Friday, May 14, 2010

Appendixes of The Solāh of the Prophet S.A.W

Appendixes of The Solāh of the Prophet S.A.W

 The Solāh of the Prophet S.A.W

By Shaikh Muhammad Nasiruddin Al-Albani

[The book was translated by Usama Ibn Suhaib Hasan al-Britani; it would be worthwhile to revisit it and I invite you to provide inputs with regards to this piece of work by Albani]

In the name of Allāh, the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful;
All the praise and thanks is due to Allāh, the Lord of the al-ā’lamīn. There is none worthy of worship except Allāh, and that Muhammad, Sallallāhu `alayhi wasallam, is His Messenger.



All that has been mentioned of the description of the Prophet's Solāh (Sallallāhu `alayhi wasallam) applies equally to men and women, for there is nothing in the Sunnah to necessitate the exception of women from any of these descriptions; in fact, the generality of his statement (Sallallāhu `alayhi wasallam), "Pray as you have seen me praying", includes women.

This is the view of Ibrahim al-Nakha`ie, who said, "A woman's actions in the Solāh are the same as a man's" - transmitted by Ibn Abi Shaibah (1/75/2), with a sahih sanad from him.

Also, Bukhari reported in al-Tarikh as-Sagheer (p. 95) with a sahih sanad from Umm ad-Darda', "that she used to sit in her Solāh just as a man sits, and she was a woman of understanding."

The hadith about the indimam (tucking up) of a woman in prostration, and that she is in that regard not like a man, is mursal and not authentic. Abu Dawud transmitted it in al-Marasīl on the authority of Yazid ibn Abi Habib.

As for what Imam Ahmad has reported, as in his son `Abdullah’s Masā`il, from Ibn `Umar, that he used to instruct his wives to sit cross-legged in prayer, its sanad is not authentic, for it contains `Abdullah ibn `Umar al-`Amri, who is a da`ief (weak) narrator.

Appendix 1
The Weakness of the Ahādith endorsing Ikhtilaf (disagreement, differing).
From: Silsilah al-Ahādith ad-Da’iefah wa'l-Mawdu’ah (58-62) by Shaykh al-Albāni

1. "The disagreement among my Ummah is a mercy."

a. Laa Asla Lahu (Baseless). The muhaddithīn have tried to find an isnad for it but have not found one, to the extent that Suyuti said in his al-Jaami` as-Saghīr, "Perhaps it was collected in one of the books of the huffadz which did not reach us"!

This suggestion is very far-fetched, since it would mean that some of the sayings of the Prophet (Sallallāhu `alayhi wasallam) have been lost to the ummah forever, something which is not permissible for a Muslim to believe.

Manawi quoted Subki as saying, "It (i.e. the saying) is not known to the muhaddithīn and I cannot find any isnad for it, whether sahih, da`ief or mawdu`", and this was endorsed by Shaykh Zakariyyah al-Ansari in his notes on Tafsir al-Baidawi [92/2].

Further, the meaning of this hadith is also incorrect as shown by the verifying scholars, hence Ibn Hazam says in al-Ihkam fi Usul al-Ahkam [5/64] after indicating that it is not a hadith,

"This is one of the most incorrect sayings possible, since if Ikhtilaf were a mercy, then agreement would be a punishment, something which no Muslim would say, because there can only be agreement or disagreement, and there can only be mercy or punishment."

More of Ibn Hazam’s words are quoted below.

b. It contradicts the Qur`ān, which has condemned Ikhtilaf in many places.

2. "My Companions are like the stars: whichever of them you follow, you will be rightly-guided."

Mawdu` (Fabricated). Related by Ibn `Abdul-Barr in Jāmi` Bayān al-`Ilm [2/91] & Ibn Hazam in al-Ihkam [6/82] via the route:

Sallam ibn Sulaim, who said: al-Harith ibn Ghissīn narrated to us from al-A`mash from Abu Sufyan from Jabir from the Prophet (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam).

Ibn `Abdul-Barr said, "Proof cannot be established with this isnad because al-Harith ibn Ghissīn is majhul (unknown)"; Ibn Hazm said, "This is a fallen narration. Abu Sufyan is weak; al-Harith ibn Ghissīn is Abu Wahab ath-Thaqafi; Sallam ibn Sulaiman narrated fabricated ahādith - this is one of them without a doubt."

To judge this hadith on Sallam ibn Sulaim - also known as Sallam ibn Sulaiman - is better, for he is agreed to be da`ief; in fact, Ibn Khirash said about him, "An utter liar" and Ibn Hibban said, "He narrated fabricated ahādith."

As for Abu Sufyan, he is not weak as Ibn Hazam said, but rather he is reliable as Ibn Hajar has said in at-Taqrîb, and Muslim narrates from him in his Sahih.

Al-Harith ibn Ghissīn is unknown as Ibn Hazam said, as did Ibn `Abdul Barr, even though Ibn Hibban does mention him in ath-Thiqat (The Reliable Narrators)

Hence, Ahmad said, "This hadith is not authentic", as quoted in al-Muntakhab [10/199/2] of Ibn Qudamah.

As for the saying of Sha’rani in al-Mizan [1/28], "This hadith, although debatable in the eyes of the muhaddithīn, is nevertheless authentic in the eyes of the people of Kashaf", it is completely false and whimsical, and is not to be given any significance! This is because authenticating ahādith by way of Kashaf ("unveiling", while in a state of trance) is a wicked innovation of the Sufis, and depending upon it leads to the authentication of false, baseless ahādith such as this one. This is because, even at the best of times, Kashaf is like opinion, which is sometimes correct and sometimes wrong - and that is if no personal desires enter into it! We ask Allāh to save us from it and from everything He is not pleased with.

