The Introduction to The Solāh of the Prophet S.A.W
The Solāh of the Prophet S.A.W
By Shaikh Muhammad Nasiruddin Al-Albāni
(The book was translated by Usama Ibn Suhaib Hasan al-Britani; it would be worthwhile to revisit it and I invite you to provide inputs with regards to this piece of work by Albāni)
The Introduction to The Solāh of the Prophet S.A.W
In the name of Allāh, the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful;
All the praise and Thanks is due to Allāh, the Lord of the al-'ālamīn. There is none worthy of worship except Allāh, and that Muhammad, Sallallāhu alayhi wa sallam, is His Messenger.
All the Praise is due to Allāh, who made Solāh obligatory on his servants and ordered them to establish it and perform it well; who linked success and felicity to humility in Solāt; who made it the criterion to distinguish between Iman and Kufur; and who made it a restrainer from shameful and unjust deeds.
Peace and Blessing of Allāh be upon our Prophet Muhammad, who was addressed in the Words of the Exalted: "And We have sent down to you the Message, that you may explain clearly to the people what is sent for them", and who fully carried out this task. The Solāt was one of the most important things which he explained to the people, verbally and practically, even praying on the pulpit once - standing, bowing and prostrating, and then saying to them, I have done this so that you may follow me and learn my Solāt.  He (sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam) obligated us to emulate him in his Solāt, saying, “Solāt as you have seen me Solāt” . He (sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam) also gave the good tidings to whoever observed Solāt like him that such a person has a covenant with Allāh that He will enter him into the Garden, saying, There are five Solāt which Allāh, Mighty and Sublime, has made compulsory: he who performs ablution well for them, prays them at their proper times, and is complete in their bowings, prostrations and humility, he has a guarantee from Allāh that He will forgive him; but he who does not do so, has no guarantee from Allāh: if He wishes, He will forgive him or if He wishes, He will punish him. 
Peace and Blessing be also on his family and his pious and just Companions, who passed on to us his worship, Solāt, sayings and actions (sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam), and who made these, and these alone, a Mazhab and a path for them to follow; and also on those who follow in their footsteps and tread their path until the Day of Judgment.
When I finished reading the book of Solāt in At-Targhib Wat-Tarhīb by Al-Hafiz Al-Mundhiri (rahimahullah) and teaching it to our brothers, four years ago, it became clear to us all the important position of the Solāt in Islam; and the reward, grace and respect awaiting those who establish and perform it well; and that all this varies, depending on its closeness to the Prophet's Solāt (sallallāhu‘alayhi wa sallam). This is what he indicated in his saying, Verily the slave observes a Solāt of which nothing is written down for him except a tenth, a ninth, an eighth, a seventh, a sixth, a fifth, a quarter, a third or a half of it. Therefore, I reminded fellow Muslims that it is not possible for us to perform Solāt as it should be performed, or even approach that, unless we know the detailed description of the Prophet's Solāt (sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam), including its essentials, manners, forms, supplications (du'as) and remembrances (Adhkar), and then we make an effort to put that knowledge into practice carefully, for then we could hope that our Solāt would restrain us from shameful and unjust deeds, and that the reward and blessings mentioned in the narrations would be written down for us.
However, detailed familiarity with all these aspects of Solāt is unlikely to be achieved by most people nowadays, even many scholars, because of their limiting themselves to a particular Mazhab. But, as anyone concerned with assisting in compiling and studying the purified Sunnah knows, in every Mazhab there are sunnahs which are not found in other Mazhabs; moreover, in every Mazhab there are sayings and actions which cannot be authentically traced back to the Prophet (sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam) - most of these are found in the views of the later scholars , many of whom we see firmly attributing these to the Prophet (sallallāhu ‘alaihi wa sallam)!  This is why the scholars of Hadith - may Allāh reward them well - have produced Books of Takhrij on the famous books of the later scholars, explaining the rank of each hadith given in them: whether e.g. authentic, weak or fabricated. Examples of these books of Takhrij are: Al-'Inayah Fi Ma'rifah Ahadith Al- Hidayah and At-Turuq Wal-Wasā'il Fi Takhrij Ahadith Khulasah Ad-Dala’il by Shaikh 'Abdul Qadir Ibn Muhammad Al- Qurashi Al-Hanafi; Nasb Ar-Raayah Li Ahadith Al-Hidayah by Hafiz Zaila’i, and its abridged version Ad-Dirayah by Hafiz Ibn Hajar Al-Asqalani, who also wrote Talkhis Al-Habir Fi Takhrij Ahadith Ar-Rafi’i Al-Kabir; there are many others, naming which will only lengthen this discussion.
Reasons behind the Compilation of this Book, and some of its Features
Since I had not come across a comprehensive book covering this topic, I felt obliged to produce a book which collected together as many features of the Prophet's (sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam) Solāt from the takbir to the taslim as possible, for the benefit of my Muslim brothers who wished to follow the guidance of their Prophet (sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam) in their worship, such that it would be easy for any who truly loved the Prophet (sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam) to use this book to fulfil his command, “Solāt as you have seen me Solāt”
Thus I embarked on a difficult task, and researched the relevant ahadith from the various sources of Hadith, the book in your hands being the end result of it all. I stipulated on myself that I would only give ahadith which had an authentic sanad according to the principles and regulations of the science of Hadith. I disregarded any hadith which depended on unknown or weak narrators, whether it dealt with the outward form, adhkar, excellence, etc. of the Solāt. This is because I hold that the authentic ahadith  are sufficient, leaving no need for anything weak, for the latter does not amount to anything except zann (conjecture, suspicion), and incorrect conjecture at that; as the Exalted says:
"... And conjecture is of no use against the truth" 
And the Prophet (sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam) said, “Beware of suspicion, for truly, suspicion is the most false of speech”. Therefore, we cannot worship Allāh by acting according to inauthentic ahadith; in fact, the Messenger of Allāh (sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam) forbade us from this saying, Keep away from saying things about me, except what you know; since he has forbidden us from relating weak narrations, it goes without saying that it is forbidden to act according to them.
I have compiled the book as two texts: the main text and the subsidiary text.
