibn Mājah).

Bilal bin Rabab (radiyallāhu`anhu) reported that the Prophet (Sallallāhu `alayhi wasallam) said: "Wipe over your shoes and head covering." (Recorded by Ahmad.)

`Umar Ibn Al-Khattab (radiyallāhu`anhu) once said, "May Allāh not purifies the one who does not consider wiping over the turban to be purifying." Many hadith have been related on this topic by al-Bukhari, Muslim and others. Most of the scholars agree with them.

Wiping over the front portion of the scalp and the turban. Al-Mughirah Ibn Shu'bah (radiyallāhu`anhu) said that the Messenger of Allāh (Sallallāhu `alayhi wasallam), made wudhu’ and wiped over the front portion of his scalp, his turban and his socks. (Recorded by Muslim.) There is, however, no strong hadith that he wiped over part of his head, even though al-Mā'idah: apparently implies it. It is also not sufficient just to wipe over locks of hair that proceed from the head or along the sides of the head.

If you are a female and a non-mahram male (or non-Muslim who you believe may describe you to others) may see you (such as in a public bathroom, etc.), do not remove your hijab or niqab... keep it on and wipe over it.

2.10 - Wipe the inside and back of ears 1 time

Wash both ears at the same time

2.11 -  Wash feet

Wash right foot, including the ankle, with left hand, 3 times.

Wipe between each toe on right foot, with left hand pinky, 1 time.

Wash left foot, including the ankle, with right hand, 3 times.

Wipe between each toe on left foot, with right hand pinky, 1 time.

`Abdullah bin `Amr (radiyallāhu`anhu) narrated: Once the Prophet (Sallallāhu `alayhi wasallam) remained behind us in a journey. He (Sallallāhu `alayhi wasallam) joined us while we were performing ablution for the prayer which was over-due. We were just passing wet hands over our feet (and not washing them properly) so the Prophet (Sallallāhu `alayhi wasallam) addressed us in a loud voice and said twice or thrice: "Save your heels from the fire." (Recorded by Bukhari 1:164))

"...and then he washed his feet up to the ankles." (Al-Bukhari 1.186, narrated by Ibn Amr)

3 - What Invalidates Wudhu?

If any of the following happen, you must perform wudu again before doing Solāh. It is recommended (but not mandatory) to always be in a state of wudhū, so it is not necessary to wait until hearing the adzān (call to Solāh) before performing wudhū.

3.1-Relieving oneself from the call of nature

“O you who believe! When you intend to offer As-Solah (the prayer), wash your faces and your hands (forearms) up to the elbows, rub (by passing wet hands over) your heads, and (wash) your feet up to ankles. If you are in a state of Janabah (i.e. had a sexual discharge), purify yourself (bathe your whole body). But if you are ill or on a journey or any of you come from answering the call of nature, or you have been in contact with women (i.e. sexual intercourse) and you find no water, then perform Tayammum with clean earth and rub therewith your faces and hands. Allāh does not want to place you in difficulty, but He wants to purify you, and to complete His Favour on you that you may be thankful.”

 (Al-Māidah, 5:6)

 3.2- Passing intestinal gas, i.e. breaking wind

Abu Hurairah (radiyallāhu`anhu) reported that the Messenger of Allāh (Sallallāhu `alayhi wasallam)     said: "Allāh does not accept the prayer of a person who has released gas until he makes a new ablution." A person from Hadhramaut asked Abu Hurairah, "What does releasing gas mean?" He answered, "Wind with or without sound." (Recorded by al-Bukhari and Muslim.)

Abu Hurairah (radiyallāhu`anhu) also narrated that the Prophet (Sallallāhu `alayhi wasallam)    said, "If one of you finds a disturbance in his abdomen and is not certain if he has released any gas or not, he should not leave the mosque unless he hears its sound or smells its scent." (Recorded by Muslim.)

'Abbad ibn Tameem (radiallāhu`anhu) related that his uncle queried the Prophet (Sallallāhu `alayhi wasallam)    about a person who feels something in his abdomen while praying. The Prophet (Sallallāhu `alayhi wasallam) said: "He should not leave (the solah) until he hears it or smells it." (Recorded by Muslim, Abu Dāwud and At-Tirmidzi.)

3.3- Sexual Relations

One must perform ghusul after sexual relations, i.e. when the male private part enters the female private part.

3.4 - Touching one's private parts with no barrier (i.e. cloth) between the hand and organ

Busrah binti Safwan (radiyallāhu`anha) narrated that the Prophet (Sallallāhu `alayhi wasallam)    said: "Whoever touches his sexual organ cannot solah until he performs ablution." (This hadith is related by "the five." At-Tirmidzi classified it as sahih and al-Bukhari called it the most authentic report on that topic. Malik, ash-Shafie, Ahmad and others also narrated it.)

In the event that you forget whether you have done wudu or not, err on the side of not re-performing wudu.... i.e. do not perform wudu again unless you are sure that you broke orinvalidated it.

3.5 - Make wudhū again if you experience anger.