Similar narrations to the above are as follows:

2.1. “The example of my Companions is that of the stars: he who follows any of them will be rightly-guided."

Mawdu` (Fabricated). Related by Qada`i (109/2) via:

Ja`far ibn `Abdul Wahid, who said: Wahb ibn Jarir ibn Hazim informed us from his father from al-A`mash from Abu Salih from Abu Hurairah from The Prophet (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam).

One of the muhaddithīn, either Ibn al-Muhibb or Dhahabi, wrote in the margin, "This hadith is not at all authentic", i.e. it is fabricated: the flaw in it is Ja`far here, about whom Daraqutni said, "He used to fabricate ahādith"; Abu Zur`ah said, "He narrated baseless ahādith"; Dhahabi gave some hadith because of which he disparaged him, among them being this one, and then said, "This is one of his calamities!"

2.2. “Whatever you are given from the Book of Allāh is to be acted upon; there is no excuse for anyone to leave it. If it is not in the Book of Allāh, then (act upon) a previous example (Sunnah) of mine. If there is no previous example (sunnah) of mine, then (act upon) what my Companions say: verily, my Companions are of the station of the stars in the sky, so whichever of them you take, you will be guided, and the disagreement of my Companions is a mercy for you."

Mawdu` (Fabricated). Collected by Khatib in al-Kifayah fi `Ilm ar-Riwāyah [p.48] and also by Abul-`Abbas al-Asamm in the Hadith (no. 142), & Ibn 'Asakir [7/315/2] by way of:

Sulaiman ibn Abi Karimah from Juwaibir from ad-Dahhak from Ibn `Abbas from The Prophet (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam).

This isnad is da`ief jiddan (very weak).

About Sulaiman ibn Abi Karimah, Ibn Abi Hatim [2/1/138] reported from his father about him, "He is weak in hadith."

Juwaibir is Ibn Sa`id al-Azadi, and is matruk (abandoned) as Daraqutni, Nasa`ie and others have said, and Ibn al-Madini declared him to be very weak.

Dahhak is Ibn Muzahim al-Hilali, and he did not meet Ibn `Abbas.

`Iraqi quoted the last part of the hadith in his Takhrij of Ghazali’s Ihya' `Ulum ad-Deen [1/25] and then said, "Its isnad is da`ief."

The isnad is actually very weak due to what we have mentioned about Juwaibir, as Sakhawi said in al-Maqasid. In meaning, however, the hadith is fabricated, as is clear from what preceded has and what will follow.

Suyuti quoted the hadith in its entirety at the beginning of his treatise Jazeel al-Mawahib fi Ikhtilaf al-Mazhahib from the narration of Bayhaqi in al-Madkhal, and Dailami related it from this route, as occurs in al-Mawdu’at of `Ali al-Qari [p.19]. Once you know this, then the saying of Suyuti in his aforementioned treatise is very strange: "... and this hadith contains several points to note; among them his (Sallallāhu `alayhi wasallam) informing of the disagreements between the mazhab in non-fundamental matters, and that is one of his miracles, since it is information about the Unseen; also, his being pleased with that and approving of it, since he described it as a mercy, and that the burdened person may choose whichever of them he wishes."

It could be said to him: first establish the throne, and then sit. What he has mentioned about the choice is false: it is not possible for the Muslim to cling to it and act upon its generality, since it leads to breaking away from the restrictions of the Shari`āh, as is not hard to see. See also the discussion under 2.4 below.

2.3. "I asked my Lord about that which my Companions would disagree about after me, so Allāh inspired me: O Muhammad! Your Companions are to Me of the station of the stars in the sky - some are brighter than others; so whoever takes from any of them in those matters where they have differed, then to Me, he is upon guidance."

Mawdu’ (Fabricated). Reported by Ibn Battah in al-Ibānah [4/11/2], Khatib, Nizam al-Malik in al-Amali [13/2], Diya' in al-Muntaqa `an Masmu`atihi bimaru [116/2] & Ibn `Asakir [6/303/1] by way of:

Nu`aim ibn Hammad, who said: `Abdur-Rahim ibn Zaid narrated to us from his father from Sa`id ibn al-Musaiyib from `Umar ibn al-Khattab from the Prophet (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam).

This isnad is mawdu`.

Nu `aim ibn Hammad is weak: Ibn Hajar said, "He makes many mistakes."

About ‘Abdur-Rahim ibn Zaid al- ‘Ammi, al-Bukhari said, "He was abandoned"; Abu Hatim said, "His ahādith are abandoned: he is unacceptable in hadith - he used to undermine his father by narrating disasters from him"; Ibn Ma`een said, "He was an utter, filthy liar."

About his father, Zaid al-`Ammi ibn al-Hawarī, Ibn Sa`ad said, "He was weak in hadith."

Suyuti recorded this hadith in al-Jaami` as-Sagheer through the narration of Sijizzi in al-Ibanah and Ibn `Asakir from `Umar; Manawi said in his commentary on al-Jaami` as-Sagheer :

Ibn al-Jawzi said in his al-`Ilal, "This is not authentic. Nu`aim has been disparaged; Ibn Ma`een has described `Abdur-Rahim as an utter liar; it says in al-Mizan: This hadith is false."

2.4. "Verily, my Companions are like the stars: so if you accept any of their sayings, you will be guided."

Mawdu’ (Fabricated). Ibn `Abdul-Barr reports it in mu`allaq (suspended, i.e. an incomplete chain of narrators at the collector's end) form and Ibn Hazam reports it from him; the complete chain was provided by ‘Abd ibn Humaid in al-Muntakhab min al-Musnad (86/1):

Ahmad ibn Yunus informed me: Abu Shihab al-Hannat narrated to us, from Hamzah al-Jazri, from Naafi`, from Ibn `Umar from the Prophet (sallallāhu `alayhi wasallam).

