Wednesday, May 12, 2010

The Final Tashahhud of Solāh

The Final Tashahhud of the Solāt

 The Solāt of the Prophet (Sallallāhu 'alayhi wa sallam)
By Shaikh Muhammad Nasiruddin Al-Albāni

[The book was translated by Usama Ibn Suhaib Hasan Al-Brittani; it would be worthwhile to revisit it and I invite you to provide inputs about this  work by Albāni]

In the name of Allāh, the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful;
All the praise and thanks is due to Allāh, the Lord of al-‘ālameen. There is none worthy of worship except Allāh, and that Muhammad, Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam is His Messenger.

The Description of the Solāt
2.13. The Final Tashahhud

The Obligation of this Tashahhud

Next, after completing the fourth rak’ah, Rasulūllāh (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam) would sit for the last tashahhud. He would instruct regarding it, and do in it, just as he did in the first tashahhud, except that "he would sit mutawarrikan" [249], "with his left upper thigh on the ground, and both his feet protruding from one (i.e. the right) side." [250] "He would have his left foot under his (right) thigh and shin" [251], "his right foot upright" [252] or occasionally "he would lay it along the ground." [253] "His left palm would cover his (left) knee, leaning heavily on it." [254] [see diagram - qss]

It is known as Tashahhud because it includes The Shahādah.

Ibn Hajar Al-‘Asqalani (rahimahullāh) in his “Fathul Bāri” recorded that Ibn Mas‘ud (radiyallāhu’anhu) said, “It is incumbent in Solāt to say Tashahhud, then say Salawāt upon Rasūlullāh (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam) followed by du’ā for himself”. Imām Shāfi‘ie, Ahmad and some Māliki scholars concurred with it.

Rasūlullāh (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam) taught the way say the Tashahhud; set the example of sending Salawāt on him in the Tashahhud. 

The ways of saying the Tashahhud and sending Salawāt on him (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wasallam) as recorded previously in the section of The First Tashahhud.

The Tashahhud

There are several different ahādith have been related about The Tashahhud

‘Abdullāh Ibn ‘Abbas (radiyallāhu’anhu) narrated: “The Messenger of Allāh (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam) used to teach us the Tashahhud the way he taught us [surahs of] the Qur’ān; he used to say:

“At-tahiyyātul mubaraka tus-salawātut-tayyibātu lillāh, As-salāmu ‘alayka ayyuhan-Nabiyyu wa rahmatullāhi wa barakātuh, As-salāmu ‘alayna wa ‘alā ‘ibād-illāh is-sālihīn. Ash-hadu an lāilāha ill-Allāh wa ash-hadu anna Muhammadan Rasūlullāh [in one narration: ‘abduhu wa Rasūluh]

(All compliments, blessed words, prayers, pure words are due to Allāh. Peace be on you, O Prophet, and also the mercy of Allāh and His blessings. Peace be on us and on the righteous slaves of Allāh. I bear witness that none has the right to be worshipped except Allāh, and [I bear witness] that Muhammad is the Messenger of Allāh (in one narration: ... is His slave and Messenger.)”

[Recorded by Muslim, Abu ‘Awānah, Shāfi’ie, Abu Dawud and Nasa’ie]

Imām Ash-Shāfi’ie (rahimallāh) said: “Different hadith have been related about the tashahhud, but that one (Ibn ‘Abbas) is the best in my opinion, for it is the most complete” Al-Hafiz Ibn Hajar Al- ‘Asqalani (rahimallāh) states: “Ash-Shāfi’ie was asked about this choice and the Tashahhud of Ibn ‘Abbas(radiyallāhu’anhum), and he replied, ‘I have found it to be the most encompassing. I have heard it from Ibn ‘Abbas (through) authentic (chains). To me, it is more complete...’”

 The Salawāt upon the Prophet (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam)

There are several different hādith have been related about the Salawāt upon the Prophet (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wassallam) in the Final Tashahhud.

