Saturday, January 21, 2012

Solāh al-Dhuha.

The Solāh Dhuha

By Sayyid Sābiq

In the name of Allāh, the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful;
All the praise and thanks is due to Allāh, the Lord of al-‘ālameen. I testify that there is none worthy of worship except Allāh, and that Muhammad, Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam is His Messenger.

Apart from the Sunnah Solāh that Rasūlullāh (Sallallāhu 'alayhi wa sallam) used to offer with the five obligatory Solāh, Rasūlullāh (Sallallāhu 'alayhi wasallam) also offered additional Solāh during the day. This is known as Solāh Dhuha, using the name of the time of day most suitable for it, i.e. mid-morning. Its range of time extends from about half an hour after sunrise to about half an hour before Dzuhur becomes due at midday. This Nawafil Solāh consists of 2-8 rak’at, which Rasūlullāh (Sallallāhu 'alayhi wasallam) used to offer whenever he was free in the morning.

1- The Excellence of the  Solāh Dhuha

There are many ahadith that describe the excellence of The Solāh Dhuha which is equivalent or it suffices charity.

Abu Dzarr Al-Ghafiri (radiyallāhu’anhu) reports that the Prophet (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam) said: Sadāqah (Charity) is required from every part of your body daily. Every saying of ‘Subhānallāh (Glory be to Allāh)’ is Sadāqah (Charity). Every saying of ‘Alhamdulillāh (Praise be to Allāh)’ is Sadāqah (Charity). Every saying of ‘Lā ilā haillallāh (There is no God but Allāh)’ is Sadāqah (Charity). Every saying of ‘Allāhu Akbar (Allāh is the Greatest)’ is Sadāqah (Charity). Ordering the good is Sadāqah (Charity). Eradicating the evil is Sadāqah (Charity). And what suffices for that (as a Sadāqah (Charity)) is the two rak’at of Solāh Dhuha.” This is related by Ahmad, Muslim, and Abu Dawud. 

Buraidah (radiyallāhu’anhu) narrated that the Prophet (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam) said: “In a human (body) there are 360 joints and man must make a Sadāqah (Charity) for each one.” The people said: “Who can do that, O Messenger of Allāh?” Rasūlullāh (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam) responded: “One may cover the mucus that one finds in the masjid or remove something harmful from the road. If one could not do that, he could pray two rak’at of The Solāh Dhuha and that will be sufficient for him.” [Narrated by Ahmad and Abu Dawud]

Ash-Shawkani (rahimahullah) says: “These two hadith point to the greatness, excellence, and importance of the Solāh Dhuha, stressing its legality as its two rak’at suffice for 360 charities. Something like this should be performed regularly and persistently. The hadith also establish the importance of saying ‘Subhānallāh (Glory be to Allāh)’, ‘Alhamdulillāh (Praise be to Allāh)’, ‘Lā ilā haillallāh (There is no God but Allāh’) and ‘Allāhuakbar (Allāh is the Greatest)’ And [the importance of] ordering the good, eradicating the evil, removing the spittle, removing what is harmful from the path, and such other acts that will fulfill what is required of a person of daily charities.” 

An-Nawas Ibn Sam’an (radiyallāhu’anhu)relates that the Prophet (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam) said: “Allāh said: ‘Son of Adam, do not fail in performing four rak’at in the early day as it will be sufficient for the latter part of the day.’” This is related by Al-Hākim and At-Tabarāni and its narrators are trustworthy. Ahmad, At-Tirmidzi, Abu Dawud, and An-Nasa’ie related it on the authority of Na’im Al-Ghatfani (radiyallāhu’anhu)with a good chain(sanad). At-Tirmidzi’s wording is: “Son of Adam, pray four rak’at for Me in the early day and it will be sufficient for you for the latter part of the day.” 

‘Abdullah Ibn ‘Amr (radiyallāhu’anhu) says: “The Messenger of Allāh (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam) sent an expedition and they obtained lots of booty and returned quickly. The people talked about their quick victory, abundant booty, and quick return. At this the Messenger of Allāh (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam) said: ‘Shall I not guide you to a closer battle, a greater booty and a quicker return? Whoever makes wudhu' and then goes to the masjid to perform Solāh Dhuha, that is the closer battle, better booty, and quicker return.’” This is related by Ahmad and at-Tabarani. Abu Ya'la has something similar to it. 

