Monday, May 10, 2010

The First Tashahhud of Solāh


The First Tashahhud of the Solāt


The Solāh of the Prophet (Sallallāhu 'alayhi wasallam)

By Shaikh Muhammad Nasiruddin Al-Albāni

[The book was translated by Usama Ibn Suhaib Hasan Al-Brittani; it would be worthwhile to revisit it and I cordially invite you to provide inputs]

In the name of Allāh, the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful;
All the praise and thanks is due to Allāh, the Lord of al-'ālameen. There is none worthy of worship except Allāh, and that Muhammad, Sallallāhu 'alayhi wasallam is His Messenger.


1.   The Description of the Solāt
2.11. The First Tashahhud


The Prophet (Sallallāhu 'alayhi wasallam) would sit for Tashahhud after finishing the second rak'ah. In a two-rak'at Solāt such as Fajar, "he would sit muftarishan" [175], as he used to sit between the two Sujud, and "he would sit in the First Tashahhud similarly" [176] in a three- or four-rak'at Solāh. [See diagram above- qss]

The Prophet (Sallallāhu 'alayhi wasallam)  also ordered "the one who performed Solāt badly" thus, saying to him, when you sit in the middle of the Solāh, then be calm, spread your left thigh and perform tashahhud. [177]

Abu Hurayrah (radiyallāhu'anhu) said, "My friend (Sallallāhu 'alayhi wasallam) forbade me from squatting (iq'ā') like a dog" [178]; in another hadith, "he used to forbid the squatting of the devil." [179]

"When Rasūlullāh (Sallallāhu 'alayhi wasallam) sat in Tashahhud, he would place his right palm on his right thigh (in one narration: knee), and his left palm on his left thigh (in one narration: knee, spreading it upon it)" [180]; and "he would put the end of his right elbow on his right thigh." [181]

Also, “Rasūlullāh (Sallallāhu 'alayhi wa sallam) forbade a man who was sitting in Solāh resting on his left hand, and said: Verily, that is the Solāh of the Jews [182]; in one wording, Do not sit like this, for indeed this is the way of sitting of those who are punished [183]; in another hadith, It is the sitting posture of those who incurred (Allāh’s) anger. [184]

Moving the Finger in Tashahhud

“ Rasūlullāh (Sallallāhu 'alayhi wasallam) would spread his left palm on his left knee, clench all the fingers of his right hand, point with the finger adjacent to the thumb towards the Qiblah, and fix his sight on it (i.e. the finger).” [185]

Also, “when Rasūlullāh (Sallallāhu 'alayhi wa sallam) pointed with his finger, he would put his thumb on his middle finger” [186], and sometimes "he would make a circle with these two." [187]

“When Rasūlullāh (Sallallāhu 'alayhi wasallam) raised his finger, he would move it, supplicating with it” [188], and he used to say, "It is surely more powerful against the devil than iron, meaning the forefinger." [189]

Also, “the Companions of the Prophet (Sallallāhu 'alayhi wasallam) used to remind each other, which is, about pointing with the finger when supplicating.” [190]

Once, “Rasūlullāh (Sallallāhu 'alayhi wasallam) saw a man supplicating with two fingers, so Rasūlullāh (Sallallāhu`alayhi wasallam) said, “Make it one, [make it one,]” and indicated with his forefinger.” [191]

“Rasūlullāh (Sallallāhu 'alayhi wasallam) would do this in both Tashahhuds.” [192]



[NB: Please See the Addendum below.]

The Obligation of the First Tashahhud, and the Validity of its Supplication.

“Rasūlullāh (Sallallāhu 'alayhi wasallam) would recite the Taqiyyah after every two rak`at” [193]; "the first thing he would say in this sitting would be: All compliments are to Allāh." [194]

“When Rasūlullāh (Sallallāhu 'alayhi wasallam) forgot to perform the Tashahhud after the first two rak`at, Rasūlullāh would prostrate (twice) for forgetfulness.” [195]

Rasūlullāh (Sallallāhu 'alayhi wasallam) used to order them to perform Tashahhud, saying, When you sit after every two rak'at, then say: All compliments ... and then each of you should select the supplication he likes best and supplicate Allāh, Mighty and Sublime, [with it] [196]; in another version: Say, All compliments ... in every sitting [197], and he also ordered “the one who prayed badly” to do so, as has been mentioned.

“Rasūlullāh (Sallallāhu 'alayhi wasallam) would teach them the Tashahhud the way he taught them Surahs of the Qurān” [198], and “the Sunnah is to say it quietly.” [199]

The Manner of Tashahhud

Ibn Hajar Al-'Asqalani (rahimahullāh) in his Fathul Bari recorded that it is known as Tashahhud because it includes the Shahadah. Rasūlullāh (Sallallāhu 'alayhi wasallam) taught several ways of Tashahhud:

[1.] The Tashahhud narrated by Ibn Mas'ūd (radiyallāhu'anhu), who said, “The Messenger of Allāh (Sallallāhu 'alayhi wasallam) taught me the Tashahhud, [with] my palm between his palms, the way he taught me Surahs of the Qurān:

 “At-tahiyyātu lillāhi was-salawātu wat-tayyibāt,
As-sal
āmu 'alayka ayyuhan-Nabiyyu wa rahmatullāhi wa barakātuh.
As-sal
āmu 'alayna wa 'alā 'ibād-illāh is-sāliheen.
Ash-hadu an l
ā ilāha ill-Alāh wa ash-hadu anna Muhammadan  'abduhu wa Rasūluh”
(All compliments [200], prayers [201] and pure words [202] are due to Allāh.
Peace [203] be on you, O Prophet, and also the mercy of Allāh and His blessings [204].
Peace be on us, and on the righteous slaves of Allāh. [For when one says that, it includes every righteous slave in the heaven and the earth.]
I bear witness that none has the right to be worshipped except Allāh, and I bear witness that Muhammad is His slave and messenger).

This was while he was among us, but after he was taken, we would say: “Asālamu 'lannabiy (Peace be on the Prophet)." [205].

[NB: The hadith indicates we should say: “As-Salāmu 'alannabiy-yu-wa-rahmat-Allāhi-wa-barakātuh (Peace be on the Prophet and also the mercy of Allāh and His blessings).” but some scholars view it as Ibn Mas'ud's ijtihad, wallāhua’lam.

In a Fatāwa al-Lajnah al-Daa’imah li’l-Buhooth al-‘Ilmiyyah wa’l-Ifta’ it says: The correct view is that in the tashahhud the worshipper should say: “al-salāmu ‘alayka ayyuhan-nabiyyu wa rahmatullāhi wa barakātuh (peace be upon you, O Prophet, and the mercy of Allāh and His blessings,), because this is what is proven in the ahādīth. With regard to the report narrated from Ibn Mas’ūd (radiyallāhu'anhu) – if it is a sahīh (sound) narration from him – this is the ijtihād of the one who did that and it does not contradict the proven ahādīth. If the ruling after the death of the Prophet (Sallallāhu 'alayhi wasallam) were different than the ruling when he was still alive, he would have told us that. (Fatāwa al-Lajnah al-Daa’imah li’l-Buhooth al-‘Ilmiyyah wa’l-Ifta’, 7/11-13)]

[2.] The Tashahhud narrated by Ibn 'Abbās (radiyallāhu'anhum): "The Messenger of Allāh (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wasallam) used to teach us the tashahhud the way he taught us [surahs of] the Qur'ān; he used to say:

“At-tahiyyatul mubaraka tus-salawātut-tayyibātu lillāh,
As-sal
āmu 'alayka ayyuhan-Nabiyyu wa rahmatullāhi wa barakātuhu.
As-sal
āmu 'alayna wa 'alā 'ibād-Illāh is-sālihīn.
Ash-haduan l
ā ilāha ill-Allāh wa ash-hadu anna Muhammadan rasūlullāh [in one narration: 'abduhu wa Rasūluh]”
(All compliments, blessed words, prayers, pure words are due to Allāh.
Peace be on you, O Prophet, and also the mercy of Allāh and His blessings.
Peace be on us and on the righteous slaves of Allāh.
I bear witness that none has the right to be worshipped except Allāh, and [I bear witness] that Muhammad is the Messenger of Allāh (in one narration: ... is His slave and messenger).) “[206]


Imām Ash-Shāfi'ie (rahimallāh) said: “Different hadith have been related about the Tashahhud, but that one (by Ibn 'Abbas) is the best in my opinion, for it is the most complete” And Al-Hafiz Ibn Hajar Al-'Asqalani (rahimahullāh) states: “Ash-Shāfi'ie was asked about this choice and the Tashahhud of Ibn `Abbas, and he replied, ‘I have found it to be the most encompassing. I have heard it from Ibn 'Abbas (through) authentic (chains). To me, it is more complete...’”