It was related that Abdullāh bin Zaid (radiyallāhu’anhu), one who was shown the adzān (the call for Solāt) in a dream, narrated it on the authority of Abu Mas’ud Al-Ansari (radiyallāhu’anhu) said:

“We approach Rasūlullāh (sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam) at a gathering at Sa’ad bin ‘Ubadah. Bashir bin Sa’ad said to Rasūlullāh (sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam), “Allāh has commanded us to send Salāh upon you, O Rasūlullāh. How can we send Salāh (salawāt) upon you?” Rasūlullāh (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam) remained quiet for so long that we wished that he had not asked him, then Rasūlullāh (sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam) said: “[For Salāh on me] 

Say: Allāhumma salli ‘ala Muhammadiñ Wa ‘ala āli Muhammad kamā sallaita ‘ala āli Ibrāhīm; Wa bārik ‘ala  Muhammadiñ wa ‘ala āli Muhammad kama bārakta ‘ala āli Ibrāhīm, fil-‘ālameen; Innaka Hamīdun Majīd.

(O Allāh! Send Prayers upon Muhammad and the members of his household as You Sent Prayers upon the members of Ibrahim's household; And Send Blessings to Muhammad and the members of his household as You  granted Blessings upon the members of the household of Ibrāhīm, among all the nations’ Verily You are Most Praiseworthy, Full of Glory)’;

‘And the Salutation [i.e ‘As-salāmu ‘alaika ayyuhan-Nabiyyu wa rahmatullāhi wa barakātuh’] as you about knows it’.”

[Recorded by Muslim (803): Book on Blessings on the Prophet (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wasallam) after Tashahhud; this narration uses the phrase: ‘ala āli Ibrāhīm, fil-‘ālameen; Innaka Hamīdun Majīd”]; this narration is Linguistically sound; more comprehensive] This was also recorded by Abu Dawud (976 and 980): sahih, An-Nasa’ie, At-Tirmidzi and Ibn Jarir. At-Tirmidzi said, "It is Hasan Sahih.''

The last phrase of this hadith clearly indicates the linkage of Salawāt and the Tashahhud.

The Obligation of Sending Salawāt upon Rasūlullā
āhu ‘alayhi wa sallam) in this Tashahhud

Once, " Rasūlullāh (Sallallāhu’alayhi wa sallam) heard a man supplicating in his Solāt without glorifying the majesty of Allāh Exalted, nor sending prayers (salawāt) on the Prophet (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam), so he said: This man has been hasty." Rasūlullāh (Sallallāhu’alayhi wa sallam) then called him and said to him and others, "When one of you prays, he should begin with the praise of his Lord, Sublime and Mighty, and his exultation, and then send salawāt (in one narration: he should send salawāt) on the Prophet (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wasallam), and then supplicate as he wishes." [255] 

At-Tirmidzi (rahimahullāh) also recorded in his 'Jami' At-Tirmidzi' (3477) and he says: "This narration shows that while sitting in 'Tashahhud' one should first express his gratitude to Allāh Subhānahu wata’ala and praise Him. Then he should send aalawāt upon the Prophet (Sallallāhu’alayhi wa sallam) and after that he should supplicate whatever he wishes."

It is also narrated, "Rasūlullāh (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam) heard a man glorifying and praising Allah, and sending salawāt on the Prophet (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam) in the Solāt, so the Messenger of Allah (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam) said to him: 'Supplicate, and you will be answered; ask, and you will be given'." [256]
The Virtues of Salawāt.

The Salawāt reflects the honour, love, faith, attachment to our Prophet (Sallallāhu 'alayhi wa sallam) which signifies to be the deep faith in Allāh. None is considered a true believer until one loves him more than one parents and all others. The Salawāt indicates the honour, love, belief, attachment to him as our Prophet (Sallallāhu 'alayhi wa sallam) which signifies to be the deep faith in Allāh.