Abu Hurayrah (radiyallāhu’anhu) says: “My friend [the Messenger of Allāh (Sallallāhu `alayhi wasallam)] advised me to do three things: Fasting Three Days (Siyam Al-Beed) of every month, observing the  Solāh Dhuha, and praying the Solāh Witr before I sleep.” This is related by Al-Bukhari and Muslim. 

Anas bin Mālik (radiyallāhu’anhu) says: “During a journey, I saw the Messenger of Allāh (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam) perform eight raka’at in the early day. When Rasūlullāh (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam) finished, he said: ‘I observed my prayer wishing and fearing. I asked my Lord for three things and He gave me two and withheld one. I asked Him not to put my ummah to trial by famine and He granted that request. And I asked that they would not be overtaken by their enemies and He granted that request. And I asked that they not be split into groups and parties and He refused that request.’” This is related by Ahmad, An-Nasa'ie, al-Hakim, and Ibn Khuzaimah who classifies it as sahih. 

2 -  Solātul Dhuha is A valuable Solāh

The Solāh Dhuha is a precious prayer and whoever wishes to earn reward should pray it, while there is no blame upon the one who does not pray it. 

Abu Sa’id Al-Khudri (radiyallāhu’anhu) reports: “The Prophet (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam) would observe The Solāh Dhuha until we thought he would never abandon it. And he would abandon it to the point that we thought he would no longer perform it.” This was recorded by Ahmad and Al-Tirmidzi who says it is hasan. 

Anas bin Mālik (radiyallāhu’anhu) relates that the Messenger of Allāh (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam) said: “Solāh in my masjid is equal to ten thousand Solāh [elsewhere]. And  Solāh in the inviolable masjid is equivalent to one hundred thousand Solāh [elsewhere]. And  Solāh in the battlefield is equivalent to one million Solāh [elsewhere]. And what is more than all of that is two raka’at by a slave [of Allāh] during the middle of the night.” This is reported by Abu Ash-Shaikh, Ibn Hibban in his work Ath-Thawab, and Al-Munzhiri, in his book At-Targhib Wa Tarhib, is silent about it. 

3 - Recommended Time for the  Solāh Duha

The time for The Solāh Dhuha begins when the sun is about a spear's length above the horizon and it continues until the sun reaches its meridian. It is preferred to delay it until the sun has risen high and the day has become hot. 

Zaid ibn Arqam (radiyallāhu’anhu) relates: “The Messenger of Allāh (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam) went to the people of Quba’, and they were performing The  Solāh Dhuha, and he said: 'The prayer of devotion should be observed when the young weaned camels feel the heat of the sun.'" This is related by Ahmad, Muslim, and at-Tirmidzi. 

4 - Number of Raka’at for the  Solāh Dhuha is varied

The minimum number of rak’ah to be prayed is two, as was mentioned in the hadith of Abu Dzarr Al-Ghifari (radiyallāhu’anhu). The most that the Prophet (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam) performed was eight rak’at, whereas, the most he mentioned was twelve rak’at. Some scholars, such as Abu Ja’far at-Tabari, Al-Mulaimi, and Ar-Ruwyani, (rahimahullāh) who subscribes to the Shafi’ie school of Jurisprudence, say there is no maximum limit to the number of rak’at that one may perform for Solāh Duha. 

Al-‘Iraqi (rahimallāh) says, in the commentary on Sunan at-Tirmidzi: “None of the companions or followers is known to have restricted it to twelve rak’at.” As-Sayuti (rahimallāh) agrees with it. 

Sa’id Ibn Mansur (rahimallāh) records that Al-Hassan was asked: “Did the companions perform it?” He answered: “Yes . . . some of them would perform two rak’at and some of them would perform four rak’at. And some of them would continue until half the [early] day [had passed].” 