The main text includes the text of ahadith or phrases taken from them, as well as appropriate words to string them together to give the book fluency from start to finish. I have been careful to preserve the text of each hadith as it is found in the books of Sunnah; where a hadith has different wordings, I have chosen the version which best fits the fluency etc., but I have brought together other wordings thus: "(in one version: ... )" or "(in one narration: ...)". Only rarely have I given the Companion who narrated the hadith, or explained in the main text which of the Imams of Hadith has collected each hadith, in order to provide easier reading and reference.
As for the subsidiary text, it is a commentary on the main text. In it I have traced the ahadith to their sources, exploring their various versions and routes of narration. Along with this, I have commented on their isnads and supporting narrations, with authenticating and disparaging remarks on narrators, whether authentic or weak, judged according to the rules of the science of Hadith. Often, one route of narration has additional words which are not found in other routes, so I have inserted these into the original hadith in the main text whenever it is possible to do so without destroying the fluency, enclosing the addition in square brackets: [...], usually without stating which of the sources were alone in containing that addition. This has been done only if the hadith is originally on the authority of the same Companion, otherwise I have given it separately, e.g. in the opening supplications etc. This insertion of additional wordings is a tremendous advantage which you will not find in many books - Praise be to Allāh, by Whose Favour good actions are completed.
Next, I have mentioned in the subsidiary text the mazhabs of the scholars regarding the hadith traced, as well as the evidence and counter-evidence for each view, along with the strengths and weaknesses of each argument. We have then selected out of that the correct view which we have given in the main text. Also in the subsidiary text, we have given some issues for which there is no text in the Sunnah, but which require ijtihad, and do not come under the title of this book.
Since the publication of this book with both main and subsidiary texts is not feasible right now due to various reasons, we have decided to publish only the main text of the book (along with brief footnotes) by Allāh's Will, and named it "Sifah Solāt An-Nabi (Sallallāhu ‘alaihi wa sallam), Min At-Takbir Ilā At-Taslīm Ka'annaka Tarāhā (Description of The Prophet's Solāt, from beginning to end, as though you were watching it)".
I ask Allāh to make this work sincerely for His Face, and to help my brothers in faith to benefit from it, for He is the Hearer, the Answerer.
Methodology of this Book
Since the purpose of this book is to convey the guidance of the Prophet (sallallāhu ‘alaihi wa sallam) regarding Solat, it was elementary that I would not limit myself to a particular Mazhab, for the reasons mentioned previously. Therefore, I would give whatever is authentically proved from him (sallallāhu ‘alaihi wa sallam), as has always been the way of the scholars of Hadith , whether of old or of the recent past , as the excellent saying goes:
The People of Hadith are the People of the Messenger, although They accompany him not, they are with his every movement. [15 ]
Thus this book would, Allāh’s Willing, gather whatever is relevant to each topic from the various contents of the books of Hadith and the books on the differences between the Mazhabs, such that the correct verdicts found in this book would not be found totally in any one Mazhab. Hence the one acting on it, Allāh Willing, would be among those whom Allāh had guided "by His Grace to the Truth concerning that in which they differed, for Allāh guides whom He will to a path that is straight." 
When I adopted these principles for myself, i.e. to adhere to the authentic Sunnah, and to implement them in this book as well as others, I knew for sure that this would not satisfy every group of people or sect; in fact, it would result in some, if not most of them, insulting or criticising me. This does not matter to me, for I also know that to please everyone is an unattainable notion, and that "He who pleases the people by angering Allāh, Allāh will entrust him to the people", as the Messenger of Allāh (sallallāhu ‘alaihi wa sallam) said. The reward is with Allāh for the author of the following lines:
Nor could I ever escape from abuse, Even where I in a cave in a rugged mountain; For who can escape from the people unharmed, Even if he hides behind the eagle's wings?
It is enough for me that I believe that this is the most upright way, which Allāh has commanded the believers to take; which our Prophet Muhammad (sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam), Chief of the Messengers, has explained. This is the path which was trodden by the Pious Predecessors: the Companions, their Successors and those after them, including the four Imams to who’s Mazhabs the majority of Muslims today attribute themselves. All of them were agreed on the obligation to stick to the Sunnah and to refer to it; to ignore every view contradictory to it, no matter how great the holder or profounder of that view, for the status of the Messenger of Allāh (sallallāhu ‘alaihi wa sallam) is far greater, and his example is far truer. Because of this, I have acted on their guidance, followed in their footsteps and carried out their commands to stick to the authentic hadīth, even if this opposes their view. These commands of theirs have influenced me greatly in my perusal of this path, and my rejection of blind taqlid (following of opinion). I ask Allāh Exalted to reward them greatly.
Sayings of the Imāms Regarding Following the Sunnah and Ignoring Their Views Contradictory to It
It would be beneficial if we gave some of these here, for perhaps this will admonish or remind those who follow the opinion of the Imams - nay, of those far below the Imams in rank – blindly, sticking to their mazhabs or views as if these had descended from the heavens! But Allāh, Mighty and Sublime, says:
"Follow (O men!) The revelation given to you from your Lord, and follow not, as friends and protectors, other than Him. Little is it you remember of admonition."
1) Abu Hanifah (rahimahullah)
The first of them is Abu Hanifah Nu’man Ibn Thabit, whose companions have narrated from him various sayings and diverse warnings, all of them leading to one thing: the obligation to accept the Hadith, and to give up following the opinions of the imams which contradict it:
1. "When a hadith is found to be sahih, then that is my mazhab." 
2. "It is not permitted  for anyone to accept our views if they do not know from where we got them." 
In one narration, "It is prohibited  for someone who does not know my evidence to give verdicts  on the basis of my words."
Another narration adds, "... for we are mortals: we say one thing one day, and take it back the next day."
In another narration, "Woe to you, O Ya'qub!  Do not write down everything you hear from me, for it happens that I hold one opinion today and reject it tomorrow, or hold one opinion tomorrow and reject it the day after tomorrow." 
3. "When I say something contradicting the Book of Allāh the Exalted or what is narrated from the Messenger (sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam), then ignore my saying." 
2) Mālik Ibn Anas (rahimahullah)
As for Imam Malik Ibn Anas, he said:
1. "Truly I am only a mortal: I make mistakes (sometimes) and I am correct (sometimes). Therefore, look into my opinions: all that agrees with the Book and the Sunnah accept it; and all that does not agree with the Book and the Sunnah, ignore it." 
2. "Everyone after the Prophet (sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam) will have his sayings accepted and rejected - not so the Prophet (sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam)." 