Allāh Almighty says:  “Say: ‘O people! I am sent unto you all, as the Messenger of Allāh, to Whom belongs the dominion of the heavens and the earth: there is no god but He: it is He that gives both life and death. So believe in Allāh and His Messenger, the unlettered Prophet, who believed in Allāh and His Words: follow him that (so) you may be guided.” [Al-A’raf 7: 158]

Allāh tells the mankind the purpose of sending Prophet Muhammad (Sallāhu ‘alayhi wassalam) as He Says in the Qur’an:  “And We have not sent you, [O Muhammad], except as a mercy to the worlds.” [Al-Anbiya’ 21: 107]  

Anas Ibn Mālik (radiyallāhu'anhu) narrated the Prophet (Sallallāhu 'alayhi wa sallam) said: “No one of you truly believes until I am dearer to him than his father, his son, his own self and all the people.” [Narrated by Al-Bukhāri, 15; Muslim, 44].

The Prophet (Sallallāhu 'alayhi wa sallam) also said: “Whenever someone seeks Allāh’s blessings for me, Allāh returns the soul to my body until I reply to his salutation." [Reported by Abu Dawud]

Imām Ahmad related that Abu Talhah Al-Ansārī (radiyallāhu’anhu) said: The Messenger of Allāh (Sallallāhu’alayhi wasallam) arose one morning in a very pleasant mood with signs of good tidings apparent on his face. They said, “O Messenger of Allāh, we see that you look happy.” Rasūlullāh (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam) said: “The angel came to me and told me, ‘O Muhammad, would it not please you if your Lord, may He be glorified, said: ‘No member of your Ummah sends Solāh (Salawāt) upon you but I send Solāh upon him tenfold, and no member of your Ummah sends greetings of Salām upon you but I send greetings of Salām upon him tenfold’.’” I said, “Of course.’” [This was also recorded by An-Nasā'ie Ibn Abi Shaybah, ‘Abd bin Hamīd and At-Tirmidzi; Cited with slightly different wording in Imām Abu Sulayman al-Jazuli's Dala'il Al-Khayrat (The Index of Good Things)]

‘Abdullāh bin Mas’ud (radiyallāhu’anhu) narrated that the Messenger of Allāh (Sallallāhu’alayhi wasallam) said: "Those who are most deserving of my intercession on the Day of Judgment are those who used to increasingly seek Allāh’s Blessing (salawāt) for me.” [This is recorded by Ahmad, Al-Bukhari, At-Tirmidzi and Ibn Hibbān said hasan]

Anas Ibn Mālik (radiyallāhu’anhu) reported that the Messenger of Allāh (Sallallāhu’alayhi wasallam) said: “There are three under the shade of Allāh on a day when there is no shade except His; the one who relieved a distress from someone from my nation; the one who invigorate my Sunnah and the one who invoked blessings on me (Salawāt) the most”. [This is recorded in the Mustadrak and the Musnad of al-Firdaus; Al-Hāfiz As-Suyūtī also recorded it in his Burūj Al-Hilāl.]

And the Prophet (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam) likened those who do not salawāt upon him when his name is mentioned as a miser: "The miser  (wretched; niggardly, mistaken) is the one who hears my name mentioned and does not seek blessings for me.” [Reported by At-Tirmidzi]

The Supplication after the Tashahhud and before Taslim

1.The Obligation to Seek Refuge from Four Things before Supplicating
The Rasūlullāh (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam) used to say, “When one of you has finished the [last] tashahhud, he should seek refuge with Allāh from four things; [saying]:

‘Allāhumma inni a ‘uzubikamin ‘azabijahannam, wamin ‘azabilqabr, waminfitnatilmahya wal-mamāt, waminsyarri [fitnati] al masihid dajjāl

(O Allāh! I truly seek refuge with You] from the punishment of Hellfire, and from the punishment of the grave, and from the trials of living and dying, and from the evil [trials] of the False Christ) ’.”

