Saturday, May 15, 2010

Glossary of The Solāh of the Prophet S.A.W

Glossary of The Solāh of the Prophet S.A.W
(Terms as used in this book) 

The Solāh of the Prophet S.A.W
By Shaikh Muhammad Nasiruddin Al-Albani

[The book was translated by Usama Ibn Suhaib Hasan al-Britani; it would be worthwhile to revisit it and I invite you to provide inputs with regards to this piece of work by Albani]

In the name of Allāh, the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful;
All the praise and Thanks are due to Allāh, the Lord of  al-'ālamīn. There is none worthy of worship except Allāh, and that Muhammad, Sallallāhu `alayhi wasallam, is His Messenger.

(Terms as used in this book)

• `an: In Hadith, "on the authority of".
• `Asar: the Afternoon Prayer.
• ayah (pl. ayat): "sign", a verse of the Qur'an.
• Companion (Ar. Sahabi): a Muslim who met the Prophet (sallallaahu `alaihi wa sallam).
• da`ief: "weak", inauthentic (narration).
• Deen: the way of life prescribed by Allah.
• dzikir (pl. adhkar): "remembrance", words by which Allah is remembered and supplicated on doing various actions, including in prayer.
• Fajar: the Dawn Prayer.
• faqih (pl. fuqaha'): a scholar of fiqh, jurist.
• fatwa (pl. fatawa): religious verdict.
• fiqh: the understanding and application of Shari`ah (divine law) from its sources.
• hadith (pl. ahādith): a saying narrated from the Prophet (sallallāhu `alayhi wasallam) (whether authentic or not), regarding his words, actions, or attributes.
• hadith qudsi: a narration by the Prophet (sallallāhu `alayhi wasallam) on behalf of Allah.
• Hajj: Pilgrimage to Makkah.
• halal: permitted under the Shari`āh.
• harām: prohibited under the Shari`āh.
• hasan: "fine", used for a hadith which is authentic but does not reach the higher category of sahih.
• hasan li dhatihi: a narration which is hasan in itself.
• hasan li ghairihi: a narration which is hasan due to other supporting narrations.
• iftirash: to sit muftarishan.
• ijma`: "consensus"; a unified opinion of scholars regarding a certain issue.
• ijtihad: "exertion"; the process of arising at a reasoned decision by a scholar on an issue.
• iq`aa': "squatting".
• `Ishā': the Night Prayer.
• isnad: the chain of reporters for a narrated saying, linking the collector of the saying with the person quoted.
• isti`adhah: "seeking of refuge" (with Allah from Shaytān).
• istighfar: to seek forgiveness (from Allah).
• mazhab: "position (opinion)" of a scholar.
• Mazhab: "school of thought", the sum total of the legal rulings of the founder of that Mazhab, as well as those of his students and all scholars who adhered to his approach.
• maqlub: "reversed", used for the text of a hadeeth in which an expression has been changed to its opposite, or for an isnād in which names of reporters have been interchanged.
• Maghrib: the Sunset prayer.
• makruh: "disliked"; fiqh terminology denoting an action which is discouraged, and one is rewarded for abstaining from it.
• marfu': "raised"; a narration attributed to the Prophet (sallallāhu `alayhi wasallam).
• masa’il (sing. mas`alah): "that which is asked about"; an issue in fiqh.
• mawdu': fabricated, spurious, invented (narration).
• mawquf: "stopped"; a narration from a Companion.
• mawsul: "connected"; a continuous isnād.
• mu`allaq: "suspended"; a narration in which its collector omits part of the isnaad to previous authorities.
• mudallis: one who practices tadlis.
• muftarishan: (sitting) on the left foot, which is spread along the ground, with the right foot upright.
• mufti: one who gives fatāwā.
• muhaddith (pl. Muhaddithin): scholar of the science of Hadith.
• mujtahid: one who is qualified to pass judgments using ijtihad.
• munkar: "rejected"; a narration which is inauthentic in itself and also contradicts other authentic ones.
• muqallid: one who practices taqlid.
• mursal: "loose"; a narration in which a Successor narrates from the Prophet (sallallāhu `alayhi wasallam)directly, i.e. omitting the Companion from whom he heard it.
• mutawatir: a hadith which is narrated by a very large number of reporters, such that it cannot be supposed that they all agreed on a lie.
• qiyas: Analogical deduction of Islamic laws. New laws are deduced from old laws based on a similarity between their causes.
• qunut: "devotion"; a special supplication while standing in Prayer.
• radi Allahu `anhu/`anha/`anhum: "May Allah be pleased with him/her/them".
• rahimahullah: "May Allah bestow His Mercy on him."
• rak`ah: one cycle of standing, bowing and prostrations during Prayer.
• sahih: "correct"; an authentic narration.
• sahih li dhaatihi: a narration which is sahih in itself.
• sahih li ghairihi: a narration which is sahih due to other supporting narrations.
• Salaf: "previous"; the early Muslims, of the first three eras: the Companions, Successors, and their successors.
•  (sallallāhu `alayhi wasallam): "May Allah send blessings and peace on him", used for the Prophet  (sallallāhu `alayhi wasallam).
• sanad: same as isnad.
• shaadhdh: "unusual"; a narration which is authentic in itself but inconsistent with other authentic ones.
• shaikh: teacher of a scholar or narrator of hadith.
• Shari’ah: The divine code of Law.
• sharh: commentary on, or explanation of, a text other than the Qur`ān.
• Successor (Ar. Tabi’ie): a Muslim (other than a Companion) who met a Companion.
• Sunnah: "Example, Practice"; the way of life of the Prophet (sallallāhu `alayhi wasallam), consisting of his words, actions and silent approvals. The Sunnah is contained in the various authentic ahādith.
• sunnah: an action of the Prophet  (sallallāhu `alayhi wasallam).
• surah: a chapter of the Qur'an.
• sutrah: "screen, covering"; an object ahead of the place of prostration, only beyond which may anyone pass.
• tadlis: "concealment"; to mask the identity of one's immediate authority in narration, e.g. by using a less well-known name, or by saying "on the authority of ..." the next narrator along.
• tafsir: explanation of the words and meanings of the Qur'an.
• tahajjud: voluntary, recommended prayer between the compulsory prayers of `Isha' and Fajar.
• tahlil: to declare that there is no true deity except Allah.
• tahmid: "declare the praise of", esp. to declare the Praise of Allah.
• ta`liq: same as mu`allaq.
• takbir: "magnification"; to declare the Greatness of Allah.
• takhrij: to reference a hadeeth to its source and analyze its isnads.
• tarjamah: notes about a reporter of Hadith.
• tasbih: to glorify Allah, rejecting any imperfections attributed to Him.
• tashahhud: from shahādah (to witness); the sitting in Prayer, in which one bears witness that there is no true god except Allah, and that Muhammad (sallallāhu `alayhi wasallam) is His messenger.
• taslim: "to send peace on"; the Muslim salutation of peace.
• taqlid: to follow someone's opinion; to follow a Mazhab.
• Ummah: "nation"; the Muslims as a group.
• `Umrah: the lesser pilgrimage to Makkah.
• Witir: "Odd"; the last prayer at night, consisting of an odd number of raka`at.
• Dzuhur: the post-noon prayer.

[Excerpted from The Qur'an and Sunnah Society]

2.6. Opening Supplications of Solāh; 2.7. The Recitation;

All About The Solah

4. Al-Wudhu’ ; 5. Tayammum;
29.   Solāh al-Jumu`ah; 30. The Sanctified Hour of Jumu’ah.

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