Atiyyah as-Sa'di Abu Wail al-Qass (radiyallāhu`anhu) narrated, who said: “We entered upon Urwah ibn Muhammad ibn as-Sa'di. A man spoke to him and made him angry. So he stood and performed ablution; he then returned [and performed a two raka’ahs], and said: My father told me on the authority of my grandfather Atiyyah who reported the Apostle of Allāh (Sallallāhu `alayhi wasallam)   as saying: Anger comes from the devil, the devil was created of fire, and fire is extinguished only with water; so when one of you becomes angry, he should perform ablution.” (Recorded by Abu Dāwud)

4 - What Doesn't Invalidate Wudhu’?

41 - Drinking or Eating

Anas ibn Mālik (radiyallāhu`anhu) narrated: The Messenger of Allāh (Sallallāhu `alayhi wasallam)   drank some milk and he did not rinse his mouth nor did he perform ablution, and he offered the prayer. (Recorded by Abu Dāwud)

4.2 - Kissing a mahram woman (such as your wife)

`Aishah (radiyallāhu`anha) narrated that the Messenger of Allāh (Sallallāhu `alayhi wasallam)   kissed her while he was fasting and said: "Kissing does not nullify the ablution, nor does it break the fast." (Related by Ishaq ibn Rahawaih and al-Bazzār with a good chain. Evaluating its authenticity, `Abdul-Haqq says, "I do not know of any defect in the hadith that could cause its rejection.")

4.3 - Laughing

Laughing does not invalidate wudu. Laughing loudly during Solah, however, does invalidate the Solāh.

4.4 - Changing a baby's diaper: Just wash your hands after changing the diaper.

People with unusual circumstances (i.e. women with "prolonged flows of blood"), people who cannot control their urine, people with flatulence, and so on, should perform one ablution for each prayer whether their problem exists all or part of the time. Their prayers will be acceptable even while their problems are occurring.

4.5 - Talking During Wudhu’

5 - The Ghusul (Complete Body Washing, i.e. Bath)

Yahiya related to me from Malik from Abu Nadr, the mawla of Umar ibn Abdullah (radiyallāhu`anhu) that Abu Salama ibn Abdul-Rahman ibn Awf related that he had asked `Aishah (radiyallāhu`anha), the wife of the Prophet (Sallallāhu `alayhi wasallam) what made ghusul obligatory. She (radiallāhu`anha) said: "Do you know what you are like, Abu Salama? You are like a chick when it hears the cocks crowing and so crows with them. When the circumcised part passes the circumcised part, ghusul is obligatory." [Muwatta 2.74]

`Aishah (radiyallāhu`anha) narrated that Fatimah bint Abi Hubaish (radiyallāhu`anha) came to the Prophet (Sallallāhu `alayhi wasallam) and said: "O Allāh's Apostle I get persistent bleeding from the uterus and do not become clean. Shall I give up my prayers?" Allāh's Apostle (Sallallāhu `alayhi wasallam) replied, "No, because it is from a blood vessel and not the menses. So when your real menses begins give up your prayers and when it has finished wash off the blood (take a bath) and offer your prayers." Hisham (the sub narrator) narrated that his father had also said, (the Prophet (Sallallāhu `alayhi wasallam) told her): "Perform ablution for every prayer till the time of the next period comes." ( Recorded by Bukhari 1:228)

'Aishah (radiallāhu`anha)  narrated that the Prophet (Sallallāhu `alayhi wasallam) said to me, "Give up the solah when your menses begin and when it has finished, and wash the blood off your body (take a bath) and start praying." (Bukhari 1:327)

6 - The Tayammum (Dry Wudhu’)

When absolutely no water is available, you should perform Tayammum (dry wudhū')...

Jabir bin `Abdullah (radiyallāhu`anhu) narrated that ... The earth has been made for me (and for my followers) a place for praying and a thing to perform Tayammum, therefore anyone of my followers can perform Solāh wherever the time of a solâh is due. (Bukhari 1:331)

“O you who believe! When you intend to offer As-Solāh, wash your faces and your hands (forearms) up to the elbows, rub (by passing wet hands over) your heads, and (wash) your feet up to ankles. If you are in a state of Janabah (i.e. had a sexual discharge), purify yourself (bathe your whole body). But if you are ill or on a journey or any of you come from answering the call of nature, or you have been in contact with women (i.e. sexual intercourse) and you find no water, then perform Tayammum with clean earth and rub therewith your faces and hands. Allāh does not want to place you in difficulty, but He wants to purify you, and to complete His Favour on you that you may be thankful.

(Al-Māidah, 5:6)

7 - Action Items for the Muttaqun.

1. Perform ghusul after sexual intercourse and after completing a menstrual cycle before commencing Solāh

2. Do not even think about performing dry wudhu’ if there is water available

3.Do not skip over any of the steps of wudhu'

4.Generally make effort to remain in a state of wudhū’ at all times, combined with thoughts on dzikir (the remembrance of Allāh Subhānahu wa ta`ala). For instance, do wudhū’ each time after relieving oneself or after becoming angry. Recognize the importance of being in a state of wudhū before going to sleep.

And Allāh Almighty Knows Best


[Via the ISGKC]

1 comment:

jakemosterio said...

Have you ever heard of these Islamic socks? They are great, and make wudu much easier.