[3.] The Tashahhud narrated by Ibn 'Umar (radiyallāhu`anhu), (almost similar Ibn 'Abbas), who reported the Messenger of Allāh (Sallallāhu 'alayhi wasallam) as saying in the tashahhud:

“At-tahiyyatul illah was-salawātu-wa tayyibāt,
As-sal
āmu 'alayka ayyuhan-Nabiyyu wa rahmatullāhi wa barakātuhu.
As-sal
āmu 'alayna wa 'alā 'ibād-illāh is-sālihīn.
Ash-hadu an l
ā ilāha ill-Allāh, [wahdahu lasyarīkalah], wa ash-hadu anna Muhammadan ['abduhu wa rasūluh]
(All compliments, prayers and good words are due to Allāh.
Peace be on you, O Prophet, and also the mercy of Allāh [Ibn 'Umar said, “I add:” [207]] and His blessings.
Peace be on us and on the righteous slaves of Allāh.
I bear witness that none has the right to be worshipped except Allāh [Ibn `Umar said, “I add:” [208]] alone, He has no partner, - and I bear witness that Muhammad is His slave and messenger). [209; Ibn 'Umar add ' wahdahu lasyarikalah']

[4.] The tashahhud narrated by Abu Musa al-Ash'ari (radiyallāhu'anhu), (also almost similar Ibn ‘Umar), who said that the Messenger of Allāh (Sallallāhu 'alayhi wassallam) said ... when you are sitting, the first thing each of you says should be:

“At-tahiyyātuttaiyibat wassalawātulillāh,
As-sal
āmu 'alayka ayyuhan-Nabiyyu wa rahmat-Allāhi wa barakātuh,
As-sal
āmu 'alayna wa 'ala 'ibād-Illāh is-sālihīn.
Ash-hadu an l
ā ilāha ill-Allāh [wahdahu lasyarikalah] wa ash-hadu anna Muhammadan 'abduhu wa rasūluh
(All compliments, good words and prayers are due to Allāh. Peace be on you, O Prophet, and also the mercy of Allāh and His blessings. Peace be on us, and on the righteous slaves of Allāh. I bear witness that none has the right to be worshipped except Allāh [alone, He has no partner], and I bear witness that Muhammad is His slave and messenger - seven phrases, and they are the greetings in the prayer.”) [210]

[5.] The Tashahhud of 'Umar Ibn Al-Khattab (radiyallāhu'anhu), (also almost similar Ibn 'Abbas), who taught the people the tashahhud while on the pulpit, saying, "Say:

“At-tahiyyatulillah azzakiyatullillah, wattayibatulillah, was-salawātulillāh,
As-sal
āmu 'alayka ayyuhan-Nabiyyu wa rahmat-Allāhi wa barakātuh.
As-sal
āmu ‘alayna wa 'alā 'ibād-illāh is-sālihīn.
Ash-hadu an l
ā ilāha ill-Alāh, wa ash hadu anna Muhammadan 'abduhu wa rasūluh
(All compliments are due to Allāh; all pure titles are due to Allāh; all good words [are due to Allāh]; all prayers are due to Allāh.
Peace be on you, O Prophet, and also the mercy of Allāh and His blessings.
Peace be on us and on the righteous slaves of Allāh. I bear witness that none has the right to be worshipped except Allāh, and I bear witness that Muhammad is His servant and messenger.) [211]

The Manner Sending Salawāt on the Prophet

Rasūlullāh (Sallallāhu`alayhi wasallam) used to send Salah on himself in the First Tashahhud as well as the other[212] He also established it for his ummah, ordering them to send Salawāt on him after sending Salām on him [213], and he taught them several ways of doing so:

[1.] * “Allāhumma salli 'ala Muhammad, wa 'ala ahli bait, wa'ala azwajihi wa dzurriyyatihi, Kama sallaita 'ala Ibrāhīm; Innaka Hamīdum Majīd;
Wa bārik 'ala Muhammad, wa 'ala ahli bait, wa 'ala azwajihi wa dzurriyyatihi, Kama bārakta 'ala Ibrāhīm; Innaka Hamīdum-Majīd”
(O Allāh! Send prayers on Muhammad [214], and on his household, and on his wives and progeny, as you sent prayers on the family of Ibrahim; You are indeed Worthy of Praise, Full of Glory; And send blessings on Muhammad [215], and his household, and his wives and progeny, as you sent blessings on the family of Ibrahim; You are indeed Worthy of Praise, Full of Glory).

This supplication he would use himself*. [216]

[2].* Imām Ahmad recorded that Ibn Abi Layla said that Ka'ab bin 'Ujrah (radiyallāhu'anhu) met him and said, "Shall I not give you a gift The Messenger of Allāh (Sallallāhu 'alayhi wasallam) came out to us and we said, 'O Messenger of Allāh! We know how to send Salām upon you, but how can we send Salāh’ He (Sallallāhu 'alayhi wasallam) said:

“Allāhumma salli 'ala Muhammadiñ wa 'ala āli Muhammad, Kama sallayta 'ala [Ibrāhīm, wa’ala] āli Ibrāhīm; Innaka Hamīdum Majīd;
Allāhumma barik  'ala Muhammadiñ wa 'ala āli Muhammad, kama bārakta 'ala [Ibrāhīm, wa'ala] āli Ibrāhīm; Innaka Hamīdum Majīd.”
(O Allāh! Send prayers on Muhammad, and on the family of Muhammad, as you sent prayers on [Ibrahim, and on] [217] the family of Ibrahim; You are indeed Worthy of Praise, Full of Glory;
O Allāh! Send blessings on Muhammad, and on the family of Muhammad, as you sent blessings on [Ibrahim, and on] [218] the family of Ibrahim; You are indeed Worthy of Praise, Full of Glory.) [219]

[3].* In his Tafsir of this Ayah, Al-Bukhari recorded that Ka'ab bin 'Ujrah (radiyallāhu'anhu) said, “It was said, 'O Messenger of Allāh, with regard to sending Salam upon you, we know about this, but how about Solāh” He (Sallallāhu 'alayhi wasallam) said:
 “Allāhumma salli 'ala Muhammadiñ wa 'ala ali Muhammad, Kama salayta 'ala Ibrāhīm [wa āli Ibrāhīm]; Innaka Hamīdum Majīd;
Wa barik 'ala Muhammad, wa 'ala ali Muhammad, kama barakta 'ala [Ibrāhīm wa] āli Ibrāhīm;
Innaka Ham
īdum Majīd.”

(O Allāh! Send prayers on Muhammad, and on the family of Muhammad, as you sent prayers on Ibrahim, [and the family of Ibrahim]; You are indeed Worthy of Praise, Full of Glory;
And send blessings on Muhammad, and on the family of Muhammad, as you sent blessings on [Ibrahim, and] the family of Ibrahim; You are indeed Worthy of Praise, Full of Glory). [220. Ahmad, Nasā’ie and Abu Ya’la in his Musnad (44/2) with a sahīh sanād.]

[4.] “Allāhumma salli 'ala Muhammadin [Nabiyilummi] wa 'ala āli Muhammad, Kama sallaita 'ala [āli] Ibrāhīm;
Wa b
ārik 'ala Muhammadin [Nabiyilummi], wa 'ala āli Muhammadin, kama bārakta 'ala [āli] Ibrāhīfil 'ālamīn; Innaka Hamīdum Majīd.”
(O Allāh! Send prayers on Muhammad [the Unlettered Prophet], and on the family of Muhammad, as you sent prayers on [the family of] Ibrahim;
And send blessings on Muhammad [the Unlettered Prophet] and the family of Muhammad, as you sent blessings on [the family of] Ibrahim among the nations; You are indeed Worthy of Praise, Full of Glory). [221 Muslim, Abu ‘Awānah, Ibn Abi Shaibah (2/132/1) and Abu Dawud; Hakīm declared it sahīh.]

5.* Al-Bukhari recorded that Abu Sa'id Al-Khudri(radiyallāhu'anhu), said: “We said, ‘O Messenger of Allāh, this is the Salām upon you, but how do we send Salāh upon you’ He (Sallallāhu 'alayhi wasallam) said:

 “Allāhumma Salli 'ala Muhammad 'abdika warasulik, Kama sallaita 'ala [āli] Ibrāhīm;
Wabārik`ala Muhammad 'abdika warasūlik, wa 'ala āli Muhammd, Kamabarakta 'ala āli Ibrāhīm, [wa 'ala āli Ibrāhīm]
(O Allāh! Send prayers on Muhammad, Your slave and messenger, as You sent prayers on [the family of] Ibrahim.
And send blessings on Muhammad [Your slave and messenger], [and the family of Muhammad,] as you sent blessings on Ibrahim [and on the family of Ibrahim])” [222]

[6.]* Imām Ahmad recorded from Abu Humaid As-Sa'idi (radiyallāhu'anhu) that they said: "O Messenger of Allāh, how can we send Salāh upon you'' He (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wasallam) said:

`Allāhumma salli ‘ala Muhammad, wa ['ala] azwajihi wa dzurriyyatihi, Kama sallayta 'al[a] Ibrāhīm;
Wa barik 'ala Muhammad, wa 'ala azwajihi wa dzurriyyatihi, Kama barakta 'al[a] Ibrāhīm,
Innaka Ham
īdum-Majīd”
(O Allāh! Send prayers on Muhammad and [on] his wives and progeny, as You sent prayers on [the family of Ibrahim]. And send blessings on Muhammad, and [on] his wives and progeny, as You sent blessings on [the family of] Ibrahim;
You are indeed Worthy of Praise, Full of Glory). [223]

[7.] “Allāhumma Salli ‘ala Muhammad, wa 'ala āli Muhammad, Wabārik 'ala Muhammad, wa `ala āli Muhammd, Kama sallaita 'ala Ibrāhīm; Wa bārakta 'ala āli Ibrāhīm, Innaka Hamīdum Majīd”
(O Allāh! Send prayers on Muhammad, and on the family of Muhammad, and send blessings on Muhammad, and on the family of Muhammad, As you sent prayers and sent blessings on Ibrahim and the family of Ibrahim; You are indeed Worthy of Praise, Full of Glory.) [224]