3. Ibn Wahb said: "I heard Mālik being asked about cleaning between the toes during ablution. He said, 'The people do not have to do that.' I did not approach him until the crowd had lessened, when I said to him, 'We know of a sunnah about that.' He said, 'What is that?' I said, 'Laith Ibn Sa'd, Ibn Lahie’ah and 'Amr Ibn Al-Harith narrated to us from Yazid Ibn 'Amr Al-Ma'afiri from Abu 'Abdur-Rahman al-Hubuli from Mustawrid Ibn Shaddad Al-Qurashi who said, 'I saw the Messenger of Allāh (sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam) rubbing between his toes with his little finger.' He said, 'This hadith is sound; I had not heard of it at all until now.' Afterwards, I heard him being asked about the same thing, on which he ordered cleaning between the toes." 
3) Shāfi’e (rahimahullah)
As for Imam Shāfi’e, the quotations from him are most numerous and beautiful  and his followers were the best in sticking to them:
1. "The sunnahs of the Messenger of Allāh (sallallāhu ‘alaihi wa sallam) reach, as well as escape from, every one of us. So whenever I voice my opinion, or formulate a principle, where something contrary to my view exists on the authority of the Messenger of Allāh (sallallāhu ‘alaihi wa sallam), then the correct view is what the Messenger of Allāh (sallallāhu ‘alaihi wa sallam) has said, and it is my view." 
2. "The Muslims are unanimously agreed that if a sunnah of the Messenger of Allāh (sallallāhu ‘alaihi wa sallam) is made clear to someone, it is not permitted  for him to leave it for the saying of anyone else." 
3. "If you find in my writings something different to the Sunnah of the Messenger of Allāh (sallallāhu ‘alaihi wa sallam), then speak on the basis of the Sunnah of the Messenger of Allāh (sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam), and leave what I have said."
In one narration: "... then follow it (the Sunnah), and do not look sideways at anyone else's saying." 
4. "When a hadith is found to be sahih, then that is my mazhab." 
5. "You  are more knowledgeable about Hadith than me, so when a hadith is sahih, inform me of it, whether it is from Kufah, Basrah or Syria, so that I may take the view of the hadith, as long as it is sahih." 
6. "In every issue where the people of narration find a report from the Messenger of Allāh (sallallāhu 'alaihi wa sallam) to be sahih which is contrary to what I have said, then I take my saying back, whether during my life or after my death." 
7. "If you see me saying something, and contrary to it is authentically-reported from the Prophet (sallallāhu ‘alaihi wa sallam), then know that my intelligence has departed." 
8. "For everything I say, if there is something authentic from the Prophet (sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam) contrary to my saying, then the hadith of the Prophet (sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam) comes first, so do not follow my opinion." 
9. "Every statement on the authority of the Prophet (sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam) is also my view, even if you do not hear it from me." 
4) Ahmad Ibn Hanbal (rahimahullah)
Imam Ahmad was the foremost among the Imams in collecting the Sunnah and sticking to it, so much so that he even "disliked that a book consisting of deductions and opinions be written."  Because of this he said:
1. "Do not follow my opinion; neither follows the opinion of Malik, nor Shāfi’e, nor Awza’i, nor Thawri, but takes from where they took." 
In one narration: "Do not copy your Deen from anyone of these, but whatever comes from the Prophet (sallallāhu ‘alaihi wa sallam) and his Companions, take it; next are their Successors, where a man has a choice."
Once he said: "Following  means that a man follows what comes from the Prophet (sallallāhu ‘alaihi wa sallam) and his Companions; after the Successors, he has a choice." 
2. "The opinion of Awza’i, the opinion of Malik, the opinion of Abu Hanifah: all of it is opinion, and it is all equal in my eyes. However, the proof is in the narrations (from the Prophet (sallallāhu ‘alaihi wa sallam) and his Companions)." 
3. "Whoever rejects a statement of the Messenger of Allāh (sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam) is on the brink of destruction." 
These are the clear, lucid sayings of the Imams (Allāh Exalted be pleased with them) about sticking to the Hadith and forbidding the following of their opinion without clearly- visible evidence, such that mere opinion and interpretation is not acceptable.
Hence, whoever adhered to whatever of the Sunnah that was proved authentic, even if it opposed some of the Imams' sayings, he would not be conflicting with their mazhab, nor straying from their path; rather, such a person would be following all of them and would be grasping the most trustworthy hand-hold, which never breaks. However, this would not be the case with the one who abandoned any of the authentic Sunnah simply because it contradicted their views; nay, such a person would be being disobedient to them and opposing their above mentioned sayings, while Allāh says:
"But no, by Your Lord, they can have no (real) faith, until they make you judge in all disputes between them, and find in their souls no resistance against your decisions, but accept them with the fullest conviction." .
He also says:
"Then let those beware who withstand the Messenger's order, lest some trial befall them or a grievous penalty be inflicted on them." 
Hafiz Ibn Rajab Al-Hanbali (rahimahullah) says:
"Therefore it is obligatory on anyone who hears of a command of the Messenger of Allāh (sallallāhu ‘alaihi wa sallam) or knows it, to explain it to the Ummah, advise them sincerely, and order them to follow his command, even if it contradicts the opinion of someone great. This is because the authority of the Messenger of Allāh (sallallāhu ‘alaihi wa sallam) has the most right to be respected and followed, over and above the opinion of anyone great who has unknowingly contradicted the Messenger's command in any matter. This is why the Companions and those after would refute anyone who contradicted the authentic Sunnah, sometimes being very stern in their refutation , not out of hatred for that person, for they loved and respected him, but because the Messenger of Allāh was more beloved to them, and his command was superior to the command of any other created being. Hence, when the order of the Messenger and that of someone else conflicted, the order of the Messenger would be more fitting to be enforced and followed. None of this would stop them respecting the person they had opposed because they knew that he would be forgiven ; in fact, the latter would not mind his instruction being opposed when the command of the Messenger of Allāh (sallallāhu ‘alaihi wa sallam) was clearly shown to be opposite." 