[Then Rasūlullāh (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wasallam) should supplicate for himself with what occurs to him.]" [257] - “Rasūlullāh (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam) would supplicate with it in his own tashahhud." [258]

Also, “Rasūlullāh (Sallallāhu‘alayhi wasallam) used to teach the Companions (radiallāhu’anhum) this the way he taught them Surahs of the Qur’ān.” [259]

2.Various Supplications

After reciting the above du'a one may choose the du'a as Rasūlullāh (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam) used to use different supplications in his prayer [260], supplicating with different ones at different times; he also endorsed other supplications, and "ordered the worshipper to select of them what he wishes." [261]. They are:

2.1 -  “Allāhumma inni a ‘uzubikamin ‘azabilqabr, wa a ‘uzubikamin fitnatil masīhid-dajjal, waminfitnatilmahya wal-mamat,” “Allāhumma inni a ‘udzu bika min [al-kasali wal harami] wal-ma’tham wal-maghram”.

“O Allāh! Truly I seek refuge with You from the punishment of the grave, and I seek refuge with you from the trials of the False Christ, and I seek refuge with You from the trials of living and dying”. “O Allāh! Truly I seek refuge with You from [laziness, senility,] sin [262] and burden [263].” [264]

2.2 - "Allāhumma inni a ‘uzubikamin syarrima’amiltu, waminsyarri lam ‘amal [ba’du]"
"O Allāh! Truly I seek refuge with You from the evil of what I have done, and from the evil of what I have not done [265] [yet]. [266]

2.3 - “Allāhumma hasibni hissāban Yasīyra”
(O Allāh! Call me to account with an easy reckoning.) [267]

2.4 -  “Allāhumma bi’il mikal ngaib,waqudratika’aliyalkhalqi,ahyiniy ma’alimtalhayatakairannli, watawaffanai izakanatilwafatu khairanliy.Allāhumma wa asaluka fialazngaibi wasshahadah, wa asaluka kalimatalhaq [hukmi], wal’adlafingadabiwarradha, waasalukalqasdadafiyalfaqriwalngina, waasaaluka naie’man layabidu, wa asalukaqurata ie’nin [latanfazu, wa] latanng-qatie’, wa as alukarradū’, wa asaluka bardal ‘aiesyiba’dalmaūt, wa asalukalazzatannazhiriila wajhika,wa [ asaluka] syawqailaliqaika, fingairidorrain madhirrah, walafitnatinmudhillah,
Allāhumma zaiyanna bizi natiliman, waj ‘alna hudan muhtadīn”

(O Allāh! [I ask you], by Your knowledge of the Unseen, and Your control over the creation: give me life as long as You know that life is best for me, and take me when death is best for me.O Allāh! I also ask of You fear of You, in secret and in open; I ask of You the word of Truth (in one narration: Wisdom) and justice in anger and in pleasure; I ask of You moderation in poverty and affluence; I ask of You joy which does not fade; I ask of You pleasure [which does not pass away, nor that] which ceases; I ask of You contentment with Your decree; I ask of You coolness of life after death; I ask of You the delight of looking towards Your Face; and [I ask of You] eagerness towards meeting You, not in harmful adversity, nor in misleading afflictions.O Allāh! Adorn us with the decoration of Imān, and make us those who guide and are guided). [268]

2.5-Rasūlullāh (Sallallāhu’alayhi wasallam) taught Abu Bakar as-Siddiq (radiyallāhu’anhu) to say:

“Allāhumma inni  zalamtu nafsizulman kathīra, Wala yaghfiruzzunu billa anta, Faghfirliy maghfirli maghfiratan min ‘indik, warhamni. Innaka antal Ghafur-ur-Rahīm”.

(O Allāh! Indeed I have wronged myself greatly, and none can forgive sins except You, so forgive me out of Your forgiveness, and have mercy on me. Truly, You are the Oft- Forgiving, the Most Merciful.) [269]

2.6 - Rasūlullāh (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam) instructed ‘Aishah (radiyallāhu’anha) to say:

“Allāhhumma inni as aluka minalkhi kullihi [‘ājilihi wā jilihi] ma’alimtu minhu wama lam ‘alam, wa a’uzubika minas sharan kullih, [‘ajililihi wa ajilihi] ma ‘alimtu minhu wama lam ‘alam,