[8.]* Muslim recorded the hadith reported 'Abdullah bin Zaid , one who was shown the adzān (the call for prayer) in a dream - narrated it on the authority of Abu Mas'ud al-Ansari (radiyallāhu'anhu) who said: We were sitting in the company of Sa'ad bin 'Ubadah when the Messenger of Allāh (Sallallāhu 'alayhi wasallam) came to us. Bashir bin Sa'ad enquired [the Prophet Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wasallam]: Allāh has commanded us to bless you [re: al-Ahzab, 33:56], O Messenger of Allāh! But how should we do it? He (the narrator [Abu Mas`ud al-Ansari]) said: The Messenger of Allāh (Sallallāhu 'alayhi wasallam) kept quiet (and we were so much perturbed over his silence) that we wished we had not asked him. The Messenger of Allāh (Sallallāhu 'alayhi wasallam) then said: 

“(For blessing me) say:
Allāhumma Salli 'ala Muhammadiñ wa 'ala āli Muhammad kamā sallayta 'ala āli Ibrāhīm; 
Wa b
ārik 'ala Muhammadiñ wa 'ala āli Muhammad kama bārakta 'ala āli Ibrāhīm, fil-'ālameen; Innaka Hamīdun Majīd
(O Allāh! Send Prayers upon Muhammad and the members of his household as You Sent Prayers upon the members of Ibrāhim's household.
And Send Blessings to Muhammad and the members of his household as You  granted Blessings upon the members of the household of Ibrāhim, among all the nations; Verily You are Most Praiseworthy, Full of Glory’);
And the salutation [i.e As-salāmu 'alayka ayyuhan-Nabiyyu wa rahmatullāhi wa barakātuh as per the Taqiyyah] as you about knows it.”

[Muslim (803), Chapter 15 Book 4: Blessings on the Prophet (Sallallāhu 'alayhi wasallam) After Tashahhud; This version is linguistically sound and comprehensive. This was also recorded by Abu Dawud, An-Nasā'ie, At-Tirmidzi and Ibn Jarir. At-Tirmidzi said, "It is Hasan Sahih.''; with phrases, 'ala āli Ibrāhīm]

Imām Ahmad, Abu Dawud and At-Tirmidzi reported the following Hadith and graded it Sahih; An-Nasa'ie, Ibn Khuzaymah and Ibn Hibban recorded in their Sahihs that Fadalah bin 'Ubayd, (radiyallāhu'anhu), said: "The Messenger of Allāh heard a man making supplication in his solāh when he had not praised Allāh nor said Salāwat upon the Prophet (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wasallam). The Messenger of Allāh (Sallallāhu 'alayhi wasallam) said: ‘This man is rushing.’ Then he (Sallallāhu 'alayhi wasallam) called him over and said, to him and to someone else:  ‘When any one of you supplicates[in his solāh], let him start by praising and glorifying Allāh, may He be exalted, then let him send Salāwat upon the Prophet, and after that let him make supplication as he wishes.’''

In the hadith Rasūlullāh (Sallallāhu 'alayhi wa sallam) specify, when any one of you supplicates in his  Solāh he should first recite The Tashahhud which starts by praising and glorifying Allāh; followed by The Salawāt; and then supplicates. Rasūlullāh (Sallallāhu 'alayhi wa sallam) did not specify one Tashahhud to the exclusion of another. So, there is evidence here to establish sending of salawāt on him [i.e salawāt Ibrahimiyyah as taught by him, Sallallāhu 'alayhi wa sallam] in the first tashahhud, as well as the final Tashahhud.

At-Tirmidzi (rahimahullāh) also recorded in his 'Jami' At-Tirmidzi' (3477) and he says: "This narration shows that while sitting in 'Tashahhud' one should first express his gratitude to Allāh Subhānahu wata’ala and praise Him. Then he should send Salawāt upon the Prophet (Sallallāhu’alayhi wasallam) and after that he should supplicate whatever he wishes."

Imām al-Shāfi’ie (rahimahullah) views the recitation of First Tashahhud and Salawāt as Sunnah Ab'ad (the ommision of which Sujud As-Sahwi is required) and it suffice to recite the short version of Salawāt as follows: 

“At-Tahiyyyatul mubaraka tus-salawātut-tayyibātu lillah, As-Salāmu ‘alayka ayyuhan-Nabiyyu wa Rahmatullāhi wa Barakātuh, As-Salāmu ‘alayna wa ‘alā ‘ibadillāhis-sāliheen, Ash-hadu an lā ilāha illallāh wa ash-hadu anna Muhammadar Rasūlullāh [in one narration: ‘abduhu wa Rasūluh];
Allāhumma Salli ‘ala Muhammadiñ wa ‘ala āli Muhammad.

(All compliments, blessed words, prayers, pure words are due to Allāh. Peace be on you, O Prophet, and also the mercy of Allāh and His blessings. Peace be on us and on the righteous slaves of Allāh. I bear witness that none has the right to be worshipped except Allāh, and [I bear witness] that Muhammad is the Messenger of Allāh (in one narration: ... is His slave and messenger;
O Allāh! Send prayers on Muhammad , and on his household, and on his wives and progeny)


Nevertheless some scholars view it is permisseble of reciting the full narration of Salawāt Ibrāhīmiyah due to its virtues and reward. 

The Virtues of Salawāt .

The Salawāt reflects the honour, love, faith, attachment to our Prophet (Sallallāhu 'alayhi wasallam) which signifies to be the deep faith in Allāh. None is considered a true believer until one loves him more than one parents and all others. The Salawāt indicates the honour, love, belief, attachment to him as our Prophet (Sallallāhu 'alayhi wasallam) which signifies to be the deep faith in Allāh.  

Anas Ibn Mālik (radiyallāhu'anhu) narrated the Prophet (Sallallāhu 'alayhi wasallam) said: “No one of you truly believes until I am dearer to him than his father, his son, his own self and all the people.” [Narrated by Al-Bukhāri, 15; Muslim, 44].

The Prophet (Sallallāhu 'alayhi wasallam) also said: “Whenever someone seeks Allāh’s blessings for me, Allāh returns the soul to my body until I reply to his salutation." [Reported by Abu Dawud]

Imām Ahmad related that Abu Talhah Al-Ansārī (radiyallāhu’anhu) said: The Messenger of Allāh (Sallallāhu’alayhi wasallam) arose one morning in a very pleasant mood with signs of good tidings apparent on his face. They said, “O Messenger of Allāh, we see that you look happy.” Rasūlullāh (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam) said: “The angel came to me and told me, ‘O Muhammad, would it not please you if your Lord, may He be glorified, said: ‘No member of your Ummah sends Solāh (Salawāt) upon you but I send Solāh upon him tenfold, and no member of your Ummah sends greetings of Salām upon you but I send greetings of Salām upon him tenfold’.’” I said, “Of course.’” [This was also recorded by An-Nasā'ie Ibn Abi Shaybah, ‘Abd bin Hamīd and At-Tirmidzi; Cited with slightly different wording in Imām Abu Sulayman al-Jazuli's Dala'il Al-Khayrat (The Index of Good Things)]

‘Abdullāh bin Mas’ud (radiyallāhu’anhu) narrated that the Messenger of Allāh (Sallallāhu’alayhi wasallam) said: "Those who are most deserving of my intercession on the Day of Judgment are those who used to increasingly seek Allāh’s Blessing (salawāt) for me.” [This is recorded by Ahmad, Al-Bukhari, At-Tirmidzi and Ibn Hibbān said hasan]

Anas Ibn Mālik (radiyallāhu’anhu) reported that the Messenger of Allāh (Sallallāhu’alayhi wasallam) said: “There are three under the shade of Allāh on a day when there is no shade except His; the one who relieved a distress from someone from my nation; the one who invigorate my Sunnah and the one who invoked blessings on me (Salawāt) the most”. [This is recorded in the Mustadrak and the Musnad of al-Firdaus; Al-Hāfiz As-Suyūtī also recorded it in his Burūj Al-Hilāl.]

And the Prophet (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wasallam) likened those who do not salawāt upon him when his name is mentioned as a miser: "The miser  (wretched; niggardly, mistaken) is the one who hears my name mentioned and does not seek blessings for me.” [Reported by At-Tirmidzi]

Important explanation on Sending Salawāt on the Prophet (Sallallāhu 'alayhi wa sallam).

1. It can be seen that in most of the ways of sending Salawāt on the Prophet (Sallallāhu 'alayhi wasallam), there is no mention of Ibrāhīm separate from his family, the wording being, "... as you have sent prayers on the family of Ibrāhīm." The reason for this is that in Arabic, the family of a man includes the man as well as his dependants, e.g. in the words of the Exalted, "Allāh has chosen Adam, Nooh, the family of Ibrāhīm and the family of 'Imran above all people" [Ali-'Imrān, 3:33]; "We sent against them a violent tornado with showers of stones, except the family of Lut - We delivered them by early dawn" (Qamar, 54:34);Similar is his saying (Sallallāhu 'alayhi wasallam), O Allāh! Send prayers on the family of Abu Awfa. The phrase Ahl al-Bayt (people of the house) is also like this, e.g. "Allāh’s grace and His blessings are on you, O people of the house" (Hood, 11:73). Hence, Ibrāhīm is included in "the family of Ibrāhīm". 

Ibn Taymiyyah (rahimahullāh) says, “Most of the versions have, ‘as you sent prayers on the family of Ibrāhīm’ and 'as you sent blessings on the family of Ibrāhīm'; some have 'Ibrāhīm' himself. This is because he is the cause of all prayers and purifications on them; the rest of his family are secondary recipients of all that. To show these two points, both wordings have been employed separately."