Indeed, how could they mind that, when they had ordered their followers to do so, as we have seen, and had enjoined on them to abandon any of their views which contradicted the Sunnah. In fact, Imam Shāfi’e (rahimahullah) told his companions to attribute the authentic Sunnah to him also, even if he had not adopted it or had adopted something contradictory to it. Hence, when the analyst Ibn Daqiq Al-'Eid (rahimahullah) collected together, in a bulky volume, the issues in which one or more of the four Imams' mazhabs had contradicted the authentic hadith, he wrote at the beginning of it, "It is prohibited to attribute these answers to the Mujtahid Imams, and obligatory on the jurists who follow their opinions to know of these so that they do not quote them regarding these and thus lie against them." 
The Imams' Followers leaving their Views if it found contradicted the Sunnah
Due to all that we have mentioned, the disciples of the Imams, a number of people from those of old, and a few from those of later time , would not accept all of their Imam’s views; they actually ignored many when they found them to be clearly against the Sunnah. Even the two Imams, Muhammad Ibn Al-Hasan and Abu Yusuf (rahimahullah) differed from their Shaikh Abu Hanifah "in about a third of the Mazhab" , as the books of Masa’il prove. Similarly is said about Imam Al- Muzani  and other followers of Shāfi’e and other Imams; were we to start giving examples, the discussion would become exceedingly, long, and we would digress from what we set out to do in this Introduction, so we shall limit ourselves to two instances:
1) Imam Muhammad says in his Muwatta' (p. 158), "As for Abu Hanifah, he did not regard there being a Solāt to ask for rain, but we hold that the imam prays two raka'ahs and then supplicates and holds out his wrapping garment ..."
2) We have 'Isām Ibn Yusuf Al-Balkhi, one of the companions of Imam Muhammad  and a servant of Imam Abu Yusuf , who "would give verdicts contrary to Imam Abu Hanifah because he did not know the latter's evidence, and other evidence would present itself to him, so he would give verdicts using that."61 Hence, "he would raise his hands on bowing (in Solāt) and on rising from it" , as is the mutawātir sunnah of the Prophet (sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam); the fact that his three Imāms (i.e. Abu Hanifah, Abu Yusuf and Muhammad) said otherwise did not prevent him from practising this sunnah. This is the approach which every Muslim is obliged to have, as we have already seen from the testimony of the Four Imams, and others.
To sum up: I sincerely hope that no follower of an Imām will race to condemn the principles of this book and abandon benefiting from the sunnahs of the Prophet (sallallāhu ‘alaihi wa sallam) which it contains, with the argument that they are contrary to his Mazhab. I hope that such a person will instead consider what we have given of the exhortations of the Imāms towards the obligation to act on the Sunnah and ignore their sayings contradictory to it. I hope also that he will realise that to condemn the attitude of this book is to condemn whichever Imām he is following, for we have taken these principles from those Imāms, as we have explained. Therefore, whoever refuses to be guided by them on this path is in great danger, for such refusal necessitates turning away from the Sunnah, the Sunnah to which we have been ordered to refer in cases of difference of opinion and on which we have been commanded to depend.
I ask Allāh to make us among those about whom He says,
"The answer of the believers, when summoned to Allāh and His Messenger, in order that he may judge between them, is no other than this: they say, "We hear and we obey" - it is such as these that will attain Success. It is those who obey Allāh and His Messenger, and fear Allāh, and keep their duty to Him, who will triumph." 
 Surah an-Nahl, 16:44
 Bukhāri and Muslim - it will later follow in full.
 Bukhāri and Ahmad.
Malik, Abu Dawūd, Nasa'ie, and Ibn Hibban. A sahih hadith, declared sahih by several Imāms. I have given its takhrij in Sahih Abi Dawud (451, 1276).
 Sahih - collected by Ibn al-Mubarak in az-Zuhdi (10/21/1- 2), Abu Dawud & Nasa'ie with a good sanad; I have given its takhrij in Sahih Abi Dawud (761).
[6 Abul-Hasanāt Al-Lucknawi says in An-Nāfi' al-Kabir liman yusalli' al-Jaami' as-Saghīr (p. 122-3), after ranking the books of Hanafi fiqh and saying which of them are dependable and which are not: "All that we have said about the relative grades of these compilations is related to their content of fiqh issues; however, as for their content with regards to ahadith of the Prophet (sallallāhu ‘alaihi wa sallam), then it does not apply, for many books on which the cream of the fuqahā’ rely are full of fabricated ahadith, let alone rulings of the scholars. It is clear to us from a broad analysis that although their authors were otherwise competent, they were careless in their quotation of narrations."
One of these false, fabricated ahadith which are found in some of the best books is: "He who offers the compulsory Solāts on the last Friday of Ramadhān that will make up for every Solāt he missed during his life up to the age of seventy years”! Lucknawi (rahimahullah) says in Al-Aathar al-Marfū'ah fil-Akhbār al-Mawdu’ah (p. 315), after giving this hadith, "'Ali al-Qari says in his al-Mawdu’at as- Sughrā and al-Kubra: this is totally false, for it contradicts the ijma' (consensus of opinion) that one act of worship cannot make up for those missed over years. Hence, there is no point in quoting the author of An-Nihayah nor the rest of the commentators on Al-Hidayah, for they are not scholars of Hadith, nor did they reference this hadith to any of the collectors of Hadith."
Shawkāni also mentioned this hadith in Al-Fawā'id al- Majmu’ah fil-Ahadith al-Mawdu’ah with a similar wording and then said (p. 54), "This is fabricated beyond doubt - I do not even find it in any of the compilations of fabricated ahadith! However, it has become popular among some students of fiqh in the city of San’a' in this age of ours, and many of them have started acting according to it. I do not know who has fabricated it for them - May Allāh disgraces the liars."
Lucknawi further says, "To establish that this hadith, which is found in books of rituals and formulas, is fabricated, I have composed a brief essay, with intellectual and narrated evidence, called Repelling the Brethren from the Inventions of the Last Friday of Ramadhan, in which I have filed points which will enlighten minds and to which ears will hearken, so consult it, for it is valuable in this topic and of high quality."
The occurrence of similar false ahadith in the books of fiqh destroys the reliability of other ahadith which they do not quote from dependable books of Hadith. The words of 'Ali al- Qari contain an indication towards this: a Muslim must take Hadith from the people who are experts in that field, as the old Arabic sayings go, "The people of Makkah know its mountain- paths best" and "The owner of the house knows best what is in it."