Also, Ibn Battah narrated it in al-Ibanah [4/11/2] by another chain from Abu Shihab.

Ibn `Abdul-Barr said, "This isnad is not authentic; no one acceptable as proof has reported it from Naafi`."

This Hamzah is Ibn Abi Hamzah; Daraqutni said about him, "Matruk (abandoned)"; Ibn `Adi said, "His narrations are mostly fabricated"; Ibn Hibban said, "He would be alone in narrating things which are fabricated from reliable narrators, to such an extent that it is as if he did so deliberately - it is not permissible to narrate from him"; Dhahabi quoted some of his fabricated ahādith in al-Mizan, this being one of them.

Ibn Hazam said in al-Ihkam (6/83), after declaring that this hadith (no. 2, with all its versions) is undoubtedly a lie since it also contradicts many ayat of the Qur'an, e.g. Najm (53:3-4), Nisa' (4:82), Anfal (8:46), the following:

"... therefore, it is absurd that the Messenger (Sallallāhu `alayhi wasallam) would command us to follow every view expressed by the Companions, may Allāh be pleased with them all, for there were among them those who permitted something while others prohibited it: if the above were the case, trading in intoxicants would be permissible if one followed Samurah ibn Jundub; it would be permissible for someone fasting to eat snow if one followed Abu Talhah, but prohibited by following others beside him; to not take a bath due to incomplete intercourse would be obligatory if one followed `Ali, `Uthman, Talhah, Abu Ayyub and Ubayy ibn Ka`ab, but prohibited if one followed `Aishah and Ibn `Umar; all these examples have been related to us with authentic chains of narration."

He then went on to explain at length some opinions expressed by Companions in which they were wrong about the Sunnah, both during the lifetime of the Prophet (sallallāhu `alayhi wasallam) and after his death. He then said (6/86),

"So how can it be allowable to blindly follow the opinions of people who make mistakes as well as get it right?!"

Before that, he had explained, under the heading Differing Condemned (5/64), the error of those who say, "Disagreement is a mercy", using as evidence the hadeeth, "My Companions are like the stars: whichever of them you follow, you will be rightly-guided", by clarifying that the hadith is a lie for several reasons:

(i) it is not authentic with regard to its chain of narration;

(ii) further, the Prophet (Sallallāhu `alayhi wasallam) could not have commanded us to follow something which he himself had declared erroneous at times; e.g. he pointed out Abu Bakar's mistake in interpreting a dream, `Umar's error in another interpretation, and Abus-Sanabil's going wrong in a verdict he gave; hence, it is not possible for him to order us to follow someone mistaken;

(iii) the Prophet (Sallallāhu `alayhi wasallam) never spoke falsehood; his words were always truth: the comparison with the stars is clearly flawed, since for example, if someone intends to travel a certain route directed by the stars in the constellation of Capricorn, but instead follows the stars in Cancer, he will not be correctly-guided, but will stray far away from the correct path and err tremendously; therefore, it is obviously false to say that following any star will guide one correctly.

Ibn al-Mulaqqin gave a summarised version of Ibn Hazam's words in his al-Khulasah [2/175], endorsed it and ended his discussion of the hadith saying: Ibn Hazam said, “This is an invented, fabricated, false narration, not correct at all."

Appendix 2
The authentic hadith: "You are right in some of it and wrong in some of it."
From: Sahih al-Bukhari, Book of Dreams, English translation of the meanings
by Dr. Muhammad Muhsin Khan

Narrated Ibn ‘Abbas (radiyallāhu`anhu):

A man came to Allāh's Messenger (Sallallāhu `alayhi wasallam) and said, "I saw in a dream, a cloud having shade. Butter and honey were dropping from it and I saw the people gathering it in their hands, some gathering much and some little. And behold, there was a rope extending from the earth to the sky, and I saw that you held it and went up; then, another man held it and went up and (after that) another (third) man held it and went up, and then another (fourth) man held it, but it broke and then got connected again." Abu Bakar said, "O Allāh's Messenger! Let my father be sacrificed for you! By Allāh, allow me to interpret this dream." The Prophet (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam) said to him, Interpret it. Abu Bakar said, "The cloud with shade symbolizes Islam, and the butter and the honey dropping from it symbolizes the Qur'an, its sweetness and some people learning much of the Qur`ān while some a little. The rope which is extended from the sky to the earth is the Truth which you (the Prophet (Sallallāhu `alayhi wasallam) are following. You follow it and Allāh will raise you high with it, and then another person will follow it and will rise up with it and then another man will follow it but it will break and then it will be connected for him and he will rise up with it. O Allāh's Messenger! Let my father be sacrificed for you! Am I right or wrong?" The Prophet (Sallallāhu `alayhi wasallam) replied, You are right in some of it and wrong in some of it. Abu Bakar said, "O Allāh's Prophet! By Allāh, you must tell me in what I was wrong." The Prophet (Sallallāhu `alayhi wasallam) said, Do not swear.

(Related by Bukhari, Muslim, also by Abu Dawud, Tirmidzi, Darimi, Ibn Majāh, Ibn Abi Shaibah and Ahmad.)