Further, there is a well-known question among the people of knowledge: about the nature of the comparison in his statement, "as you sent prayers on ...", for it is true that the model for comparison is normally superior to the one being compared; here, the opposite is the case, since Muhammad (Sallallāhu 'alayhi wasallam)  is [the Prophet of this ummah ] greater than Ibrāhīm, and so his [priority] superiority dictates that the prayers requested are more excellent than any prayers received or to be received by anyone else. The scholars have provided many answers to this, and these can be found in Fathul-Bāri and Jalā’ al-Ifhām. They amount to about ten views, all of which are unsubstantiated, some weaker than others, except one, a well-supported view, and adopted by Ibn Taymiyyah and Ibn al-Qayyim. This view is: "The family of Ibrāhīm includes many prophets; none like them is found in the family of Muhammad. Therefore, when prayers on the Prophet (Sallallāhu 'alayhi wasallam)  and his family are sought similar to that bestowed on Ibrāhīm and his family, which includes prophets, the family of Muhammad receives out of that what is appropriate for them. Since the family of Muhammad does not reach the rank of the prophets, the extra blessings and benefit given to the prophets, including Ibrāhīm, are left for Muhammad (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam). Thus he gains a distinguished position which others cannot reach." 

Ibn al-Qayyim (rahimahullāh) says,  "This is the best of all the previous views: that Muhammad (Sallallāhu 'alayhi wa sallam)  is one of the family of Ibrāhīm; in fact, he is the best of the family of Ibrāhīm, as 'Ali ibn Talhah has related from Ibn 'Abbās (radiyallāhu'anhu) about the saying of the Exalted, "Allāh has chosen Adam, Nooh, the family of Ibrāhīm and the family of 'Imran above all people" [Ali-’Imran, 3:33]; Ibn 'Abbās said, "Muhammad is among the family of Ibrāhīm". This is text for the fact that if other prophets descended from Ibrāhīm are included in his family, then the inclusion of the Messenger of Allāh (Sallallāhu 'alayhi wa sallam) is more fitting. Hence our saying, "... as you sent prayers on the family of Ibrāhīm", includes the prayers sent on him and on the rest of the prophets descended from Ibrāhīm. Allāh has then ordered us to specifically send prayers on Muhammad and his family, as much as we send prayers on him, along with the rest of Ibrāhīm’s family generally. Therefore, the Prophet's family receives out of that what is appropriate for them, leaving all of the remainder to him (Sallallāhu 'alayhi wa sallam). There is no doubt that the total amount of prayers received by Ibrāhīm’s family, with the Messenger of Allāh (Sallallāhu 'alayhi wa sallam)  among them, is greater than that received by the Prophet (Sallallāhu 'alayhi wa sallam) alone. Therefore, what is sought for him is such a great favour, definitely greater than that sought for Ibrāhīm. Hence, the nature of the comparison and its consistency become clear. The prayers sought for him with these words are greater than those requested any other way, since what is requested with the supplication is that it be as much as the model of comparison, and that the Prophet (Sallallāhu 'alayhi wa sallam) receive a large portion: the comparison dictates that what is requested is more than what was given to Ibrāhīm and others. Thus, the excellence and nobility of Muhammad (Sallallāhu 'alayhi wasallam), over and above Ibrāhīm and his family, which includes many prophets, is evident, and is as he deserves. This sending of prayers on the Prophet (Sallallāhu 'alayhi wasallam) becomes evidence for this excellence of his and this is no more than he deserves. So, may Allāh send prayers on him and on his family, and send peace on them, many greetings of peace, and reward him from our supplications better than He has rewarded any prophet from his people. “Allāhumma salli 'ala Muhammad, wa 'ala ali Muhammad, kama sallayta 'ala  āli Ibrāhīm; Innaka Hamīdum Majīd; Wa bārik 'ala Muhammad, wa 'ala āli Muhammad, kama bārakta 'ala  āli Ibrāhīm; Innaka Hamīdum Majīd.(O Allāh! Send prayers on Muhammad, and on the family of Muhammad, as you sent prayers on the family of Ibrāhīm; You are indeed Worthy of Praise, Full of Glory. And send blessings on Muhammad, and on the family of Muhammad, as you sent blessings on the family of Ibrāhīm; You are indeed Worthy of Praise, Full of Glory.)" [Recorded by Al-Bukhari from Ka'ab bin 'Ujrah]

2. The reader will see that this part of the Solāh, with all its different types, is always a sending of Salah on the family of the Prophet (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wasallam): on his wives and children as well as himself. Therefore, it is neither from the Sunnah, nor carrying out the Prophet's command, to leave it at "O Allāh! Send Solāh on Muhammad" only. Rather, one of these complete types of supplication must be used, as is reported from his action (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam), whether in the first or the final tashahhud. There is text about this from Imām Shāfi'ie in Al-'Umm"The tashahhud in the first and second instance is the same thing; by 'tashahhud', I mean the shahādah (bearing of witness) and the sending of Salāh on the Prophet (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam): neither will suffice without the other.

In fact, one of the most amazing things to arise from this age and its intellectual anarchy is that one person, Muhammad Is'af Nashashebi, in his book Al-Islam As-Sahīh ("The Correct Islam"), has the audacity to reject the sending of Salawāt on the family of the Prophet (Sallallāhu 'alayhi wa sallam)  when sending Salāh on him, despite it being firmly established in the Sahihs of Al-Bukhāri and Muslim, and elsewhere, on the authority of several Companions, e.g. Ka`ab ibn 'Ujrah, Abu Humaid as-Sa'idi, Abu Sa'id al-Khudri, Abu Mas'ud al-Ansari, Abu Hurayrah and Talhah ibn 'Ubaidullah! In their ahadith, it is found that they asked the Prophet (Sallallāhu 'alayhi wa sallam), "How do we send Salawāt on you?", so he taught them this way of doing so. Nashasheebi's argument for his view is that Allāh the Exalted did not mention anyone else with the Prophet (Sallallāhu 'alayhi wa sallam) in His saying: "O you who believe! Send prayers on him, and salute him with all respect." [Ahzab 33:56] He then goes on to say in his refutation that the Companions asked him (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam) that question because the meaning of "salāh " was known to them as "supplication", so they were asking: "How can we supplicate to you?"! 

This is a clear deception, for their question was not about the meaning of "solāh” on him, in which case he would have a point, but it was about the manner of doing the salāh on him, as is found in the narrations to which we have referred. Thus it all fits, for they asked him about the way of doing it according to the Shari’ah, something which they could not possibly find out except from the guidance of the All-Knowing, All-Wise, Giver of the Sharī'ah. Similarly, they could also ask him about the way of performing the Solāh made obligatory by words of the Exalted such as "Establish the Solāh (Prayer)"; for their knowledge of the literal meaning of "Solāh” could not remove their need to ask about its manner according to the Shari’ah, and this is crystal clear. 

As for Nashasheebi's argument referred to, it is of no consequence, for it is well-known among the Muslims that the Prophet (Sallallāhu 'alayhi wa sallam) is the expounder of the words of the Lord of the Worlds, as He says: "And We have sent down to you the Message that you may explain clearly to the people what is sent for them" (Nahl, 16:44). Hence, the Prophet (Sallallāhu 'alayhi wa sallam) explained the way of doing solāh on him, and it included mention of his family, so it is compulsory to accept that from him, due to Allāh's saying: So take what the Messenger gives you’ [Hashr, 59:7], and the well-known authentic hadith, Verily, I have been given the Qur'an and something similar to it. [225]

I really wonder what Nashashebi and those taken in by his pompous words would say if someone were to reject the tashahhud in solat altogether, or reject the menstruating woman's abstaining from prayer and fasting, all with the argument that Allāh the Exalted did not mention the tashahhud in the Qurān; He only mentioned bowing and prostration, and He did not exempt a menstruating woman from prayer and fasting in the Qur`ān!! So, do they agree with such arguments, which are along the lines of his original one, or not? If they do, and we hope not, then they have strayed far, far away from guidance, and have left the mainstream of the Muslims; if they do not, then they are correct in agreeing with us, and their reasons for rejecting those arguments are exactly the same as our reasons for rejecting Nashasheebi's original pronouncement, which we have explained clearly. 

Therefore beware, O Muslims, of attempting to understand the Qurān without recourse to the Sunnah, for you will never be able to do that, even if you were the Sibawaih [226] of the age, the expert of the age in the 'Arabic language. Here is an example in front of you, for this Nashashebi is one of the leading scholars of the 'Arabic language of this period; you have seen how he has strayed, after being deceived by his knowledge of the language, by not seeking the aid of the Sunnah in understanding the Qurān; in fact he has rejected this aid, as you know. There are many other examples of this - there is not enough room here to mention them, but what we have mentioned will suffice, and Allāh is the Granter of all capability. 

3. The reader will also see that in none of these types of salāh on the Prophet (Sallallāhu `alayhi wa sallam) is there the word sayyid (chief, leader). The later scholars have differed about the validity of its inclusion in the Ibrāhīmi salāh. Due to lack of space we will not go into the details of that nor make mention of those who rejected its validity in keeping with the Prophet (Sallallāhu 'alayhi wa sallam) 's complete teaching to his ummah when he instructed, "Say: O Allāh! Send prayers on Muhammad ..." on being asked about the manner of salāh  on him, but we will quote the Hafiz Ibn Hajar Al-‘Asqalani on this, bearing in mind his position as one of the great Shafi'ie scholars of both hadith and fiqh, for contradiction of this teaching of the Prophet (Sallallāhu 'alayhi wa sallam)  has become widespread among Shafi`ie scholars!