[Allainni asluka] aljannata wama qar rabailayha min qawli aw ‘amal, wa a’uzubika minannar waqar raba ilaiha min qaw li aw ‘amal, wa asaluka (Allāhuma inni asaluka) mina [al] khairimasaalak ‘abduka wa rasuluka [Muhammad, Wa a’uzubika min syarama ista’azakamin ‘abduka wa rasuluka Muhammadun sallallahu ‘alayhi wassallam], [Wa as aluka] ma qadaita liy min amrin antaj’ala ‘aqi batuhu [liy] rushda”

(O Allāh! Indeed I ask of You all Good, [the imminent and the far-off,] that of it which I know and that which I do not know. I seek refuge with You from all Evil, [the imminent and the far-off,] that of it which I know and that which I do not know.
I ask of You (in one narration: O Allāh! indeed I ask of You) the Garden, and whatever saying or deed which brings one near to it; I seek refuge with You from the Fire, and (from) whatever saying or deed which brings one near to it.
I ask of You (in one narration: O Allāh! Indeed I ask of You) [the] good of what was asked of You by Your slave and messenger [Muhammad; and I seek refuge with You from evil of what Your slave and messenger Muhammad (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wasallam) sought refuge with You].[I ask of You] that whatever You have decreed for me, its result [for me] be beneficial) [270]

2.7 - Rasūlullāh (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wasallam) said to a man, what do you say during the prayer? He said: “I recite the Tashahhud, then I say

“Allāhumma inni as’aluka al-jannah wa a’udzu bika min al-nār”
(O Allāh, I ask You for Paradise and seek refuge in You from the Fire).

I cannot murmur like you and like Mu’adz.”  [271] So Rasūlullāh (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam) said, Our murmuring is like yours.[272]

2.8 - Rasūlullāh (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam) heard a man saying in his Tashahhud:

“Allāhumma inni asaluka Ya Allāh [billah] [al-Wahid] Allāhus-Sāmad, Allazi lamyalid walamyulad walamyakunlahu kufuwan ahad, An taghfir liya zunu biy innaka antal Ghafur-ur-Rahīm”.

(O Allāh! Indeed I ask of You, O Allāh (in one narration: by Allāh), the One, the Only, the Absolute, Who begets not and nor is He begotten, and there is none like Him, that You forgive me my sins; indeed You are the Oft-Forgiving, Most Merciful).

On this, Rasūlullāh (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wasallam) said, "He has been forgiven, he has been forgiven". [273]

2.9 - In a hadīth from Anas Ibn Malik (radiyallahu`anhu) who said: Rasūlullāh (Sallallāhu 'alayhi wa sallam) heard a companion say in his [Final] Tashahhud:

“Allāhuma inni asaluka bi anna lakal-hamd, Lāillā hailla anta [wahdakalasyarikalaka], [Ya al-Mannan], [Ya] badi 'assamawatiwal ard, Ya Dzal Jalali wal Ikrām, Ya Haiyu Ya Qaiyum [Inni asaluka] [alJannata wa a ‘u dzubika minannar]”

(O Allāh! Indeed, I ask of You, by the fact that to You belongs all Praise; there is no (true) god except You, [You alone, You have no partners;] O the Bestower of Favours; [O] Originator of the Heavens and the Earth; O One that is Full of Majesty and Honour; O Living One, O Eternal One; [Indeed I ask of You] [the Garden, and I seek refuge with You from the Fire])

So Rasūlullāh (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam) said to his Companions: " Do you know with what he has supplicated? They said, "Allāh and His Messenger know best." He said: " By Him in Whose Hand is my soul,] he has supplicated Allāh with His Mighty (in one narration: Mightiest) name [274], with which if He is supplicated, He answers, and with which if He is asked, He gives." [275] 
3.The Closing Du’a.