Appendix 3
"The one who prayed badly"

In Hadith and Fiqh literature, this term refers to the Companion mentioned in the following hadith of Sahih al-Bukhari (Book of Prayer, English translation by Dr. Muhammad Muhsin Khan); many other narrations of this incident are found in the various collections of hadith, and provide an important source of instructions from the Prophet (Sallallāhu `alayhi wasallam) regarding the correct way to pray:

Narrated Abu Hurairah (radiyallāhu`anhu):

The Messenger of Allāh (Sallallāhu `alayhi wasallam) entered the mosque and a person followed him. The man prayed and then went to the Prophet (Sallallāhu `alayhi wasallam) and greeted him; he returned the greeting and said (to him), Go back and pray, for you have not prayed. The man went back and prayed in the same way as before, and then returned and greeted the Prophet (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam), who said, Go back and pray, for you have not prayed, three times. The man said, "By Him Who sent you with the Truth, I cannot do so any better than this, so please teach me." He said, When you stand for the Prayer, say takbeer and then recite what is easy for you from the Qur'an (from what you know by heart); then bow until you feel at ease in ruku`; then raise your head and stand up straight, then prostrate until you feel at ease in sajdah; then sit with calmness until you feel at ease, and do likewise in all your prayers.

[Further narrations of this hadith found in the other works of Hadith such as Sunan Abi Dawud, etc. contain further details.]

Appendix 4
The weakness of the hadith about placing the hands below the navel
From Irwa' al-Ghaleel (353) & Ahkam al-Janaa'iz (p. 118), by Shaykh al-Albaani

Abu Dawud (756), Daraqutni (107), Baihaqi (2/310), Ahmad in his son `Abdullah’s Masā`il (62/2) and also in Zawa’id al-Musnad (1/110), and Ibn Abi Shaiba (1/156/1) transmitted:

‘an `Abd ar-Rahman ibn Ishaq `an Ziyad ibn Zaid as-Siwā`i `an Abu Juhaifah ‘an `Ali (radiyallāhu`anhu), who said, "It is from the Sunnah during the prayer to place one palm on the other, below the navel."

This is a da`ief (weak) sanad due to `Abd ar-Rahman ibn Ishaq (al-Wasiti al-Kufi), who is weak (see below). On top of that, it has idtirāb (shakiness) in it, for he has narrated it:

1. once ‘an Ziyad ‘an Abu Juhaifa `an `Ali (as above);

2. once `an Nu’man ibn Sa`ad ‘an `Ali (transmitted by Daraqutni and Baihaqi); and

3. once `an Siyas Abul Hakam `an Abu Wa’il, who said, "Abu Hurairah said: It is from the Sunnah ..." (transmitted by Abu Dawud [758] and Daraqutni).

The Weakness of ‘Abd ar-Rahman ibn Ishaq al-Kufi in the eyes of the Imams of Hadith

1. Abu Dawud said, "I heard Ahmad ibn Hanbal declaring `Abd ar-Rahmān ibn Ishaq al-Kufi da`ief (weak)." [This is why Imaam Ahmad did not accept this hadeeth of his, for his son `Abdullah said, "I saw that when praying, my father placed his hands, one on the other, above the navel."]

2. Nawawi said in Majmu` (3/313), and also in Sharh Sahih Muslim and elsewhere, "They (the scholars of hadith) agree in declaring this hadith weak, because it is a narration of `Abd ar-Rahmān ibn Ishaq al-Wasiti, who is a da`ief (weak) narrator, as agreed upon by the Imams of Jarh and Ta’dīl (Authentication and Disparagement of reporters)."

3. Zaila’i said in Nasb ar-Raayah (1/314), "Baihaqi said in al-Ma’rifah: `Its isnad is not firm, for it is a unique narration of `Abd ar-Rahmān ibn Ishaq al-Wasiti, who is matruk (abandoned)'."

4. Ibn Hajar said in Fath al-Baari (2/186), "It is a weak hadith."

What further points to its weakness is that contrary to it has been narrated on the authority of `Ali with a better isnad: the hadith of Ibn Jarir al-Dabbi `an his father, who said, "I saw ‘Ali (radiyallāhu‘anhu) holding his left arm with his right on the wrist, above the navel" - this isnaad is a candidate for the rank of hasan; Baihaqi (1/301) firmly designated it to be hasan, and Bukhari (1/301) designated it with certainty while giving it in an abridged, ta’liq form.

What is authentic from the Prophet (Sallallāhu `alayhi wasallam) with respect to the position of the hands is that they should be on the chest; there are many ahādith about this, among them is one on the authority of Tawus, who said, "The Messenger of Allāh (Sallallāhu `alayhi wasallam) used to place his right arm on his left arm, and clasp them firmly on his chest during prayer" - transmitted by Abu Dawud (759) with a sahih isnād. Although this is mursal, it is enough as proof for all scholars, with all their various opinions regarding the Mursal Hadith, since it is sahih as a mursal isnad and has also been related as mawsul in many narrations; hence, it is valid as proof for all. Some of the supporting narrations are as follows:

1. From Wa’il ibn Hujr: "That he saw the Prophet - (Sallallāhu`alayhi wasallam)- put his right hand upon his left and place them upon his chest." Reported by Ibn Khuzaimah in his Sahih (Nasb ar-Raayah, 1/314) and reported by Baihaqi in his Sunan (2/30) with two chains of narration which support each other.

2. From Qabisah ibn Hulb, from his father who said:

"I saw the Prophet (Sallallāhu `alayhi wasallam), leave [after completing the Prayer] from his right and his left, and I saw him place this upon his chest - Yahya (Ibn Sa'id) described the right (hand) upon the left above the joint."

Reported by Ahmad (5/226) with a chain of narrators who are of the standard set by Muslim except for Qabisah, but he is declared reliable by 'Ijli and Ibn Hibban; however, no one narrates from him except Simāk ibn Harb about whom Ibn al-Madīni and Nasā`ie say: "Unknown" and Ibn Hajar says in Taqrîb: "He is `Maqbul' [i.e. acceptable only if supported]." The hadith of one such as him are hasan as supporting narrations, and therefore Tirmidzi said after quoting the part of this hadith concerning taking the left hand with the right, "It is a hasan hadith."