Hafiz Muhammad ibn Muhammad ibn Muhammad al-Ghurabīli (790- 835 AH), a companion of Ibn Hajar, said, and I quote from his manuscript [227]: 

He (i.e. Ibn Hajar Al-‘Asqalani), (rahimahullāh), was asked about the features of salāh on the Prophet (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam), whether during prayer or outside it, compulsory or recommended: Is one of its conditions that the Prophet (Sallallāhu 'alayhi wa sallam) be attributed with sayādah (leadership), e.g. 'O Allāh!  Send prayers on Sayyidina (our leader) Muhammad ...' or 'the foremost of creation', or 'the leader of the children of Adam' etc.? Or should one stick to 'O Allāh! Send prayers on Muhammad'? Which of these two is the better approach: including the word sayyid, due to it being an established attribute of the Prophet (Sallallāhu 'alayhi wa sallam), or leaving it out due to the absence of it in the narrations? He (Ibn Hajar Al-‘Asqalani) (rahimahullāh), replied: "Yes, to follow the narrated wording is superior. It cannot be said, "Maybe the Prophet (Sallallāhu 'alayhi wa sallam) himself did not say it out of modesty, just as he did not say (Sallallāhu alayhi wa sallam) on mentioning of his name, although his ummah has been encouraged to do so" - for we say that if that were superior, it would have been quoted from the Companions and then from the Successors, but we do not come across it in any narrations from any Companion or Successor. This is despite the volume of quotations from them. We have Imām Shafi'ie, (rahimahullāh), one of the foremost among men in his respect for the Prophet (Sallallāhu 'alayhi wa sallam), saying in the preface to his book which is a base for the people of his mazhab: "O Allāh! Send prayers on Muhammad ..." etc. until the end of what his judgment dictated, "... every time one of the believers remembers him, and every time one of the heedless fails to remember him", which he seems to have deduced from the authentic hadith which has in it that the Prophet (Sallallāhu 'alayhi wa sallam)  saw the Mother of the Believers engaging in long and numerous glorifications, so he said to her, "You have said words which, if weighed against the following, would be balanced: Glorified be Allāh, as many times as the number of His creation"; he (Sallallāhu 'alayhi wa sallam) used to like supplications which were concise, but exhaustive in meaning. Qadi 'Iyād (rahimahullāh), set out a chapter about salāh on the Prophet (Sallallāhu'alayhi wa sallam) in his book Ash- Shifā' (The Book of Cure), quoting in it narrations from the Prophet (Sallallāhu 'alayhi wasallam) on the authority of several Companions and Successors; in none of these is the wordsayyid reported: 

a) The hadith of 'Ali, that he used to teach them the manner of salāh  on the Prophet (Sallallāhu 'alayhi wasallam)  by saying, 'O Allāh, Spreader of Plains, Originator of Heights, send the foremost of Your prayers, the most fertile of Your blessings, and any remaining compliments, on Muhammad, Your slave and messenger, the opener of what is closed’. 

b) Again from 'Ali, that he used to say, "The prayers of Allāh, the Beneficent, the Merciful, of the Angels nearest (to Allāh), of the Prophets, of the Sincere ones, of the Witnesses, of the Righteous, and of whatever glorifies You, O Lord of the Worlds, be on Muhammad son of `Abdullah, Seal of the Prophets, Imām of the God fearers, ... etc." 

c) On the authority of `Abdullah ibn Mas'ud (radiyallāhu`anhu), that he used to say, "O Allāh! Send Your prayers, Your blessings and Your mercy, on Muhammad, Your slave and messenger, the Imām of goodness, the messenger of mercy ...” etc. 

d) From Al-Hasan Al-Basri (radiyallāhu`anhu), that he used to say, "Whoever wants to drink from the cup which quenches, from the fount of the Al-Mustafa, should say'O Allāh! Send prayers on Muhammad, and on his family, his Companions, his wives, his children, his descendants, his household, his in-laws, his helpers, his followers, and all those who love him'." This is what he (Qadi Iyād) has written in Ash- Shifā, regarding the manner of salāh on the Prophet, on the authority of the Companions and those who succeeded them, and he also mentioned other things in it. Yes, it is related in a hadith of Ibn Mas’ud (radiyallāhu'anhu), that in his salāh on the Prophet (Sallallāhu 'alayhi wasallam), he would say, "O Allāh! Send the best of Your prayers, mercy and blessings on the leader (sayyid) of the messengers ..." etc., transmitted by Ibn Mājah, but its isnad is weak, so the hadith of ‘Ali, transmitted by Tabarāni with a acceptable isnād, takes precedence. This hadith has difficult words, which I have reported and explained in the book Fadl An-Nabi (Excellence of the Prophet, Sallallāhu `alayhi wa sallam) by Abul Hasan Ibn Al-Faris. Some Shāfi'ies have said that if a man took an oath to send the best salāh on the Prophet (Sallallāhu 'alayhi wa sallam), the way to fulfil his oath would be to say, "O Allāh! Send prayers on Muhammad every time the believers remember him or the heedless fail to remember him"; Imām Nawawi (rahimahullāh) said, "The one which is most fitting to be designated as correct is that one should say: O Allāh! Send prayers on Muhammad, and on the family of Muhammad, as you sent prayers on Ibrāhīm ..." Several of the later scholars have replied to this by saying that in neither of the two ways mentioned above is there anything to prove which is superior as regards narration, but as regards the meaning, then the former is clearly superior. This issue is well-known in the books of fiqh, and of all the scholars of fiqh who addressed this issue, without exception; in none of their words does the word sayyid appear. Had this additional word been commendable, it would not have escaped all of them, leaving them ignorant of it. All good is in following what is narrated, and Allāh knows best."

Ibn Hajar Al-‘Asqalani’s view of the unacceptability of describing the Prophet (Sallallāhu 'alayhi wa sallam) as sayyid during the salāh on him in accordance with the Quranic order is also that of the Hanafi scholars. It is the view which must be adhered to, for it is a true indication of love for him, (Sallallāhu 'alayhi wasallam): "Say: If you do love Allāh, then follow me: Allāh will love you." [Al-`Imran, 3:31]

Because of this, Imām Nawawi (rahimahullāh) said in Rawdah At-Tālibin (1/265), "The most complete salāh on the Prophet (Sallallāhu 'alayhi wa sallam) is: O Allāh! Send your prayers on Muhammad ..." etc., corresponding to type given, in which there is no mention of sayyid! 

4. It should be known that types nos. 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 and 8 are the ones which the Messenger of Allāh (Sallallāhu 'alayhi wa sallam) taught his Companions when they asked about the manner of salāh on him, so this has been used as evidence that these are the best ways of doing the salāh on him, for he would not choose anything for them or himself except the best and noblestImām Nawawi, as mentioned, endorsed in Rawdah at- Talibin that if a man were to take an oath to do the best possible salāh on the Prophet (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wasallam), this could not be fulfilled except in these ways. 

Subki has given another reason: whoever does salāh  with those types has made salāh  on the Prophet (Sallallāhu 'alayhi wasallam) with certainty, and whoever does so with other words is in doubt whether or not he has performed the prayers as requested. This is because they said, "How do we send prayers on you?" and he replied, "Say: ...", thus defining their salāh on him as their saying such-and-such. This was mentioned by Haithami in Ad-Dharr Al-Mandub (25/2); he then said (27/1) that the objective is achieved with all the types which have occurred in authentic ahadith. 

5. It should be known that it is not valid to combine all these way into one way of salāh, and the same goes for the different tashahhuds given previously. In fact, that would be an innovation in the religion; the Sunnah is to say different ones at different times, as Shaikh-ul-Islam Ibn Taymiyyah has explained in his discussion of the takbir of the two `Eids (Majmu' al-Fatāwa 29/253/1). 

6. 'Allamah Siddiq Hasan Khan says in his book Nuzul Al- Abrar bil 'Ilm al-Ma’thūr min Al-Ad'iyah wal-Adhkār, after giving many ahadith about the excellence of repeated salāh  on the Prophet (Sallallāhu 'alayhi wasallam) (p. 161): 

"There is no doubt that the foremost among the Muslims in sending salāh on him (Sallallāhu 'alayhi wa sallam) are the People of Hadith and the narrators of the purified Sunnah, for it is one of their duties in this noble branch of learning to make salāh on him before every hadith, and so their tongues are always engaged in his mention, may Allāh grant him mercy and peace. There is no book of Sunnah or collection of hadith, be it a Jāmi', Musnad, Mu'jam, juz', etc., except that it comprises thousands of ahādith; even one of the least bulky ones, Suyuti’s Al-Jāmi' As-Saghīr, contains ten thousand ahadith, and the rest of the collections are no different. So this is the Saved Sect: the body of the People of Hadith, who will be the closest among men to the Messenger of Allāh (Sallallāhu 'alayhi wasallam)  on the Day of Resurrection, and the most likely to be rewarded by his intercession (Sallallāhu 'alayhi wasallam), may my mother and father be sacrificed for him! This excellence of the People of Hadith cannot be surpassed by anyone unless he does more than what they do, something which is well-nigh impossible. Therefore, O desirer of good, seeker of salvation, no matter what, you should either be a muhaddith, or be close to the muhaddathīn; do not be otherwise ... for apart from that there is nothing which will benefit you." 