Ibrahim an-Nakha’ie (rahimallāh) reports that Al-Aswad Ibn Yazid was asked: “How many rak’at are to be performed for Solāh Dhuha?” He answered: “As many as you wish .” 

As mentioned above ahadith attributed to Umm Hani (radiyallāhu‘anha) who said: “The Prophet (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam) entered her home on the day when Makkah was conquered by the Muslims, took a bath and offered eight raka’ahs of Dhuha. I have never seen a  Solāh that could be shorter than that. However, Rasūlullāh (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam) did his ruku’ and sajdah in full.” This report is highly authentic as it is recorded by Abu Dawud and the group. 

It is clear that the Prophet (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wasallam) offered this Solāh when he was away from home, since he was settled in Madinah at the time, and that he kept his Solāh short.

Other reports, however, mention different approaches. Abu Sa'id Al-Khudri (radiyallāhu‘anhu) reported: “The Prophet (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wasallam) used to perform Solāh Dhuha regularly so much we think that he would not omit it, but at other times, he would consistently omit it so that we think that he would not offer it again.” (Recorded by Ahmad and Al-Tirmidzi)

This report makes clear that the Prophet (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam) varied his practice with regard to voluntary worship so as to make clear that what is voluntary remains so. It should never be mixed up with what is obligatory. This is clear from three Hadiths by ‘Aishah (radiyallāhu‘anha), his wife. 

The first is a report by Muadhah who says: “I asked ‘Aishah (radiyallāhu‘anha) whether Rasūlullāh (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam) used to perform Solāh Dhuha. She said: ‘Yes, in four rak’at, but he (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam) could increase that as he wished.’” (Recorded by Ahmad, Al-Bukhari, Muslim , Al-Tirmidzi and Ibn Majah.)

Another report quotes ‘Aishah(radiyallāhu‘anha) as replying to the same question on a different occasion and by a different person. Her answer was: “No, unless he was coming home from travel.” 

The third report by ‘Aishah (radiyallāhu’anha) says: I have never seen Rasūlullāh (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wasallam) offering  Solāh in mid-morning, or Dhuha, but I offer it nevertheless. The Prophet (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam) used to omit doing something he would have loved to do, fearing that when people did it to emulate him, it would become obligatory for them.” (Recorded by Malik, Al-Bukhari and Muslim.)

5 - The Dual Purpose

These reports by Aishah (radiyallāhu‘anha) make clear that the Prophet’s (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam) practice concerning this voluntary prayer was varied. She makes clear that she never saw the Prophet (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam) doing it, but in another report she confirms that Rasūlullāh (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam) offered it in four rak’at or more, while she also points out that he (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam) did on his return home after travel. This means that she was aware of his offering this prayer. Indeed this is the reason why she used to offer it despite the fact that she never saw Rasūlullāh (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam) doing it in his normal routine. It was clear to her that it was a good and rewarding action that Muslims should do if they can. 

‘Aishah (radiyallāhu‘anha) would not have done it, had she thought that it was not highly recommended. She explains the reason for Rasūlullāh (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam) not doing it so often. Rasūlullāh (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam) cared for his followers and he did not wish to burden them. Should they realize that Rasūlullāh(Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam)  did something regularly, they would do likewise, and it could become obligatory. 

It is important to realize that in practically everything Rasūlullāh (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam) did in his worship was intended for the dual purpose of expressing his total submission to Allāh Subhanahu wa ta’ala and teaching us how to perform our worship. Hence, it was necessary that Rasūlullāh (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam) should demonstrate in practice what to do in a great variety of situations. Alternatively, Rasūlullāh (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam) provided direct guidance on what was needed in such matters. In all that he did, Rasūlullāh (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam) acted as an ordinary human being, subject to all the conditions and influences anyone of us may experience.

Allāh the Almighty Alone Know most.

[Excerpted from “Fiqh-us-Sunnah, Volume 2: The  Solāh Dhuha” by Sayyid Sābiq]

All About The Solāh

4. Al-Wudhu’ ; 5. Tayammum;
29.   Solāh al-Jumu’ah; 30. The Sanctified Hour of Jumu’ah.

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