 Imam Nawawi (rahimahullah)'s words in Al-Majmu' Sharh al- Muhadhdhab (1/60) can be summed up as follows: "The researching scholars of the People of Hadith and others say that if the hadīth is weak, it will not be said regarding it, 'The Messenger of Allāh (sallallāhu ‘alaihi wa sallam) said/did/commanded/forbade ...' or any other phrase designating certainty, but instead it will be said, 'It is reported/quoted/narrated from him ...' or other phrases suggesting uncertainty. They say that phrases of certainty are for sahīh and hasan ahadith, and phrases of uncertainty are for anything else. This is because phrases designating certainty mean that what follows is authentic, so they can only be used in the case of what is authentic, otherwise one would effectively be lying about him (sallallāhu ‘alaihi wa sallam).
This convention is one ignored by most of the fuqahā' of our age, in fact, by most scholars of any discipline, except for the skilled Muhaddithin. This is disgusting carelessness, for they often say about a sahih hadith, 'It is reported from him that ...', and about a da'ief one, 'he said' and 'so- and-so reported ...', and this is far from correct."
Publisher's note: Also in this category are the works of our teacher, author of e.g. Irwa' al-Ghalil fi takhrij Manaar as-Sabil in 8 volumes, and Ghayah Al-Marām Fi Takhrij Ahadith Al-Halal Wal-Haram, a takhrij of the ahadith found in Dr. Yusuf Al-Qaradawi The Lawful and the Prohibited in Islam, (which contains many da'ief ahadith).
The term, "authentic hadith" includes sahih and hasan in the eyes of the Muhaddithin, whether the hadith is sahih li dhātihi or sahih li ghairihi, or hasan li dhaatihi or hasan li ghairihi.
 Bukhāri ; Muslim.
 Sahih - collected by Tirmidzi, Ahmad and Ibn Abi Shaibah.
Later, I discovered that this hadith is actually da'ief: I had relied on Manawi in declaring sahih the isnād of Ibn Abi Shaibah, but then I happened to come across it myself, and found that it was clearly weak, being the same isnad as Tirmidzi and others - see my book Silsilah Al-Ahadith Ad-Da’iefah (1783). However, its place is taken by the Prophet's saying (sallallāhu ‘alaihi wa sallam), "He who relates from me a saying which he knows is a lie is indeed one of the liars", collected by Muslim and others.
 Abdul Hayy Al-Lucknawi says in Imam Al-Kalam Fimā yata'allaq bil-Qirā'ah Khalf Al-Imam (p. 156), as follows: "Whoever dives into the oceans of fiqh and the fundamentals of jurisprudence with an open mind, and does not allow himself to be prejudiced, will know with certainty that in which the scholars have differed, the mazhab of the scholars of Hadith is firmer than other mazhabs. Every time I go into the branches of difference of opinion, I find the view of the Muhaddithin nearest to justice - their reward is with Allāh, and He will thank them. How could it be otherwise, when they are the true inheritors of the Prophet (sallallāhu ‘alaihi wa sallam), and the sincere agents of his Law; may Allāh include us in their company and make us die loving them."
 Subki says in Al-Fatawa (1/148):
"The most important affair of the Muslims is the Solāt, which every Muslim must care about and ensure its performance and the establishment of its essentials. Related to Solāt are issues on which there is consensus and there is no escaping the truth, and other issues in which the scholars have differed. The correct approach is either to keep clear of dispute if possible or to look for what is authentically- proven from the Prophet (sallallāhu ‘alaihi wa sallam) and adheres to that. When one does this, his Solāt will be correct and righteous, and included in the words of the Exalted, "So whoever expects to meet his Lord, let him work correct, righteous deeds." (Al-Kahf, 18:110)
most of the principal and subsidiary issues in
I say: The latter approach is superior, nay, obligatory; this is because the former approach, as well as being impossible many issues, does not fulfil his command (sallallāhu ‘alaihi wa sallam), Pray as you have seen me praying, but instead leads to one's Solāt being decidedly different to that of the Prophet (sallallāhu ‘alaihi wa sallam).
 From the poetry of Hasan ibn Muhammad an-Nasawi, as narrated by Hafiz Diya' ad-Deen al-Maqdisi in his article on the excellence of the Hadith and its People.
Tirmidzi, Qada’i, Ibn Bushran and others.
This is the sort of taqlid (blind following ) which Imām Tahawi was referring to when he said, "Only someone with party-spirit or a fool blindly follows opinion" - quoted by Ibn 'Abidin in Rasm al-Mufti (vol. 1, p. 32 from the Compilation of his Essays).
 al-A'rāf, 7:3
Ibn 'Abidin in al-Hashiyah (1/63), and in his essay Rasm al-Mufti (1/4 from the Compilation of the Essays of Ibn 'Abidin), Shaikh Salih al-Fulani in Eqaaz al-Himam (p. 62) and others. Ibn 'Abidin quoted from Sharh al-Hidayah by Ibn al-Shahnah al-Kabir, the teacher of Ibn al-Humam, as follows:
"When a hadīth contrary to the Mazhab is found to be sahih, one should act on the hadīth, and make that his madhhab. Acting on the hadith will not invalidate the follower's being a Hanafi, for it is authentically reported that Abu Hanifah said, 'When a hadith is found to be sahih, then that is my mazhab', and this has been related by Imam Ibn 'Abdul Barr from Abu Hanifah and from other imams."
This is part of the completeness of the knowledge and piety of the Imams, for they indicated by saying this that they were not versed in the whole of the Sunnah, and Imām Shāfi’e has elucidated this thoroughly (see later). It would happen that they would contradict a sunnah because they were unaware of it, so they commanded us to stick to the Sunnah and regard it as part of their Mazhab. May Allāh shower His mercy on them all.
Ibn 'Abdul Barr in Al-Intiqaa' fi Fawaa’id ath-Thalāthah al- A'immah al-Fuqahā' (p. 145), Ibn al-Qayyim in I’lam al- Muqi'īn (2/309), Ibn 'Abidin in his Footnotes on Al-Bahr ar-Raa'iq (6/293) and in Rasm al-Mufti (pp. 29, 32) and Sha'rāni in Al-Mīzān (1/55) with the second narration. The last narration was collected by 'Abbās ad-Dawri in At- Tarikh by Ibn Ma'īn (6/77/1) with a sahih sanad on the authority of Zafar, the student of Imam Abu Hanifah. Similar narrations exist on the authority of Abu Hanifah’s companions Zafar, Abu Yusuf and 'Aafiyah ibn Yazid; cf. Eqāz (p. 52). Ibn al-Qayyim firmly certified its authenticity on the authority of Abu Yusuf in I’lam al-Muqi'īn (2/344). The addition to the second narration is referenced by the editor of Eqāz (p. 65) to Ibn 'Abdul Barr, Ibn al-Qayyim and others.