I ask Allāh, The Almighty to make me one of these People of Hadith, who are the closest among men to the Messenger of Allāh (Sallallāhu 'alayhi wasallam); perhaps this book will be a testimony to that. May Allāh shower His mercy on Imām Ahmad, (rahimahullāh) who recited: 
The religion of Muhammad is in narrations, The best mounts for a young man are the traditions; Turn not away from Hadith and its people, For Opinion is night, while Hadith is day, A young man can be ignorant of the guidance... Although the sun is shining in all its splendour!

And Allāh Almighty Knows Best

Footnotes:

175. Nasā'ie (1/173) with a sahīh isnad.
176. Bukhāri and Abu Dawud.
177. Abu Dawud and Bayhaqi with a good sanād.
178. Tayalisi, Ahmad and Ibn Abi Shaibah. About iq‘ā', Abu 'Ubaidah and others said, "It is when a man presses his buttocks against the ground, keeps his shins upright, and leans his hands on the ground, the way a dog does." This is different to the iq'ā' between sajdahs, which is approved in the Sunnah, as covered previously.
179. Muslim, Abu 'Awānah; and others. It is given in Irwa' (316).
180. Muslim and Abu ‘Awānah.
181. Abu Dawud and Nasā'ie with a sahīh sanād. It is as though the meaning is that he would not separate his elbows from his side, as Ibn al-Qayyim has elucidated in Zaad al-Ma'ād.
182. Bayhaqi and Hakim, who declared it sahīh and Dhahabi agreed. It is given, as well as the next one, in Irwa' (380).
183. Ahmad and Abu Dawud with a good isnad.
184. ‘Abdur Razzaq; ‘Abdul Haqq declared it sahīh in his Ahkam (no. 1284 - with my checking).
185. Muslim, Abu 'Awānah and; Ibn Khuzaimah. Humaidi (13/1) and Abu Ya’la (275/2) added with a sahīh sanād on the authority of Ibn 'Umar: "and this is the shooting of the devil; no-one will forget when he does this", and Humaidi raised his finger. Humaidi also said that Muslim bin Abi Maryam said, "A man related to me that in a church in Syria, he saw images of Prophets depicted like this", and Humaidi raised his finger. This is an extremely strange remark, but its sanād up to "the man" is sahīh.
186. Muslim and Abu 'Awānah.
187. Abu Dawud, Nasā'ie, Ibn al-Jarud in al-Muntaqa (208), Ibn Khuzaimah (1/86/1-2) and Ibn Hibban in his Sahīh (485) with a sahīh sanād. Ibn al-Mulaqqin also declared it sahīh (28/2), and it has a supporting narration in Ibn 'Adi (287/1).
188. ibid. About "supplicating with it", Imām Tahawi said, "This is evidence that it was at the end of the solat." Hence, there is evidence in this that the Sunnah is to continue pointing and moving the finger until the taslīm, for the supplication is until then. This is the view of Malik and others. Imām Ahmad was asked, "Should a man point with his finger during prayer?" He replied, "Yes, vigorously." (Mentioned by Ibn Hani in his Masā`il of Imām Ahmad, 1/80). From this, it is clear that moving the finger in tashahhud is a proven Sunnah of the Prophet (Sallallāhu 'alayhi wasallam), and it was practised by Ahmad and other imāms of the Sunnah. Therefore, those who think that it is pointless and irrelevant and has nothing to do with the Prayer, should fear Allāh, since because of this, they do not move their fingers although they know it to be an established sunnah; and they take great pains to interpret it in a way which is inconsistent with the 'Arabic way of expression and contrary to the understanding of the Imāms with regard to it.

The amazing thing is that some of them will defend an imām on other issues, even if his opinion conflicts with the Sunnah, with the argument that to point out the imām’s mistakes inevitably means to taunt and disrespect him. They then forget this and reject this established Sunnah, at the same time mocking at those who practice it. Whether or not they realize it, their mockery also includes those Imāms whom they often defend wrongly, and who are correct about the Sunnah this time! In fact, they are deriding the Prophet (Sallallāhu 'alayhi wasallam) himself, for he is the one who brought us this Sunnah and so jeering at it is equivalent to jeering at him. [But what is the reward for those among you who behave like this except ...]

As for putting the finger down after pointing, or limiting the movement to the affirmation (saying lā ilāha: 'there is no god ...') and negation (saying: illallāhu: '... except Allāh'), all of that has no basis in the Sunnah; in fact, it is contrary to the Sunnah, as this hadith proves.

Further, the hadith that he would not move his finger does not have an authentic isnad, as I have explained in Da`ief Abi Dawud (175). Even if it were authentic, it is negatory, while the hadith above is affirmatory: the affirmatory takes precedence over the negatory, as is well-known among the scholars.

189. Ahmad, Bazār, Abu Ja'far al-Bukhtīri in al-Amali (60/1), 'Abdul Ghani al-Maqdisi in his Sunan (12/2) with a hasan sanād, Ruyani in his Musnad (249/2) and Al-Bayhaqi.
190. Ibn Abi Shaibah (2/123/2) with a hasan sanād.
191. Ibn Abi Shaibah (12/40/1, 2/123/2) and Nasā'ie. Hākim declared it sahīh and Dhahabi agreed, and there is a supporting narration for it in Ibn Abi Shaibah.
192. Nasā'ie and Baihaqi with a sahīh sanād.
193. Muslim and Abu `Awānah.
194. Bayhaqi transmitted it as a narration from `Aishah with a good isnad, as verified by Ibn al-Mulaqqin (28/2).
195. Bukhāri; Muslim. It is given in Irwa’ al-Ghalīl (338).
196. Nasā'ie, Ahmad and Tabarāni in Mu’jam al-Kabīr (3/25/1) with a sahīh sanād. The literal meaning of the hadīth is evidence for the validity of supplication in every tashahhud, even the one not adjacent to the tasleem, and this is the view of Ibn Hazam (rahimallāh).
197. Nasā'ie with a sahīh sanād.
198. Bukhāri and Muslim.
199. Abu Dawud and Hakīm, who declared it sahīh and Dhahabi agreed.
200. Ar. Tahiyyat, i.e. "all words which imply peace, sovereignty and eternity, are due to Allāh." (Nihayah)
201. Ar. salawāt, i.e. "all supplications which are used to glorify the majesty of Allāh, for He is fully entitled to them, and none but Him is worthy of them." (Nihayah)
202.Ar. tayyibāt, i.e. "all good and pure words suitable for praising Allāh, not those ones incompatible with his attributes with which kings were greeted." (Fathul-Bāri)
203. Meaning seeking of refuge with Allāh and being strengthened by him, since as-Salām (Peace) is actually a name of Allāh. Hence, the greeting effectively means: Allāh be a watcher and safeguard over you. Similarly, it is said, "Allāh be with you", i.e. in His safeguarding, help and favour.
204. A term for all the good continuously emanating from Allāh.
205. Bukhāri, Muslim, Ibn Abi Shaibah (1/90/2), Siraj and Abu Ya’la in his Musnad (258/2). It is given in Irwa' (321).

Ibn Mas'ūd's statement, "We said: Peace be on the Prophet" clarifies that the Companions (radiyallāhu'anhum) used to say, "Peace be on you, O Prophet" in Tashahhud while the Prophet (Sallallāhu`alayhi wasallam) was alive, but when he died, they ceased to do that, instead saying, "Peace be on the Prophet". Undoubtedly, this was with the endorsement of the Prophet (Sallallāhu 'alayhi wasallam); this is supported by the fact that ‘Aishah (radiyallāhu'anha) would similarly teach the Tashahhud in prayer with “Peace be on the Prophet”, as transmitted by Siraj in his Musnad (9/1/2) and Mukhlis in al-Fawaa'id (11/54/1) with two sahīh isnads from her.

Ibn Hajar (rahimahullāh) says, "This addition shows clearly that they used to say 'Peace be on you, O Prophet', addressing him directly during his life time, but when the Prophet (Sallallāhu 'alayhi wa sallam) died, they stopped addressing him [that way] and mentioned him in the third person instead, saying 'Peace be on the Prophet'." He also says in a different place, "Subki said in Sharh al-Minhaj, after mentioning this narration from Abu 'Awānah only, 'If this is authentically-reported from the Companions, it proves that after his time, it is not compulsory to address the Prophet (Sallallāhu`alayhi wasallam) directly in the greeting of peace, so one says: Peace be on the Prophet.' (Ibn Hajar continues :) This is authentic without doubt (i.e. because it is established in Sahīh al-Bukhāri), and I have also found strong support for it: 'Abdur Razzaq said: Ibn Juraij informed me: ‘Atā' informed me that the Companions used to say 'Peace be on you, O Prophet' while the Prophet (Sallallāhu 'alayhi wa sallam) was alive, but after he died, they would say 'Peace be on the Prophet', and this is a sahīh isnād. As for Sa`id bin Mansur’s narration from Abu ‘Ubaidah bin ‘Abdullah bin Mas‘ud, who reported from his father that the Prophet (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam) taught them the Tashahhud, and then he (`Abdullah bin Mas'ūd) said it (the tashahhud); Ibn 'Abbas said: We used to say 'Peace be on you, O Prophet' only while he was alive, to which Ibn Mas`ūd replied, 'This is how we were taught, and this is how we teach it', it would appear that Ibn 'Abbās said this as a matter of discussion but Ibn Mas'ūd did not accept. However, the narration of Abu Ma'mar (i.e. the narration of Bukhāri) is more authentic, since Abu 'Ubaidahdid not hear (ahādith) from his father, and furthermore, the isnad up to Abu 'Ubaidah is weak."