3.1- As narrated by 'Ali (radiyallāhu’anhu), one of the last things Rasūlullāh (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam) would say between The Tashahhud and The Taslim would be:

“Allāhummaghfirli maqaddamtu, wama akhkhartu, wama asrartu, wama’alantu, wama asraftu, wama anta’alamubihinni minni, Antal-Muqaddimu, wa antalmakhiru, Lā ilāha illa anta”

(O Allāh! Forgive me what I have done in the past, and what I will do in the future, and what I have concealed, and what I have done openly, and what I have exceeded in, whatever You know about more now than I. You are the Bringer-Forward, and You are the Delayer, there is no (true) god except You.) [276]

3.2-Ibn Abi Hatim and Ibn Jarir recorded that Umm Salamah (radiyallāhu'anha), reported that the Prophet (Sallallāhu 'alayhi wa sallam) used to supplicate:

‘Ya Muqallibal-qulubi, thabbit qalbi ‘ala deenik
(O Controller of the hearts makes my heart steadfast in Your religion).”
Rasulullah (Sallallāhu 'alayhi wa sallam) then recited:
Rabbana la tuzia’qulubana ba’ daiz hadaitana wahab Lana min laduñ karahmah; Iñnaka an tal wahhāb
(Our Lord! Let not our hearts deviate (from the truth) after Thou have guided us, and grant us mercy from Thou. Truly, Thou are the Bestower.) (Al-’Imran, 3:8) 
[This is recorded by Muslim and At-Tirmidzi]
3.3 - And add:
 "Lā- hawla-wa-lā-Quw-wata illā-billāhil-[‘aly-yul ‘Azeem]
(There would be no change of any condition nor power except by Allāh [the Most High, the Most Magnificent]).”
[Al-Bukhari and Muslim].

Subhāna Rabbika Rabbil ‘izzati ‘amma Yasifūn. Wasalamun ‘alal mursaleen, Walhamdulilāhi Rabbil ‘ālameen (The Blessed Lord, The Lord that has all the attributes of excellent, And Peace on all the apostles, all the praise is to Allāh, the Lord of the entire universe). [Al-Saffāt, 37:180-182]
The Taslim: Concluding the Solāt

Finally, The Prophet (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wasallam) would salute: 

“As-Salāmu ‘alaykum wa Rahmatullāh (Peace and Allāh's Mercy be on you)”

Turning the face to the right and the left to conclude the Solāt.
And Allāh Almighty Knows Best