If this is what they say of someone who does not know their evidence, what would be their response to one who knows that the evidence contradicts their saying, but still gives verdicts opposed to the evidence?! Therefore, reflect on this saying, for it alone is enough to smash blind following of opinion; that is why one of the muqallid shaikhs, when I criticised his giving a verdict using Abu Hanifah’s words without knowing the evidence, refused to believe that it was a saying of Abu Hanifah!
 i.e. Imām Abu Hanifah’s illustrious student, Abu Yusuf (rahimahullah).
This was because the Imām would often base his view on Qiyas (Analogy), after which a more potent analogy would occur to him, or a hadith of the Prophet (sallallāhu ‘alaihi wa sallam) would reach him, so he would accept that and ignore his previous view. Sha’rāni words in Al-Mizan (1/62) are summarised as:
"Our belief, as well as that of every researcher into Imām Abu Hanifah (radhiallāhu 'anhu), is that, had he lived until the recording of the Sharī’ah, and the journeys of the Preservers of Hadīth to the various cities and frontiers in order to collect and acquire it, he would have accepted it and ignored all the analogies he had employed. The amount of qiyas in his Mazhab would have been just as little as that in other Mazhabs, but since the evidences of the Shari’ah had been scattered with the Successors and their successors, and had not been collected in his lifetime, it was necessary that there be a lot of qiyas in his Madzhab compared to that of other imams. The later scholars then made their journeys to find and collect ahadith from the various cities and towns and wrote them down; hence, some ahadith of the Sharī’ah explained others. This is the reason behind the large amount of qiyas in his Madzhab, whereas there was little of it in other Mazhabs."
Abul-Hasanāt Al-Lucknawi quoted his words in full in An-Nāfi' al-Kabir (p. 135), endorsing and expanding on it in his footnotes, so whoever wishes to consult it should do so there.
Since this is the justification for why Abu Hanifah has sometimes unintentionally contradicted the authentic ahadith - and it is a perfectly acceptable reason, for Allāh does not burden a soul with more than it can bear - it is not permissible to insult him for it, as some ignorant people have done. In fact, it is obligatory to respect him, for he is one of the imams of the Muslims through whom this Deen has been preserved and handed down to us, in all its branches; also, for he is rewarded under any circumstance: whether he is correct or wrong. Nor is it permissible for his devotees to continue sticking to those of his statements which contradict the authentic ahadith, for those statements are effectively not part of his Mazhab, as the above sayings show. Hence, these are two extremes, and the truth lies in between. "Our Lord! Forgive us, and our brethren who came before us into the Faith; and leave not, in our hearts, any rancour against those who have believed. Our Lord! You are indeed Full of Kindness, Most Merciful." (Al-Hashr, 59:10)
Al-Fulani in Eqāz al-Himam (p. 50), tracing it to Imam Muhammad and then saying, "This does not apply to the mujtahid, for he is not bound to their views anyway, but it applies to the muqallid."
Sha'rāni expanded on that in Al-Mizan (1/26):
"If it is said: 'What should I do with the ahadith which my Imām did not use, and which were found to be authentic after his death?' The answer which is fitting for you is: 'That you act on them, for had your Imām come across them and found them to be authentic; he would have instructed you to act on them, because all the Imams were captives in the hand of the Sharī’ah.' He who does so will have gathered all the good with both his hands, but he who says, 'I will not act according to a hadīth unless my Imām did so', and he will miss a great amount of benefit, as is the case with many followers of the Imams of the Mazhabs. It would be better for them to act on every hadīth found to be authentic after the Imam’s time, hence implementing the will of the Imams; for it is our firm belief about the Imams that had they lived longer and come to know of those ahadith which were found authentic after their time, they would have definitely accepted and acted according to them, ignoring any analogies they may have previously made, and any views they may have previously held."
Ibn 'Abdul Barr in Jaami' Bayaan al-'Ilm (2/32), Ibn Hazm, quoting from the former in Usul al-Ahkam (6/149), and similarly Al-Fulani (p. 72)
This is well known among the later scholars to be a saying of Malik. Ibn 'Abdul Hadi declared it sahih in Irshad as- Salik (227/1); Ibn 'Abdul Barr in Jaami' Bayaan al-'Ilm (2/91) & Ibn Hazm in Usul al-Ahkam (6/145, 179) had narrated it as a saying of Al-Hakam ibn 'Utaibah and Mujahid; Taqi ad- Deen as-Subki gave it, delighted with its beauty, in al- Fatawa (1/148) as a saying of Ibn 'Abbas, and then said: "These words were originally those of Ibn 'Abbās and Mujahid, from whom Malik (radhiallāhu ‘anhu) took them, and he became famous for them." It seems that Imām Ahmad then took this saying from them, as Abu Dāwūd has said in Masā'il of Imām Ahmad (p. 276): "I heard Ahmad say, 'Everyone is accepted and rejected in his opinions, with the exception of the Prophet (sallallāhu ‘alaihi wa sallam)'."
 From the Introduction to Al-Jarh wat-Ta'dīl of Ibn Abi Hatim, pp. 31-2.
 Ibn Hazm says in Usul al-Ahkam (6/118):
"Indeed, all the fuqahā’ whose opinions are followed were opposed to taqlid, and they forbade their companions from following their opinion blindly. The sternest among them in this regard was Shāfi’e (rahimahullah), for he repeatedly emphasised, more than anyone else, following the authentic narrations and accepting whatever the proof dictated; he also made himself innocent of being followed totally, and announced this to those around him. May this benefit him in front of Allāh, and may his reward be of the highest, for he was the cause of great good."
 Related by Hakim with a continuous sanad up to Shāfi’e, as in Tarikh Dimashq of Ibn 'Asakir (15/1/3), I’lam al- Mūqi'īn (2/363, 364) and Eqāz (p. 100).