These words of Ibn Hajar Asqalani (rahimahullāh) have been quoted by several scholars in their analysis, e.g.Qastallani, Zurqani, Lucknawi, etc. They all chose to give his words without commenting further. This discussion is treated more fully in al-Asl.

206. Muslim, Abu 'Awānah, Shāfi'ie and Nasā'ie.
207. See next note.
208. These two additions have been proved to be part of the tashahhud from the Prophet (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam).Ibn 'Umar did not add them of his own accord (far is he above such a thing!); in fact, he learnt them from other Companions who reported them from the Prophet (Sallallāhu 'alayhi wa sallam), and he then added them to the Tashahhud which he heard from the Prophet (Sallallāhu 'alayhi wasallam) directly.
209. Abu Dawud and Daraqutni, who declared it sahīh.
210. Muslim, Abu 'Awānah, Abu Dawud and Ibn Majah.
211. Malik and Bayhaqi with sahīh isnads. Although this hadith is mawquf, it is effectively marfu’, for it is known that this sort of thing is not said from personal opinion, since it was so, it would be no better than any other sayings of dzikir, as Ibn 'Abdul Barr has said.

*NB: In none of the types of Tashahhud is there the addition: wa maghfiratuhu (... "and His forgiveness"), so one should not be accustomed to it. Hence some of the Salāf rebuked it, as the following narrations show:

Tabarāni (3/56/1) reported with a sahīh isnad from Talhah bin Musarrif, who said: Raī’ bin Khaitham added during Tashahhud, "... and His blessings and His forgiveness"!  So ‘Alqamah said, "We stop where we were taught: Peace be upon you, O Prophet, and also the mercy of Allāh and His blessings"; 'Alqamah was actually following the example of his teacher Ibn Mas'ūd (radiyallāhu'anhu), from whom it is authentically-reported that he was teaching a man the tashahhud: when he got to "I bear witness that there is no (true) god except Allāh ...", the man said: "alone, He has no partner", to which Ibn Mas'ūd (radiyallāhu'anhu) said, "He is so, but we stop at where we were taught."(Transmitted by Tabarāni in Mu’jam al-Awsat, no. 2848, with a sahīh isnad.)

212. Abu 'Awānah in his Sahīh (2/324) and Nasā'ie.
213. They had said, "O Messenger of Allāh, we have been taught how to send peace on you (i.e. in tashahhud), but how do we send prayers on you? He said, "Say: O Allāh! Send prayers on Muhammad ..." etcThus he (Sallallāhu`alayhi wasallam) did not specify one tashahhud to the exclusion of another, so there is evidence here to establish sending salawāt on him in the first tashahhud also. This is the way of Imām Shāfi'ie, as in the text of his book Al-Umm, and it is held to be correct by his companions, as Nawawi has explained in al-Majmu’ (3/460) and supported in Rawdah Talibin (1/263). It is also the view of Wazīr bin Hubayrah al-Hanbali in al-Ifsah, as Ibn Rajab has quoted and strongly supported in Dhail Tabaqāt (1/280). Many ahadith exist about sending prayers on him (Sallallāhu 'alayhi wa sallam) in tashahhud; in none of them is there any such specification mentioned. In fact, these ahadith are general, hence including every Tashahhud, and I have given them in al-Asl as ta’liq, but not in the main text, for they do not satisfy our conditions for authenticity. However, they do support each other in meaning, and those who reject and oppose this have no authentic evidence to use as proof, as I have detailed in al-Asl. Similarly, to say that adding anything to "O Allāh! Send prayers on Muhammad" is makruh has no basis in the Sunnah, nor is there any convincing proof for it. In fact, we see that whoever says this does not implement the previous instruction of the Prophet (sallallāhu 'alayhi wasallam), "Say: O Allāh! Send prayers on Muhammad and on the family of Muhammad ...” there is more to this discussion in al-Asl.
214. One of the earliest views about the meaning of "sending prayers on the Prophet (Sallallāhu 'alayhi wa sallam)" is that of Abu al-'Aliyah (with reference to Surah Al-Ahzāb, 33:56), "Allāh's sending prayers on his Prophet means His exalting him and raising his rank; the angels' and others' sending prayers means their seeking this from Allāh, and here it is meant asking the prayers to be increased, not asking for the original prayer in itself." Ibn Hajar quoted this in Fathul-Bāri, and went on to refute the widespread notion that the Lord's prayer on someone is His Mercy; Ibn al-Qayyim also clarified this in Jalā' al-Afhām, leaving little scope for further comment.
215. from barakah: growth, increase. Hence this supplication secures for Muhammad the good which Allāh granted to the family of Ibrahim, continual, established good, as well as its multiplying and increase.
216. Ahmad and Tahawi with a sahīh sanād.
217. See next note.
218. These two additions are conclusively found in Bukhāri, Tahawi, Baihaqi, Ahmad and Nasā'ie. They also exist via different routes of narration in other types of this supplication (see nos. 3, 7), and so do not be confused by Ibn Al-Qayyim's view in Jalā' al-Afhām (p. 198), following in the footsteps of his great teacher Ibn Taymiyyah in al-Fatāwa (1/16), "There is no authentic hadith with the phrases 'Ibrahim' and 'the family of Ibrahim' together"; here, we have shown you such authentic ahadith. Ibn al-Qayyim's error is further established by the fact that he himself declared no. 7 sahīh, which contains what he denied above!
219. Bukhāri, Muslim, Humaidi (138/1) and Ibn Mandah (68/2), who said, "There is consensus on this hadith being authentic."
220. Ahmad, Nasā'ie and Abu Ya’la in his Musnad (44/2) with a sahīh sanād.
221. Muslim, Abu 'Awānah, Ibn Abi Shaibah (2/132/1) and Abu Dawūd; Hakim declared it sahīh.
222. Bukhāri, Nasā'ie, Tahawi, Ahmad and Isma`il Al-Qaadi in Fadl As-Salāh `alaa Nabi (Sallallāhu 'alayhi wa sallam) (p. 28 1st ed., p. 62 2nd ed. with my checking).
223. Bukhāri, Muslim and Nasā'ie.
224. Nasā'ie, Tahawi, Abu Sa'id bin al-'Arabi in al-Mu'jam (79/2) with a sahīh sanād. Ibn al-Qayyim gave its source as Muhammad bin Ishaq as-Siraj in Jalā' al-Afhām (pp. 14-15) and then declared it sahīh. This wording includes both 'Ibrahim' and 'the family of Ibrahim’; something overlooked by both Ibn al-Qayyim and his teacher Ibn Taymiyyah, as explained above.
225. Abu Dawud and Ahmad with a sahīh isnād.
226. A famous grammarian and scholar of the 'Arabic language of the second century AH.
227. Which is preserved in the Zahiriyyah Library in Damascus.
228. Nasā`ie, Ahmad and Tabarani with various isnāds from Ibn Mas'ud - the details are given in as-Sahīhah (878) - and there is a supporting hadith of Ibn az-Zubair in Majma’ az-Zawa’id (2/142).
229. Muslim, Abu Dawud (976,980), various isnāds from Ibn Mas`ūd: Sahīh.

[Via The Qur’ān and Sunnah Society]


Addendum

Important Issues of Fiqh (Jurisprudence) in Solāh

A Compilation by Shafuddin Ahmed ibn Muhammad

Moving the Finger in Tashahhud

With reference to Al-Albani's translated book "The Prophet's Prayer described from the beginning to the end as though you see it (Sifah Salah-al-Nabee)", Al-Albani claimed (pg. 66): 
"Further, the Hadith that he would not move his finger does not have an authentic Isnad, as I have explained in Dha’ief Abu Dawūd (175)."
But when I looked this Hadith up in the English Translation of The Sunan of Imām Abu Dawūd (1/984, pg. 252) I found that Abdallāh Ibn Al-Zubair (radiyallāhu’anhu) said:

"The Prophet (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wasallam) used to point with his finger (at the end of tashahhud) and he would not move it."

But lo and behold, this very Hadith has not been listed  in "Dha’ief Ahadith of Abu Dawud's Sunan", by his followers; which means to the user of this list that this Hadith is acceptable to them, and is either of the rank of sahih or hasan to the user of this list! Imām Muslim (rahimahullāh) also reported Ibn Al-Zubair (radiyallāhu’anhu) narrating from his father: "That when the Messenger of Allāh (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wasallam) sat for supplication, i.e. Tashahhud, he placed his right hand on his right thigh and his left hand on his left thigh, and pointed with his forefinger, and placed his thumb on his (middle) finger, and covered his knee with the palm of his left hand." (Sahih Muslim, 1/1202, English ed'n)

According to the Madzhabs of Hanafi, Hanbali and Shafi’ie, one should not continuously make supplications with the fore-finger moving. It is written in the English translation of Fiqh-us-Sunnah, by As-Sayyid Sabiq, (vol. 1, pg. 157): "Wa'il Ibn Hajr (radiyallāhu’anhu) reported that the Prophet (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wasallam) would place his left palm on his left thigh and knee. He would place the end of his right elbow upon his right thigh and would then close his right hand, forming a circle. In another narration it states, he would make a circle with his middle finger and thumb and point with his index finger, and (wa'il) saw him moving it to make supplications” (Related by Ahmad). Explaining the Hadith, Al-Bayhaqi (rahimahullah) says, "The implication of 'he would move it' is that he would point with it, not that he would continue to move it." This would be in agreement with the narration of Ibn az-Zubair (radiyallāhu’anhu), who reported, "The Prophet (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wasallam) would point with his finger while supplicating, and he would not move it." This is related by Abu Dawud with a Sahih chain. An-Nawawi also mentioned it.