So these are three ahādith which show that the Sunnah is to place the hands on the chest, and one who comes across them will not doubt that together they are sufficient to prove this.

Appendix 5
The Weakness of the Hadith condemning Recitation behind the Imam

From: Silsilah al-Ahādith ad-Da`iefah wal-Mawdu’ah (568-570) by Shaykh al-Alb

1."He who recites behind the imam, his mouth is filled with fire."

Mawdu` (Fabricated). Ibn Tahir quoted it in Tazkirah al-Mawdu`at (p.93), and said, "The isnaad contains Ma’mun ibn Ahmad al-Harawi, an utter liar who used to narrate fabrications." More of his description is given in hadith 2 below. Ibn Hibban mentioned this hadith under his name in ad-Du`afa (The Weak Narrators) and Dhahabi regarded it as one of his calamities!

Some Hanafis have been deceived by this hadith, arguing on its basis that any recitation behind the imam is totally haram! Abul Hasanāt al-Luknawi said in at-Ta’liq al-Mumajjid `alā Muwatta’ Muhammad (p. 99), "It was mentioned by the author of Nihayah and by others as marfu, with the wording, `- there is a burning coal in his mouth', and it is totally baseless."

He had said before that, "In no sahih marfu` hadith is there a forbiddance of reciting al-Fātihah behind the imam; all that they quote as marfu` regarding this is either baseless or not authentic", and had then mentioned this hadīth with both wordings as an example.

The people of knowledge, both past and present, have differed regarding recitation behind the imam, taking one of three views:

1. That recitation in loud and quiet prayers is obligatory.
2. That silence in loud and quiet prayers is obligatory.
3. That there be recitation in quiet, but not in loud, prayers.

This last view is the most balanced and closest to the truth, for in it, all the evidences can be accommodated such that none of them is rejected totally. It is the view of Malik and Ahmad, and has also been preferred after analysis by some Hanafis, including Abul Hasanāt al-Luknawi in his aforementioned book.

Another example of Ma`mun al-Harawi's inventions is the following:

2. "He who raises his hands during the prayer, there is no prayer for him."

Mawdu` (Fabricated). Ibn Tahir quoted it in Tazkirah al-Mawdu’at (p. 87), and said, "The isnad contains Ma’mun ibn Ahmad al-Harawi, an utter liar who used to fabricate ahadith."

Dhahabi said about him, "He brought calamities and disgraceful reports. He invented ahādith, this being one of them, and related them apparently on the authority of reliable narrators."

It is clear to me from the ahādith which Ma`mun al-Harawi has invented that he is a bigoted zealot of the Hanafi Mazhab, for all the ahādith mentioned under his descriptions (in books of narrators) revolve around supporting Imām Abu Hanifah and insulting Imām Shāfi‘ie; amongst them is this one: a clear insult to the Shafi‘ie view, which approves the raising of the hands on going down into ruku` and rising from it (which is the truth without doubt), while obviously backing the Hanafi view which says that this is makruh. This disgusting man was not even satisfied with the position of his Mazhab that raising the hands was makruh: he even went to the extent of inventing this hadith, in order to propagate amongst the people that raising the hands actually invalidates the prayer!

Perhaps he also intended to support Makhul's narration from Abu Hanifah that he said, "He who raises his hands during prayer, his prayer is ruined", a narration which deceived Ameer Khatib al-Itqāni, who compiled a treatise on the basis of it to argue the invalidation of the prayer by the raising of the hands! Similarly deceived was the one who trod his path and ruled that it was not permissible for Hanafis to pray behind Shafi’is because the latter raise their hands! While all along, this narration from Abu Hanifah is utterly false, as ‘Allāmah Abul Hasanāt al-Luknawi has verified in al-Fawa‘id al-Bahiyyah fi Tarajum al-Hanafiyyah (pp. 116, 216-7).

Shaikh `Ali al-Qari quoted this hadith in al-Mawdu’at and then said (p. 81), "This hadith was fabricated by Muhammad bin ‘Ukāshah al-Kirmani, may Allāh disgrace him." Later (p. 129), he quoted Ibn al-Qayyim as saying, "It is fabricated."

This is contrary to what has been established (above) that the fabricator was al-Harawi; if it is proved, than perhaps one of them stole it from the other!

We can see from all this what lack of heed to the Sunnah, and abandonment of verification of narrations from the Prophet (Sallallāhu `alayhi wasallam) and the Imams, can do!

NOTE: About raising the hands on going into ruku` and rising from it, many ahadith have been narrated from the Prophet (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam): they are actually mutawātir in the eyes of the scholars; in fact, raising the hands with every takbeer is proven on his authority in many ahadith; whereas not raising the hands is not authentically-related from him except once via `Abdullah ibn Mas`ud (radiyalallāhu‘anhu), but this is not suitable for putting into practice, for it is nāf (negatory). It is firmly established, in the eyes of the Hanafis and others that the muthbit (affirmatory) takes precedence over the nāf (negatory); this is even when the affirmatory is on its own, let alone the case when it is a multitude of narrations, as in this issue! On the basis of this principle and in the absence of anything contrary, this renders it binding on them to adopt the raising of the hands, and not to stick zealously to the Mazhab after the establishment of proof. However, it is a pity that only a handful of the earlier or later ones have adopted it, so much so that not raising the hands has become a landmark for them!

Yet another of the inventions of this vile liar, this time a personal insult to Imam Shafi`ie (Muhammad bin Idris), is the following:

3. "There will be a man among my ummah known as Muhammad bin Idris, who will be more harmful to my ummah than Iblis, and there will be a man among my ummah known as Abu Hanifah, who will be the lamp of my ummah."