Ibn al-Qayyim (2/361) & Fulani (p. 68)
Harawi in Dhamm al-Kalam (3/47/1), Khatīb in Al-Ihtijaj bi ash-Shāfi’e (8/2), Ibn 'Asakir (15/9/10), Nawawi in Al- Majmū' (1/63), Ibn al-Qayyim (2/361) and Fulani (p. 100); the second narration is from Hilyah al-Awliyā' of Abu Nu'aim.
Nawawi in Al-Majmū’ (1/63), Sha'rāni (1/57), giving its sources as Hākim and Baihaqi, and Fulani (p. 107). Sha'rāni said, "Ibn Hazm said, 'That is ... found to be sahih by him or by any other Imam'." His saying given next confirms this understanding.
Nawawi says: "Our companions acted according to this in the matter of tathwib (calling to Solāt in addition to the adzan), the conditions on coming out of ihram due to illness, and other issues well-known in the books of the Mazhab. Among those of our companions who are reported to have passed judgment on the basis of the hadīth (i.e. rather than the saying of Shafi’e) are Abu Ya'qūb al-Buweeti and Abu l-Qasim ad-Dariki. Of our companions from the muhaddithīn, Imam Abu Bakar Al-Baihaqi and others employed this approach. Many of our earliest companions, if they faced an issue for which there was a hadīth, and the madhhab of Shāfi’e was contrary to it, would act according to the hadīth and give verdicts based on it, saying, 'The madhhab of Shāfi’e is whatever agrees with the hadīth.' Shaikh Abu 'Amr (Ibn as-Salāh) says, 'Whoever among the Shāfi’es found a hadith contradicting his Mazhab, he would consider whether he fulfilled the conditions of ijtihad generally, or in that particular topic or issue, in which case he would be free to act on the hadīth; if not, but nevertheless he found it hard to contradict the hadith after further analysis, he would not be able to find a convincing justification for opposing the hadīth. Hence, it would be left for him to act according to the hadīth if an independent imam other than Shāfi’e had acted on it, and this would be justification for his leaving the Mazhab of his Imām in that issue.' What he (Abu 'Amr) has said is correct and established. Allāh knows best."
There is another possibility which Ibn as-Salāh forgot to mention: what would one do if he did not find anyone else who acted according to the hadith? This has been answered by Taqi ad-Deen As-Subki in his article, The Meaning of Shāfi’e’s saying, "When a hadith is found to be sahīh, then that is my madzhab" (p. 102, vol. 3): "For me, the best thing is to follow the hadith. A person should imagine himself in front of the Prophet (sallallāhu ‘alaihi wa sallam), just having heard it from him: would there be leeway for him to delay acting on it? No, by Allāh ... and everyone bears a responsibility according to his understanding."
The rest of this discussion is given and analyzed in I’lam al- Muwaqqi’in (2/302, 370) and in the book of al-Fulani (full title :) Eqāz Himam ulu l-Absar, lil-Iqtidaa' bi Sayyid al- Muhajirin wal-Ansar, wa Tahdhīruhum 'an al-Ibtidaa' ash- Shā'i' fi l-Qura wal-Amsar, min Taqlid al-Madzahib Ma’a l- Hadiyyah wal-'Asabiyyah bain al-Fuqahā' al-Asar (Awakening the Minds of those who have Perception, towards following the Leader of the Emigrants and Helpers, and Warning them against the Innovation Widespread among Contemporary Jurists in the Towns and Cities, of following Mazhabs with Zeal and Party- Spirit). The latter is a unique book in its field, which every desirer of truth should study with understanding and reflection.
 addressing Imām Ahmad ibn Hanbal (rahimahullāh).
Related by Ibn Abi Hatim in Adāb Ash-Shāfi’e (pp. 94-5), Abu Nu'aim in Hilyah al-Awliyā' (9/106), Al-Khatīb In Al- Ihtijaj Bish-Shāfi'e (8/1), and from him Ibn 'Asakir (15/9/1), Ibn 'Abdul Barr in al-Intiqā' (p. 75), Ibn al-Jawzi in Manaqib al-Imam Ahmad (p. 499) and Harawi (2/47/2) with three routes from 'Abdullah ibn Ahmad ibn Hanbal from his father that Shāfi’e said to him: ...etc; thus, it is authentic on the authority of Shāfi’e. This is why Ibn al- Qayyim attributed it definitely to him in I’lam (2/325), as did Fulani in Eqāz (p. 152) and then said: "Baihaqi said, 'This is why he - i.e. Shāfi’e - used hadīth so much, because he gathered knowledge from the people of Hijaz, Syria, Yemen and 'Iraq, and so accepted all that he found to be authentic, without leaning towards or looking at what he had considered out of the Mazhab of the people of his land when the truth was clear to him elsewhere. Some of those before him would limit themselves to what they found in the Mazhab of the people of their land, without attempting to ascertain the authenticity of what opposed it. May Allāh forgive all of us'."
Abu Nu'aim (9/107), Harawi (47/1), Ibn al-Qayyim in I’lam al-Muwaqqi’iin (2/363) & Fulani (p. 104).
 Ibn Abi Hatim in al-Adab (p. 93), Abul Qasim Samarqandi in al-Amali, as in the selection from it by Abu Hafs al- Mu'addab (234/1), Abu Nu'aim (9/106) and Ibn 'Asakir (15/10/1) with a sahih sanad.
Ibn Abi Hatim, Abu Nu'aim and Ibn 'Asakir (15/9/2).
Ibn Abi Hatim (pp. 93-4).
Ibn al-Jawzi in al-Manaqib (p. 192)
Fulani (p. 113) and Ibn al-Qayyim in I’lam (2/302).
Abu Dawud in Masaa'il of Imam Ahmad (pp. 276-7)
 Ibn 'Abdul Barr in Jāmi' Bayaan Al-'Ilm (2/149).
 Ibn al-Jawzi (p. 182).