249. Bukhari.
250. ibid. As for two-raka’ah prayers such as Fajar, the Sunnah is to sit muftarishan. This difference in detail is documented from Imam Ahmad; cf. Ibn Hani's Masa’il of Imam Ahmad (p. 79).
251. Abu Dawud; Bayhaqi with a sahih sanad.
252. Muslim; Abu ‘Awanah.
253. ibid.
254. ibid.
255. Ahmad, Abu Dawud, Ibn Khuzaimah (1/83/2) and Al-Hakim, who declared it sahih and Dhahabi agreed.
It should be known that this hadith proves that Salawāt (sending prayers) on the Prophet (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam) in this tashahhud is obligatory, due to the command about it. This opinion was taken by Imām Shāfi’ie and by Imām Ahmad in the later of the two narrations from him and before them by several Companions, as well as other people of knowledge. Because of this, Ajuri said in Shari’āh (p. 415): "He who does not send prayers (salawāt) on the Prophet (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam) in the Final Tashahhud must repeat the Solāt." Hence, those who label Imām Shāfi’ie as being alone and odd in his opinion on this, are not being just, as the faqih Haithami has explained in Darr al-Mandub (sections 13-16).
256. Nasā’ie with a sahih sanad.
257. Muslim, Abu ‘Awanah, Nasā’ie; Ibn al-Jarud in al-Muntaqa (27). It is given in Irwa' (350).
258. Abu Dawud and Ahmad: sahih sanad.
259. Muslim and Abu ‘Awānah.
260. We have not said, "... in his tashahhud" because the text is "... in his Solāt", not specifying either tashahhud or anything else. Hence, it covers all positions suitable for supplication, e.g. sujud and tashahhud; the instruction to supplicate in these two postures has been mentioned.
261. Bukhāri; Muslim. Athram said, "I asked Ahmad: 'With what (words) should I supplicate after tashahhud?' He said, 'As has been narrated.' I said, 'Didn't the Messenger of Allāh (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam) say, "Then he should select whichever supplication he likes”?' He said, 'He should select out of what has been narrated.' I repeated the question: he said, 'From what has been narrated'." This was quoted by Ibn Taymiyyah (Majmu’ al-Fatawa 69/218/1), who endorsed it, adding, "Hence, 'whichever supplication' refers to the supplications which Allāh loves, not to any supplication ...” later he said, "Hence, it is best to say: (one should supplicate) with the approved, established supplications, and these are what have been narrated and those that are beneficial." This is so, but to recognise which supplications are indeed beneficial depends on authentic knowledge, and this is rarely found among the people, so it is best to stick to the supplications quoted, especially when they include what the worshipper wishes to request. Allāh Almighty Knows best.
262. Ma’tham: the causes a man to sin, or the sin itself.
263. Maghram: burden; here it means debt, as proved by the rest of the hadith, in which ‘Aishah said, "Someone said to him, ‘Why do you seek refuge from maghram, so often, O Messenger of Allāh?' He replied, truly, when a man becomes indebted, he speaks and lies, and he promises and breaks his promise.
264. Bukhāri; Muslim.
265. i.e. from the evil of the bad actions I have done, and from the evil of not doing good actions.
266 Nasā’ie with a sahih sanad and Ibn Abi 'Asim in his as-Sunnah (no. 370 - with my checking); the addition is from the latter.
267. Ahmad and Hakim who declared it sahih and Dhahabi agreed.
268. Nasā’ie and al-Hakim who declared it sahih and Dhahabi agreed.
269. Bukhāri; Muslim.
270. Ahmad, Tayalisi, Bukhāri in Al-Adab Al-Mufrad, Ibn Mājah and Hakim who declared it sahih and Dhahabi agreed. I have given its takhrij in Silsilah Al-Ahādīth As-Sahihah (1542).
271. Dandanah: to speak such the intonation is audible, but the words are incomprehensible - in the case, the quiet words of supplication. The final statement means, "Our words are like yours."
272. Abu Dawud, Ibn Mājah; Ibn Khuzaimah (1/87/1): a sahih isnād.
273. Abu Dawud, Nasā’ie, Ahmad; Ibn Khuzaimah; Hakim declared it sahīh and Dhahabi agreed.
274. This is tawassul (a seeking of approach) to Allāh through His most beautiful names and attributes, and this is what Allāh the Exalted commands: "To Allāh belong the most beautiful names, so call on Him by them." (‘Araf, 7:180). As for seeking to approaching Allāh through other things, e.g. for so-and-so's sake, or by so-and-so's right, status, dignity, etc., there is text from Imam Abu Hanifah (rahimahullāh) and his companions that such a practice is at least disliked (makrūh); in general it is prohibited (harām). Therefore, it is a pity that one sees most of the people, among them many sheikhs, totally neglecting the approved tawassul - you will never hear them approaching Allāh this way - but they are well-versed in innovated forms of tawassul, which are at the very least debatable, as though no other way is allowed! Shaikh-ul-Islam Ibn Taymiyyah has composed an extremely good essay on this subject entitled Tawassul and Wasilah ("Approaching Allāh, and the Means of doing so"), which should be consulted, for it is very important, and there is little to compare with it in its coverage. There is also my article Tawassul - its types and its rules, which is also important in its subject-matter and format, and also refutes some of the latest misconceptions advanced by contemporary doctors of religion. May Allāh Guides us on the right path.
275. Abu Dawud, Nasā’ie, Ahmad, Bukhāri in Al-Adab Al-Mufrad, Tabarāni; Ibn Mandah in Tawhid (44/2, 67/1, 70/1-2): sahih isnāds.
276. Muslim and Abu ‘Awanah.

[Via The Qur’an and Sunnah Society]

All About The Solah

4. Al-Wudhu’ ; 5. Tayammum;
29.   Solāt al-Jumu'ah; 30. The Sanctified Hour of Jumu’ah.

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