Mawdu’ (Fabricated). Ibn al-Jawzi quoted it in al-Mawdu’at (1/457) via:

Ma’mun ibn Ahmad as-Salmi, who said: Ahmad ibn `Abdullah al-Juwaibari narrated to us:

‘Abdullah ibn Mi’dan al-Azadi informed us from Anas, as marfu’;

and then said, "Fabricated; invented by Ma’mun or by Juwaibari. Hakim mentioned in Madkhal that it was said to Ma’mun, `Do you not look to Shafi’ie and his followers?' So he said, ‘Ahmad ibn ‘Abdullah al-Juwaibari narrated to us ...' etc., so it becomes evident from this that he is the fabricator of it."

The following addition appears in Lisan: "Haim then said, `Anyone whom Allāh has granted the least amount of intelligence would testify that a hadith such as this is a fabrication attributed to the Messenger of Allāh (Sallallāhu `alayhi wasallam)'."

The hadith does have other routes of narration, but these depend on liars and unknown reporters. Therefore, it is extremely bizarre that `Allamah `Ayni should incline towards strengthening the hadeeth with those other routes, and that Shaykh Kawthari should support him! However, it is no surprise from the latter, for he was notorious for being submerged in zealously for Imam Abu Hanifah (rahimahullah), even if it entailed insulting other Imams; but it is very surprising from ‘Ayni, for he was generally known not to go to such extremes. The opinion of these two has been refuted, with analysis of the other routes of narration referred to, in a unique way in `Allamah Yamani’s valuable book, at-Tankīl bi mā fi Ta'nib al-Kawthari min al-Abatil (1/20, 446-9).

Appendix 6
Analysis of the Ahādith regarding the saying of `āmīn' by the Imām and the Congregation
From: Silsilah al-Ahādith ad-Da’iefah (951-2) by Shaykh al-Albaani

1. "When he said āmīn, those behind him would say āmīn, such that There was a lot of noise in the mosque."

There is no basis for the hadith with this wording as far as we know. Ibn Hajar said in Talkhis al-Habir (p. 90), "I do not find it with this wording, but its meaning is related by Ibn Majah in the hadith of Bishar ibn Raafi`":

2. "When he recited `Not of those who received Your anger, nor of those who go astray', he said `ameen', such that those close to him in the first row could hear [and the mosque trembled with it]."

Da‘ief (Weak). Related by Ibn Majah (1/281) and Abu Dawud without the addition (1/148), both via:

Bishar ibn Rāfi’ from Abu `Abdullah, the cousin of Abu Hurairah, from Abu Hurairah from the Prophet (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam).

Ibn Hajar said in Talkhis (p. 90), "Bishar ibn Rāfi` is weak; the cousin of Abu Hurairah has been said to be unknown, but Ibn Hibbān has declared him reliable."

Busairi said in Zawa`id (56/1), "This is a weak isnad; Abu `Abdullah’s condition is not known; Bishar was declared weak by Ahmad, and Ibn Hibban said, 'He narrated fabrications'."

Hadith no.2 only gives a part of the meaning of no. 1, i.e. the saying of āmīn by the imam alone. As for the āmīn of those behind, this could be the reason for the phrase "the mosque trembled with it (the sound)", but the hadith literally implies that the ameen of the Prophet (Sallallāhu `alayhi wasallam) was the reason for this.

3. "When he finished reciting the Mother of the Qur'an, he raised his voice and said `ameen'."

Da`ief (Weak). Related by Daraqutni, Hakim and Baihaqi.

All the above sources contain Ishaq ibn Ibrāhīm ibn al-`Alā' az-Zubaidi, also known as Ibn Zibriq, who is weak: Abu Hatim said, "An old man, no harm in him"; Ibn Ma‘een described him in good terms; Nasā'ie said, "Not reliable"; Muhammad ibn `Awf said, "I have no doubt that Ishaq ibn Zibriq used to lie." However, this wording is correct in meaning, for it has a supporting hadeeth of Wa’il ibn Hajar with a sahih sanad.

(Since the text of this hadith does not imply the āmīn of the congregation at all, it is incorrect to regard it as another version of hadith no. 2, as Shawkāni did.)

The only support for no. 1 is what Shafi`ie related in his Musnad (1/76) via Muslim ibn Khalid from Ibn Juraij from `Atā', who said:

4. "I used to hear the imams: Ibn az-Zubair and others after him would say 'āmīn', and those behind would say `āmīn', until the mosque echoed."

This has two defects:

(i) The weakness of Muslim ibn Khalid az-Zanji; Ibn Hajar said, "He was truthful, but made many errors."

(ii) The ‘an‘anah of Ibn Juraij, who was a mudallis; perhaps he actually took it from Khālid ibn Abi Anuf, who narrated it from `Ataa' as follows:

4.1. "I came across two hundred Companions of the Messenger of Allāh (Sallallāhu `alayhi wasallam) in this mosque (i.e. Masjid al-Haram, Makkah): when the imam had said `Nor of those who go astray', they raised their voices in āmīn (in one narration: I heard the thundering sound of their ameen)."

Related by Baihaqi (2/59) and Ibn Hibbān in Thiqat (2/74); the alternative narration is from the former.

This Khalid was described by Ibn Abi Hatim (1/2/355-6), but he did not include any authentication or disparagement. Ibn Hibban included him among the reliable narrators, but Ibn Hibban is well-known to be far from rigorous in such cases, so I am not satisfied that this narration is authentic. This is because if Ibn Juraij indeed took it from him, this constitutes only one debatable route; if not, we do not know from whom Ibn Juraij took it. It seems that Imām Shāfi`ie himself was not satisfied of the authenticity of this narration, for his position is contrary to it: he says in al-Umm (1/95), "So when the imam completes reciting the Mother of the Book, he says 'ameen', raising his voice so that those behind may follow him: when he says it, they say it to themselves, but I do not like them saying it aloud"; had the above narration from the Companions been authentic in Shafi’e’s view, he would not have opposed their action.