 An-Nisā', 4:65
 Even against their fathers and learned men, as Tahawi in Sharh Ma’ani Al-Aathar (1/372) and Abu Ya’la in his Musnad (3/1317) have related, with an isnad of trustworthy men, from Salim Ibn 'Abdullah Ibn 'Umar, who said:
"I was sitting with Ibn 'Umar (radhiallāhu 'anhu) in the mosque once, when a man from the people of Syria came to him and asked him about continuing the 'Umrah onto the Hajj (known as Hajj Tamattu'). Ibn 'Umar replied, 'It is a good and beautiful thing.' The man said, 'But your father (i.e. 'Umar Ibn Al-Khattab) used to forbid it!' So he said, 'Woe to you! If my father used to forbid something which the Messenger of Allāh (sallallāhu ‘alaihi wa sallam) practised and commanded, would you accept my father's view, or the order of the Messenger of Allāh (sallallāhu ‘alaihi wa sallam)?' He replied, 'The order of the Messenger of Allāh (sallallāhu ‘alaihi wa sallam).' He said, 'So go away from me.' Ahmad (no. 5700) related similarly, as did Tirmidzi (2/82) and declared it sahih.
Also, Ibn 'Asakir (7/51/1) related from Ibn Abi Dhi'b, who said:
"Sa'ad ibn Ibrahim (i.e. the son of 'Abdur Rahmān ibn 'Awf) passed judgment on a man on the basis of the opinion of Rabī'ah ibn Abu 'Abdur Rahmān, so I informed him of the saying of the Messenger of Allāh (sallallāhu ‘alaihi wa sallam) which was contradictory to the judgment. Sa'ad said to Rabī'ah, 'We have Ibn Abi Dhi'b, whom I regard to be reliable, narrating from the Prophet (sallallāhu ‘alaihi wa sallam) contrary to what I ruled.' Rabī'ah said to him, 'You have made your effort, and your judgment has been passed.' Sa'ad said, 'Most amazing! I enforce the decree of Sa'ad, and not the decree of the Messenger of Allāh (sallallāhu ‘alaihi wa sallam)! No, I shall withdraw the decree of Sa'ad, son of the mother of Sa'ad, and enforce the decree of the Messenger of Allāh (sallallāhu ‘alaihi wa sallam).' So Sa'ad called for the written decree, tore it up and gave a new verdict."
 In fact, he would be rewarded, because of the Prophet's saying (sallallāhu ‘alaihi wa sallam): "When a judge passes judgment, if he makes his effort (ijtihad) and rules correctly, he will have two rewards; if he makes his effort (ijtihad) and rules wrongly, he will have one reward." (Related by Bukhāri, Muslim and others.)
 Quoted in the notes on Eqāz al-Himam (p. 93)
Fulani (p. 99)
cf. al-Waqi’ah 56:13-14
 Ibn 'Abidin in Hashiyah (1/62), and Lucknawi gave its source in an-Nāfi' al-Kabir (p. 93) as Ghazali.
 He himself says at the beginning of his Concise Shāfi’e Fiqh (printed in the margin of Imam Shāfi’e’s Al-Umm):
"This book is a selection from the knowledge of Muhammad Ibn Idris Al-Shāfi’e (rahimahullah) and from the meanings of his sayings, to aid the understanding of whoever wants it, knowing of his forbidding the following of his, or anyone else's, opinion, so that such a person may carefully look for his Deen in it."
In which he has explained his opposing his Imām in about twenty masa’il (nos. 42, 44, 103, 120, 158, 169, 172, 173, 228, 230, 240, 244, 274, 275, 284, 314, 331, 338, 355, 356 - from Ta’liq Al-Mumajjid 'Alā Muwatta' Muhammad (Important Notes on Muhammad's Muwatta'))
Ibn 'Abidin mentioned him among them in Hashiyah (1/74) and in Rasm al-Mufti (1/17). Qurashi mentioned him in Al- Jawahir al-Madiyyah fi Tabaqāt al-Hanafiyyah (p. 347) and said, "He was a reliable transmitter of Hadith. He and his brother Ibrāhim were the two shaikhs of Balakh of their time."
Al-Fawaa'id al-Bahiyyah fi Tarājum al-Hanafiyyah (p. 116)
Al-Bahr ar-Raa'iq (6/93) and Rasm al-Mufti (1/28).
Al-Fawā'id ... (p. 116); the author then added a useful note:
"From this can be deduced the falsity of Makhul's narration from Abu Hanifah: 'that he who raises his hands during Solāt, his Solāt is ruined', by which Ameer, the scribe of Itqāni, was deceived, as has been mentioned under his biography. ’Isam ibn Yusuf, a companion of Abu Yusuf, used to raise his hands, so if the above-mentioned narration had any foundation, Abu Yusuf and 'Isam would have known about it ... It can also be deduced that if a Hanafi ignored the mazhab of his Imam in an issue due to the strength of the evidence against it, this would not take him outside the ranks of the Imam’s followers, but this would in fact be proper taqlid in the guise of leaving taqlid; do you not see that 'Isām ibn Yusuf left Abu Hanifah’s mazhab of not raising the hands, but he is still counted as a Hanafi?... To Allāh I complain of the ignorance of our time, when they insult anyone who does not follow his Imam in an issue because of the strength of evidence against it, and expel him from the fold of that Imam’s followers! This is not surprising when those who do this are from the ordinary masses, but it is amazing when it comes from those who imitate men of learning but plod along that path like cattle!"
[Via The Qur'an and Sunnah Society]
1. The Introduction; 1.6. Clearing the Misconceptions
2.1. Facing the Ka`abah ; 2.2. Standing in Solah ; 2.3. Intention ; 2.4. Takbīratulihram ;
2.1. Facing the Ka`abah ; 2.2. Standing in Solah ; 2.3. Intention ; 2.4. Takbīratulihram ;
2.6. Opening Supplications of Solāh; 2.7. The Recitation;
2.8. Ruku ; 2.9. Sujud; 2.10. Second Rak`ah ; 2.11. First Tashahhud;
2.12. Standing up for the Third, and then the Fourth Rak`ah;
2.13. The Final Tashahhud; 2.14. The Taslim.
2.12. Standing up for the Third, and then the Fourth Rak`ah;
2.13. The Final Tashahhud; 2.14. The Taslim.
All About The Solah
6. The Adzān;
13. Places Where Offering Solāh Is Prohibited ; 14. Placing a Sutrah In front of One Who is Performing Solah;
15. What is permissible During the Solāh?; 16. The Acts that Renders Solāh Invalid; 17. Disliked Actions during the Solāh; 18. The Solāh in Times of Fear or Danger; 19. The Solāh of a Sick Person ;
29. Solāh al-Jumu`ah; 30. The Sanctified Hour of Jumu’ah.