(NB: Both Imāms al-Bayhaqi and Nawawi (rahimahumullāh) were great Shafi'ie scholars of Hadith who followed this Hadith of Ibn al-Zubair, besides so many other scholars of Hadith).

Now, there is also a footnote (no 11) by the translator Jamal Zarabozo who said, "In his notes to Mishkat al-Masabih, Al-Albani has discussed the Hadith of Wa'il Ibn Hajr and of Ibn Az-Zubair (radiyallāhu’anhum). He said that the first Hadith has a Sahih chain. The narrators of the latter Hadith (i.e of Ibn al-Zubair) are all trustworthy. Muhammad ibn Ijlan (a narrator in the chain going back to Ibn Az-Zubair) has some weakness due to his memory, but his memory was not so poor as to drop to the rank of hasan (a good Hadith). Therefore, the statement recorded by Sayyid Sabiq that the chain is Sahih is incorrect i.e only if you accept al-Albani's classification of Hadith; the important words in the latter Hadith are, ‘and he would not move it.' According to Al-Albani this addition is irregular and rejected (shadh and munkar)."

And I Say: "Al-Albani's followers have not said that it is shadh and munkar in their Dha’ief Ahadith of Abu Dawud's Sunan!"

Again referring to Fiqh-us-Sunnah (vol. 1, pg. 158), Sayyid Sabiq says: "According to the Shafiyyah, one points with the finger only once, when saying 'except Allāh' in the statement bearing witness. The Hanafiyyah raise the finger in the denial part of the Statement (there is no God) and put it back down during the confirmation part (except Allāh). The Malikiyyah (see below for the Maliki view) move the finger to the left and to the right until they finish the prayer. The Hanbaliyyah point with the finger every time they mention Allāh, as a reflection to the oneness of Allāh, and they do not move it." 
Another two Hadith on this issue have been related by Imām Muslim (rahimahullāh) in his Sahih: "Ibn Umar(radiyallāhu’anhu) reported that when the Messenger of Allāh (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wasallam) sat for the tashahhud he placed his left hand on his left knee, and his right hand on his right knee, and he raised his right finger, which is next to the thumb, making supplication in this way, and he stretched his left hand on his left kneeAnother version on the authority of Ibn Umar (radiyallāhu’anhu) says: When the Messenger of Allāh (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wasallam) sat for the tashahhud, he placed his left hand on his left knee and placed his right hand on his right knee, and he formed a ring like (Arabic number 53) and pointed with his finger of attestation. (Also) 'Ali Ibn 'Abd Al-Rahman Al-Mu'awi reported: Abdullah Ibn Umar (radiyallāhu’anhu) saw me playing with pebbles during Solāh. After finishing the prayer he forbade me (to do it) and said: Do as the Messenger of Allāh (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wasallam) used to do. I said: How did Allāh's Messenger (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam) do? He said that he (the Messenger of Allāh, Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wasallam) sat at tashahhud, placed his right palm on the right thigh and closed all his fingers and pointed with the help of the finger next to the thumb, and placed his palm on his right thigh." (Sahih Muslim, 1/1203-4, English ed'n)

Imām Ibn Abi Zaid Al-Qairawani (d. 389 AH; rahimahullah) who is famed with the title 'little Malik', gave the view of theMaliki Madzhab in his Al-Risālah (pg. 31) in the following words: "At the time a worshipper reads the Tashahhud, which isthe Tahiyyah; he places his hands on his thighs. He then folds the fingers of his right hand, but he leaves his index finger unfolded and pointing forward with its side pointing towards his face. There are differences of opinion about the interpretation of the state of the finger. Some believe that, keeping the finger still signifies that Allāh is one God. Those who shake it consider it a club with which to ward off the Satan. I consider that the interpretation of that is that it reminds the worshipper that he is in the state of prayer, and that moving the finger shall prevent him from forgetting himself. The worshipper then places his left hand on his left thigh with the palm downwards; he must not move it nor point with it."

Finally, it is written in the English translation of Umdat al-Salik wa Uddat al-Nasik – [This book provides the view of Shafi'ie Madzhab] (The Reliance of the Traveller, by Shaykh Ahmad Ibn Naqib Al-Misri, d. 769AH/1368 CE; rahimahullah, trans. Nuh Ha Mim Keller, pg. 142, f8.44): "One does not move it while it is thus raised (Shaykh Umar Barakat said in his commentary to Umdat al-Salik: Following the Sunnah from a Hadith related by Abu Dawud. It is offensive to move it here, though some hold that it is recommended, the evidence for which is also from the Sunnah, in a Hadith related by Bayhaqi, who states both Hadiths are rigorously authenticated (Sahih). Precedence is given to the former Hadith (i.e of Ibn Az-Zubair, radiyallāhu’anhu), which negates moving the finger, over the latter Hadith, which affirms it, because scholars hold that what is sought in solat is lack of motion, and moving it diminishes one's humility). (I say: al-Albani's comment on the Hadith of Ibn al-Zubair (radiyallāhu’anhu) : 'Even if it were authentic, it is negatory, while the Hadith above is affirmatory: the affirmatory takes precedence over the negatory, as is well known among the scholars' [see pg. 66 of Sifah Salah an-Nabee] is of no consequence to what most of the Fuqaha (Jurisprudents) have said from amongst the Hanafi, Shafi'ie and Hanbali scholars, but his opinion is only supported by the Malikiyyah, so do not be confused). The Prophet's moving it was merely to teach people that it was permissible (and Shaykh Abdal-Wakil Durubi said: 'As it was the Prophet's (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam) duty to distinguish for his Community the acts that were offensive from those that were unlawful, and he was given the reward of the obligatory in favor of doing such offensive acts'). Moreover, Bayhaqi says that the meaning of 'moving it' in the latter Hadith is simply raising it, so there is no actual contradiction)."

From the above discussion we may briefly say in summary that Al-Albani labelled the Hadith of Abdallāh Ibn Al-Zubair as being Dha’if according to what he said in 'Sifah-Salah an-Nabee, (pg. 66), but his followers have not labelled it as being Dha’ief in 'Dha’ief Ahadith of Abu Dawud's Sunan'!! Also according to Jamal Zarabozo's quotation from al-Albani's checking of Mishkat ul-Masabih, this same Hadith was of the rank of Hasan, and not Dha’ief as he had said in 'Dha’ief Abi Dawūd (no 175)'; is this not a grave contradiction? We should rather accept the checking of such great memorizers of Hadith like the Imām's Bayhaqi and Nawawi (rahimahullah).  Allāh Almighty knows best.

[Via www.masud.co.uk  entitled “Al-Albani Unveiled: Moving the Finger in Tashahhud, A Compilation by Shafuddin Ahmed ibn Muhammad]





All About The Solāh

4. Al-Wudhu’ ; 5. Tayammum;
29.   Solāh al-Jumu'ah; 30. The Sanctified Hour of Jumu’ah.

3 comments:

Anonymous said...

Salam

It is strange that the only person whose narration tried to remove the open blatant unambigious shirk from salat has been considered as weak and personal ijtihad. Despite clera injunction from Quran not to call anyone besides Allah, our scholars and narrators and collectors have made sure that we address the Prophet directly in our salat and believe him as being omnipresent although he died a human death. Strange tauheed of us muslims.

Al-Hussaini said...

The Commentator is referring to the phrase “As-Sālamu‘alannabiy (Peace be on the Prophet)..." as opposed to “As-salāmu ‘alayka ayyuhan-Nabiyyu wa rahmat-Allāhi wa barakātuh (Peace be on you, O Prophet, and also the mercy of Allāh and His blessings).” Thus we then say: “As-Sālamu‘alannabiyyu wa rahmat-Allāhi wa barakātuh (Peace be the Prophet and also the mercy of Allāh and His blessings).”

Al-Hussaini said...

The phrase is the salutation to the Prophet (Sallallāhu ‘alaihi wa sallam) in the Tashahhud of the Solat. Nothing is strange or shirik about it. The phrase “As-salāmu ‘alayka ayyuhan-Nabiyyu (Peace be on you, O Prophet)” and “As-Sālamu‘alannabiy (Peace be the Prophet)” carries the same meaning whether Prophet (Sallallāhu ‘alaihi wa sallam) was still alive or after his death. All good thinking Muslim is fully aware Rasulullah (Sallallāhu ‘alaihi wa sallam) is dead.

Allah commanded us to offer Salām and Salawāt to Prophet (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam).

Allāh Says: “Inn Allāha wamala-ikatahu yusallūna ‘ālannabiyyi, Ya ayyuha allathīnāmanū Sallū ‘ālayhi wasallimū taslīma (Allāh sends His Salat (Graces, Honours, Blessings, Mercy, etc.) on the Prophet (Muhammad Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam) and also His angels too (ask Allāh to bless and forgive him). O you who believe! Send your Salat on (ask Allāh to bless) him (Muhammad (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam), and (you should) greet (salute) him with Taslim (the Islamic way of greeting (salutation i.e. As-salāmu ‘alayka ayyuha’n-Nabiyyu wa rahmatullāhi wa barakātuh).”) [Al-Ahzab, 33: 56]