Hence, the most correct opinion in this issue appears to be the mazhab of Shāfi’e: that the imam, but not those following, should say `ameen' loudly. Allāh knows best.

But then, I saw that Bukhari mentioned the text (only) of the narration about Ibn az-Zubair in his Sahih (i.e. in mu‘allaq form), designating it with certainty. Ibn Hajar said in Fathul-Bāri (2/208), "The connecting isnad has been provided by `Abd ar-Razzaq from Ibn Juraij from `Ataa'. He (i.e. Ibn Juraij) said, `I said to him, "Did Ibn az-Zubair say ameen at the end of the Mother of the Qur’an?" He said, "Yes, and those behind him also said ameen, until the mosque echoed." He then said, "Verily, ameen is a supplication".'" This is found in the Musannaf of `Abd ar-Razzaq (2640/2), and from this route, in Ibn Hazam’s al-Muhalla (3/364).

In this narration, Ibn Juraij has clarified that he took the narration from ‘Atā' face-to-face, so we are assured of the absence of tadlis, and the narration of Ibn az-Zubair is established firmly. Similarly is proven from Abu Hurairah; Abu Rāfi` said:

5. "Abu Hurairah used to call to prayer for Marwan ibn al-Hakam, stipulating that the latter would not get to `Nor of those who go astray' unless he knew that Abu Hurairah had entered the row. So when Marwan said `Nor of those who go astray', Abu Hurairah would say `āmīn', prolonging it. He also said, `When the āmīn of those on the earth coincides with the āmīn of those in the heaven, they are forgiven'."

Related by Baihaqi (2/59); its isnad is sahih.

Hence, since nothing is established from any of the Companions other than Abu Hurairah and Ibn az-Zubair contrary to their ameen aloud, this must be accepted. Presently, I know of no narration opposing this. Allāh knows best.

Appendix 7
The Two Raka`at After Witir
From: Silsilah al-Ahādith as-Sahihah (1993) by Shaykh al-Albāni

1. The Messenger of Allāh (Sallallāhu `alayhi wasallam) said, “Make the last of your prayer at night odd (witir)”.

Related by Bukhari & Muslim

2. Abu Salamah asked `Aishah about the prayer of the Messenger of Allāh (Sallallāhu `alayhi wasallam). She said, "He performed thirteen rak`ahs (in the night prayer): he observed eight rak`ahs and would then observe Witir; and then observe two rak`at sitting, and when he wanted to bow, he stood up and then bowed down, and then observed two raka`ahs in between the adzan and iqamah of the Dawn Prayer."

Related by Muslim

3. Thawban said, "We were on a journey with the Messenger of Allāh (Sallallāhu `alayhi wasallam), when he said, Truly, this journey is an exertion and a burden, so when each of you has prayed Witir, he should perform two rak`ahs; if he wakes up (then well and good), otherwise these two will be (the night prayer) for him.

Related by Darimi (1/374), Ibn Khuzaimah in his Sahih (2/159/1103) & Ibn Hibban (683) from various routes going back to: Ibn Wahb, who said: Mu`awiyah ibn Salih narrated to me from Shuraih ibn `Ubaid from `Abd ar-Rahman ibn Jubair ibn Nufayr from his father from Thawban, who said ...

Ibn Wahb has been backed up by `Abdullah ibn Salih, who said: Mu`awiyah ibn Salih narrated to us ... etc., related by Daraqutni (p. 177) and Tabarāni in al-Mu`jam al-Kabir (1410). `Abdullah ibn Salih is a shaykh of Bukhari, so he can be used as evidence in supporting others' narrations.

This hadith is used as evidence by Imam Ibn Khuzaimah, "that prayer after Witir is allowed to whoever wants to pray after it, and that the two rak`ahs which the Prophet (Sallallāhu `alayhi wasallam) used to pray after Witir were not exclusively for him over his Ummah, for he has ordered us to pray two rak`ahs after Witir, an order of recommendation and preference, not one of obligation and compulsion."

Hence, it is clear to us from this hadith (because of his general order to his Ummah) that the two rak`ahs after Witir were not exclusively for him; it seems that the purpose of his command to make the last prayer at night odd was to prevent neglect of the one odd rak`ah, so this objective is not contradicted by the two raka`ahs after it, as established in his practice and his command. Allāh knows best.

Appendix 8
The Weakness of the Ahādith Mentioning Wiping the Face with the Hands after Du`a (Supplication)

From Irwa' al-Ghaleel (2/178-182) by Shaykh al-Albaani

1. "The Prophet (Sallallāhu `alayhi wasallam), when he raised his hands in du`ā', he would not put them down until he had wiped his face with them."
Da`ief (Weak). Transmitted by Tirmidzi (2/244) and Ibn ‘Asakir (7/12/2) via: Hammad ibn ‘Isa al-Juhani from Hanzalah ibn Abi Sufyaan al-Jamhi from Salim ibn `Abdullah from his father from ‘Umar ibn al-Khattab, who said: ...

Tirmidzi said after it, "This is a sahih gharib hadith. We only know it as a hadith of Hammad ibn ‘Esa, for he is alone in reporting it; he has few ahādith, but the people have reported from him."

However, this reporter is weak, as in Taqrîb of Ibn Hajr, who says about him in Tahdib:

Ibn Ma`een said, "A good shaikh"1Abu Hatim said, "Weak in Hadith"; Abu Dawud said, "Weak, he reports munkar ahādith"; Hakim and Naqqash said, "He reports fabricated ahādith from Ibn Juraij and Ja`far as-Sādiq." He is declared to be weak by Daraqutni. Ibn Hibbān said, "He reports things which are the wrong way round on the authority of Ibn Juraij and `Abdul `Aziz ibn `Umar ibn `Abdul `Aziz, such that it seems to those whose field this is that it is deliberate; it is not permissible to use him as proof." Ibn Makula said, "They declare his ahādith to be weak."

Hence, the like of this reporter is very weak, so his ahādith cannot be raised to the level of hasan, let alone sahih!

A similar hadith is:

"When the Prophet (Sallallāhu `alayhi wasallam) did du`a' and raised his hands, he would wipe his face with his hands."

Da`ief (Weak). Abu Dawud (1492) from Ibn Lahie’ah from Hafs ibn Hisham ibn `Utbah ibn Abi Waqqas from Saa'ib ibn Yazid from his father.

This is a weak sanad due to Hafs ibn Hisham being unknown and the weakness of Ibn Lahie’ah (cf. Taqrîb at-Tahdhib).

This hadith cannot be strengthened by the two routes of narration together due to the severity in weakness of the first one, which you have seen.

2. "When you call upon Allāh, then supplicate with the palms of your hands, and do not supplicate with their backs, and when you finish, wipe your face with them."

Da`ief (Weak). Related by Ibn Majah (1181, 3866), Ibn Nasr in Qiyaam al-Lail (p. 137),Tabarani in Al-Mu`jam al-Kabeer (3/98/1) and Hakim (1/536), from Salih ibn Hassan from Muhammad ibn Ka`b from Ibn `Abbas (radiyallāhu‘anhu) as marfu`.

This is a weak sanad due to Ibn Hassan, who is munkar in Hadith, as Bukhari said; Nasā'ie said, "He is abandoned in Hadith"; Ibn Hibbān said, "He used to have female singers and listen to music, and he used to narrate fabricated reports on the authority of trustworthy narrators"; Ibn Abi Hatim said in Kitab al-‘Ilal (2/351), "I asked my father (i.e. Abu Hatim al-Razi) about this hadeeth, to which he said: `Munkar'."

Ibn Hassan has been backed up by ‘Eesa ibn Maimun, who also reported it from Muhammad ibn Ka‘ab, as related by Ibn Nasr. However, this does not alter anything, since Ibn Maimun is similarly weak: Ibn Hibban said, "He reports ahādith, all of which are fabricated"; Nasā'ie said, "Not reliable."

This hadith of Ibn `Abbas is also related by Abu Dawud (1485), and from him Baihaqi (2/212), via: ‘Abdul Malik ibn Muhammad ibn Aiman from `Abdullah ibn Ya’qub ibn Ishaq from someone who narrated to him from Muhammad ibn Ka`ab, the wording being:

"Do not cover the walls. He who looks into the letter of his brother without his permission, verily he looks into the Fire. Ask Allāh with the palms of your hands, and do not ask him with their backs, and when you finish, wipe your faces with them."

This is a weak sanad: `Abdul Malik is declared weak by Abu Dawud; it also contain the Shaikh of ‘Abdullah ibn Ya’qub who is unnamed, and therefore unknown - it is possible that he may be Ibn Hassan or Ibn Maimun, both of whom are mentioned above.

The hadith is also transmitted by Hakim (4/270) via: Muhammad ibn Mu`awiyah, who said that Masadif ibn Ziyad al-Madini narrated to him that he heard it from Muhammad ibn Ka`ab al-Qurazi. Dhahabi followed this up by pointing out that Ibn Mu’awiyah was declared to be a liar by Daraqutni, so the hadith is falsified.

Abu Dawud said about this hadith, "This hadith has been narrated via more than one route on the authority of Muhammad ibn Ka`ab; all of them are feeble."

Raising the hands on doing Qunut for a calamity is established from the Messenger of Allāh (Sallallāhu `alayhi wasallam) in his supplication against the polytheists who killed seventy reciters - transmitted by Imam Ahmad (3/137) and Tabarāni in Al-Mu'jam as-Saghīr (p. 111) as the hadith of Anas with a sahih sanad. Similar is proved from `Umar and others in the Qunut of Witir Prayer. However, since wiping the face after Du`a' al-Qunut is not quoted at all from the Prophet (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam), nor from any of his Companions, it is an innovation without doubt.

As for wiping the face after du`a outside of prayer, there are only these two ahādith; it is not correct to say that they mutually strengthen each other to the rank of hasan, as Manawi did, due to the severity of the weakness found in their routes of narration. This is why Imam Nawawi said in Majmu', "It is not recommended", endorsing Ibn `Abd as-Salām, who said, "Only an ignorant person does it."

The view that wiping the face after du`ā is not prescribed is strengthened by the fact that there are many authentic ahādith about raising the hands in supplication, and in none of them is there a mention of wiping the face; this shows, Allāh Willing, that it is unacceptable and not prescribed.

If Ibn Ma`een speaks favorably about a narrator, whereas the rest of the scholars declare him to be weak, then the statement of Ibn Ma‘een is disregarded, the reason being that he was known for his strictness and severity in criticism: weak narrators would be very careful not to reveal their weakness before him; he would therefore pass judgment accordingly. This explains why he is alone in authenticating the narrator.

[Via The Qur`ān and Sunnah Society]

2.6. Opening Supplications of Solāh; 2.7. The Recitation;

All About The Solah

4. Al-Wudhu’ ; 5. Tayammum;
29.   Solāh al-Jumu`ah; 30. The Sanctified Hour of Jumu’ah.

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